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INDIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL
KIZHAVOOR, MUKHATHALA (P.O), KOLLAM
AFFLIATED TO CBSE NEW DELHI, SCHOOL CODE: 930693
PROJECT WORK IN BIOLOGY
NAME : KHALIFA SHAMEER
CLASS : XII–A
ROLL NO : 4
ADMISSION NO. : 2062
YEAR OF STUDY : 2019-20
REG. NO. :
VALUED BY:
DATE:
TEACHER IN CHARGE
DRUG
ADDICTION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to our principalMrs. Ganga Giri
and also express my sincere thanks to our Biology teachers
Dhanya Miss and Anjaly Miss for giving me this great
opportunity to do this project about Drug Addiction, which
helped me to know about the harmful side effects on various
drugs. I also thank my parents who have helped me in
collecting data regarding this project. Overall I thank to God
Almighty.
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 WHAT IS ADDICTION
 TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE
 CAUSES OF ADDICTION
 EFFECTS OF ADDICTION
 HISTORY OF ADDICTION: DRUG ABUSE
 DIAGONISIS OF ADDICTION
 STUDY (QUESTIONARY)
 THE PROFILE OF FIVE PATIENTS
 TREATMENT OF ADDICTION
 SCENARIO OF ADDICTION
 CONCLUSION
 BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION
Addictionis the one of the biggest disease of the world. More
than millionsof the individualarestruggling against addiction.
It takes away the happinessof the peopleby avoidingthem to
get what they want andmany of the peoplewere also notable
to take correct decision.According to the recent studies it has
been found that adolescent is more vulnerable to addiction.
Addiction is that type of diseases whose rehabilitation is very
difficult. As we know prevention is better than cure so we can
prevent ourself from getting addictedby not livingunderpeer
pressure. If we also get addicted,we shouldimmediately take
the help of specialist for rehab.
WHATISADDICTION?
Addiction is the habitual, physiological, psychological
dependence on a substance or practice which is beyond
voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a substance
or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an addict.
Addiction is a chronic, progressive and sometimes fatal
disorder with both genetic and environmental roots. It
manifests as a compulsion that derives an individual to
continue to behave in a way that is harmful to self and loved
ones, despite an intense desire to halt that behavior. It is a
disease of “more”- an active addict needs an increasing
amount of substance to get high and is unableto cease usage
without painful withdrawal symptoms. This is true whether
the addictive substance is a drug or tobacco or alcohol or a
behavior. Medically, addiction is of three types: Tobacco
Addiction, Alcohol Addiction, Drug Addiction
TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE
1. Heroin
As a destructive opioid, heroin can lead to seizures, psychosis, and
hallucinations when it is abused. Heroin injections can also spread
diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis. This
drug is known to cause serious health issues when it is abused because
it interferes with the brain’s receptors. Individuals who take heroin
always require professional rehabilitation because the symptoms of
withdrawal may be life-threatening.
2. Cocaine
Cocaine is a very dangerous stimulant even when taken in small
amounts. It induces euphoria, increases blood pressure, and
accelerates the heart rate. The drug may lead to fatal strokes or heart
attacks for some users. Due to the severe consequences of using
cocaine, users require immediate professional treatment.
3. Crack
A potent form of cocaine, crack is often smoked and suddenly creates
an intense euphoric sensation for a short while. Crack has turned into
a problem because it is cheap and easy to buy and use. Abusing the
substance, however, can lead to immediate addiction. Abusers are
also at risk of suffering heart attacks and strokes with every use. Long-
term use can cause liver, kidney, and lung damage.
4. Hallucinogens
PCP (phencyclidine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are
hallucinogens, which means that they make users feel, see, and hear
things that are not real. While they experience hallucinations with
these drugs, users lose touch with reality and enter mental states of
disconnection. Withdrawing from hallucinogens is not easy, and
abusers will need professional treatment in a rehab facility.
5. Marijuana / Cannabis
Marijuana is the most common illegal drug that is abused, and many
people begin using it as a recreational drug in social situations.
Continued abuse of marijuana can lead to addiction, and the
substance can affect the physical coordination, memory, and mental
functions of users over time. While it is easy to abuse marijuana, it is
not easy to stop using it.
6. Alcohol
Abusing alcohol can cause psychological, physical, and social
problems, and it can lead to the destruction of relationships,
friendships, and marriages. A lot of alcohol abusers drink so much that
their bodies are unable to handle it. Sometimes this requires that they
are hospitalized for alcohol poisoning. Furthermore, alcohol abuse can
lead to injury or death to the people around them while they are
under the influence. Alcohol withdrawal can be fatal because of
delirium tremens, which is a symptom with the potential to trigger
heart failure or stroke. Refraining from drinking also is not easy when
it becomes a habit because of mental and physical issues. Professional
assistance is often necessary for abusers of alcohol.
CAUSES OF ADDICTION
Some of the causes of addiction are: -
1. Peer pressure
2. Stress and depression
3. Lack of education
4. Religious rituals
EFFECTS OF ADDICTION
 Fatigue –
The patient is tired most of the time.
 Memory loss –
Especially the patient's short-term memory.
 Eye muscles –
The eye muscles can become significantly weaker.
 Liver diseases –
The patient has a considerably higher chance of developing
hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is an irreversible and
progressive condition
 Heart problems –
Regular heaving drinking can lead to cardiomyopathy (damaged
heart muscle), heart failure, and stroke.
 Menstruation –
Alcoholism will usually stop menstruation or disrupt it.
 Cancer –
Alcoholics have a much higher risk of developing several
cancers, including cancer of the mouth, oesophagus, liver, colon,
rectum, breast, prostate and pharynx.
 Suicide –
Suicide rates among people who are alcohol-dependent or who
abuse alcohol are much higher than among other people.
PREVENTION AND
CONTROL
“Prevention is better than cure” is also true here. Tobacco,
drug/alcohol abuse are more during young age and
adolescence. The remedial measure should be taken in time.
The following measures would be particularly useful for
prevention and control of alcohol and addiction during
adolescents.
1.Avoid undue Peer pressure.
2.Education and counselling.
3.Seeking help from parents and peers.
4.Looking for Danger Signs.
5.Seeking Professional and Medical helps.
DIAGNOSIS OF
ADDICTION
Blood test or imaging scan can determine whether somebody is
addicted to drug or alcohol or smoking, and to what degree.
Blood test - this may be ordered to determine whether the substance
is still in the blood (whether the substance has been taken recently).
It is not used to diagnose addiction.
A GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) can help the
patient determine their degree of dependence by asking pertinent
questions, or using a specific questionnaire. The following questions
may help determine how dependent a patient is:
 How many cigarettes do you smoke per day?
 Do you find it hard not to smoke in places where it is not allowed,
such as in a church, school, movie theatre, library, public transport,
hospital, etc.?
 If you had to give up, which cigarette would you miss the most (e.g.
the first one in the morning)?
 Do you smoke more cigarettes during the first few hours after
waking up, than during the rest of the day?
 If you are ill, with a bad cold or the flu, do you still take drug or
alcohol?
 Have you ever smoked more than you intended to?
 Have you ever neglected a duty because you were smoking, or so
that you could have a cigarette?
TREATMENT OF
ADDICTION
 DO-IT-YOURSELF –
Experts say about 30% of people with an alcohol problem manage to
reduce their drinking or abstain without seeking professional help.
There is a great deal of material in books and the internet that may
help the self-helper.
 COUNSELLING –
A qualified counsellor can help the alcoholic talk through his/her
problems and then devise a plan to tackle the drinking. Cbt (cognitive
behavioral therapy) is commonly used to treat alcohol dependency.
 DETOXIFICATION –
The patient takes some medication to prevent withdrawal symptoms
(delirium tremens) which many alcoholics experience when they give
up drinking.
HISTORY OF ADDICTION
1. BEER
Since the dawn of history, mankind has found ways to relieve the daily grind of
life. In ancient Mesopotamia (the area now known as Iraq), agriculture slowly
began to flourish, and a large network of city states started to gain prominence.
With the cultivation of wheatand barley came another product: beer. After all,
the water wasn'tparticularly healthy, andthe weak alcohol contentin beer killed
off a lot of harmful organisms in the water.
While the beer wasn'tparticularly strong, it also wasn'tparticularly nice, as the
concept of sterility was unknown in 3,000 BCE. However, beer was consumed in
bulk. Consequently, addiction to alcohol was rampant in the so-called cradle
of civilization, and people during that time generally lived much shorter lives
thanks to disease and, presumably, drunkenness.
2. OPIUM
Throughout the timethat beerwasgainingpopularity, the Indians, Assyriansand
Egyptianswerecultivating andpreparingopiumfrom the opium poppy. Indeed,
the upper classes of many civilizations would use this to relax and pass time,
although some uses are much less benign. One Egyptian scrollrecommends using
opium to soothe a crying baby.
3. HALLUCINOGENS AND NATURAL HIGHS
Moving on 15 centuries, the ancient Greece used a special form of mead
(fermented honey)or beer to induce visions known as mysteries. Naturally, there
is something very mystical in seeing hallucinations, and plants containing
entheogens (natural chemicals that induce hallucinations) have been widely
cultivatedthroughouttheworld;theseincludethepeyote cactus,flyagaric,and
cannabis. Clearly, this is a form of drug abuse, although it was a socially
acceptable one at the time.
4. COCAINE
During the second millennium, worldtrade startedto bemoreprominent. Ships
started sailingfrom China to Europe-Marco Polorediscovered major trade routes
to India and China, and in 1492, cocaine came to be major product of trade.
After that, the American continent became ripe for development. Various
conquistadors discoveredthe drugs thatkeptthe locals going, especially cocaine,
which was touted as a wonder cure for all ailments.
5. TOBACCO
One of the major drugs that came out of the New World was tobacco. Sir Walter
Raleigh famously introduced dried tobacco leaves to England, where they were
controlled and taxed heavily. Again, abuse of tobacco led to very expensive
addictions, as itwas a risky butincrediblyprofitable voyage for those whomadeit
over the Atlant.
THE PROFILE OF 5
PATIENTS
Case No: 1 Patient Name: Sofia Akhtar
Age: 65 Type: T2DM
Gender: Female Date of Admission: 22/12/15
Comments: After I am started having T2DM, my life has totally
changed. I am the first person to have diabetes in my family. At the onset
of this disease I felt very much weakness and hunger.
Case No: 2 Patient Name: Mrs Neha Das
Age: 40 Type: T1DM
Gender: Female Date of Admission: 22/12/15
Comments: I am middle aged house wife and I have lots of difficulties
to tackle this disease due to weakness. I cannot meet the common need
of my family, and some time I become unconsciousness and my family
gets worried. Recently my husband spends lotsof money for this disease
but I didn’t get any such good result.
Case No: 3 Patient Name: Shubankar Deka
Age: 45 Type: T1DM
Gender: Male Date of Admission: 06/01/16
Comments: I started having this disease at the age of 35, I didn’t take
much attention to it due to very busy job. I din’ took medicine regularly
or neither did any physical exercise and now I’m suffering from this
dangerous disease I have to lose my job, during urination I feel burning
sensation. Now I am unable to take care of my family,
Case No:4 Patient Name: Karan Barman
Age: 54 Type: T2DM
Gender: Male Date of Admission: 06/01/16
Comments: I am poor worker who earn few just to stay alive and to take
care of family. I don’t have much savings that I would go in a big
hospital for better cure or for medicine. Nowadays I also cannot go to
work site as I remain weak and my hand and leg shakes if I try to do any
hard work. Due to this I cannot send my children to school.
Case No:5 Patient Name: Miss Rupali Nath
Age: 33 Type: T2DM
Gender: Female Date of admission: 15/01/16
Comments: I am both working women and house wife I have no time to
care of my health I always remain busy taking care of my family and
doing stressful work at my office and due to this I had gained my weight
rapidly, presently my weight is about 93 kg and my recent diagnosis
says that I am suffering from diabetes.
SCENARIO OF ADDICTION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Special thanks to the following source: -
 Internet (Wikipedia)
 NCERT biology class XI
 Some diabetic patients
 Online library

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Biology investigatory project xii on Drug Addiction

  • 1. INDIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL KIZHAVOOR, MUKHATHALA (P.O), KOLLAM AFFLIATED TO CBSE NEW DELHI, SCHOOL CODE: 930693 PROJECT WORK IN BIOLOGY NAME : KHALIFA SHAMEER CLASS : XII–A ROLL NO : 4 ADMISSION NO. : 2062 YEAR OF STUDY : 2019-20 REG. NO. : VALUED BY: DATE: TEACHER IN CHARGE
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to our principalMrs. Ganga Giri and also express my sincere thanks to our Biology teachers Dhanya Miss and Anjaly Miss for giving me this great opportunity to do this project about Drug Addiction, which helped me to know about the harmful side effects on various drugs. I also thank my parents who have helped me in collecting data regarding this project. Overall I thank to God Almighty.
  • 4. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  WHAT IS ADDICTION  TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE  CAUSES OF ADDICTION  EFFECTS OF ADDICTION  HISTORY OF ADDICTION: DRUG ABUSE  DIAGONISIS OF ADDICTION  STUDY (QUESTIONARY)  THE PROFILE OF FIVE PATIENTS  TREATMENT OF ADDICTION  SCENARIO OF ADDICTION  CONCLUSION  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 5. INTRODUCTION Addictionis the one of the biggest disease of the world. More than millionsof the individualarestruggling against addiction. It takes away the happinessof the peopleby avoidingthem to get what they want andmany of the peoplewere also notable to take correct decision.According to the recent studies it has been found that adolescent is more vulnerable to addiction. Addiction is that type of diseases whose rehabilitation is very difficult. As we know prevention is better than cure so we can prevent ourself from getting addictedby not livingunderpeer pressure. If we also get addicted,we shouldimmediately take the help of specialist for rehab.
  • 6. WHATISADDICTION? Addiction is the habitual, physiological, psychological dependence on a substance or practice which is beyond voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an addict. Addiction is a chronic, progressive and sometimes fatal disorder with both genetic and environmental roots. It manifests as a compulsion that derives an individual to continue to behave in a way that is harmful to self and loved ones, despite an intense desire to halt that behavior. It is a disease of “more”- an active addict needs an increasing amount of substance to get high and is unableto cease usage without painful withdrawal symptoms. This is true whether the addictive substance is a drug or tobacco or alcohol or a behavior. Medically, addiction is of three types: Tobacco Addiction, Alcohol Addiction, Drug Addiction
  • 7. TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE 1. Heroin As a destructive opioid, heroin can lead to seizures, psychosis, and hallucinations when it is abused. Heroin injections can also spread diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis. This drug is known to cause serious health issues when it is abused because it interferes with the brain’s receptors. Individuals who take heroin always require professional rehabilitation because the symptoms of withdrawal may be life-threatening. 2. Cocaine Cocaine is a very dangerous stimulant even when taken in small amounts. It induces euphoria, increases blood pressure, and accelerates the heart rate. The drug may lead to fatal strokes or heart attacks for some users. Due to the severe consequences of using cocaine, users require immediate professional treatment. 3. Crack A potent form of cocaine, crack is often smoked and suddenly creates an intense euphoric sensation for a short while. Crack has turned into a problem because it is cheap and easy to buy and use. Abusing the substance, however, can lead to immediate addiction. Abusers are also at risk of suffering heart attacks and strokes with every use. Long- term use can cause liver, kidney, and lung damage. 4. Hallucinogens
  • 8. PCP (phencyclidine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are hallucinogens, which means that they make users feel, see, and hear things that are not real. While they experience hallucinations with these drugs, users lose touch with reality and enter mental states of disconnection. Withdrawing from hallucinogens is not easy, and abusers will need professional treatment in a rehab facility. 5. Marijuana / Cannabis Marijuana is the most common illegal drug that is abused, and many people begin using it as a recreational drug in social situations. Continued abuse of marijuana can lead to addiction, and the substance can affect the physical coordination, memory, and mental functions of users over time. While it is easy to abuse marijuana, it is not easy to stop using it. 6. Alcohol Abusing alcohol can cause psychological, physical, and social problems, and it can lead to the destruction of relationships, friendships, and marriages. A lot of alcohol abusers drink so much that their bodies are unable to handle it. Sometimes this requires that they are hospitalized for alcohol poisoning. Furthermore, alcohol abuse can lead to injury or death to the people around them while they are under the influence. Alcohol withdrawal can be fatal because of delirium tremens, which is a symptom with the potential to trigger heart failure or stroke. Refraining from drinking also is not easy when it becomes a habit because of mental and physical issues. Professional assistance is often necessary for abusers of alcohol.
  • 9. CAUSES OF ADDICTION Some of the causes of addiction are: - 1. Peer pressure 2. Stress and depression 3. Lack of education 4. Religious rituals
  • 10. EFFECTS OF ADDICTION  Fatigue – The patient is tired most of the time.  Memory loss – Especially the patient's short-term memory.  Eye muscles – The eye muscles can become significantly weaker.  Liver diseases – The patient has a considerably higher chance of developing hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is an irreversible and progressive condition  Heart problems – Regular heaving drinking can lead to cardiomyopathy (damaged heart muscle), heart failure, and stroke.  Menstruation – Alcoholism will usually stop menstruation or disrupt it.  Cancer – Alcoholics have a much higher risk of developing several cancers, including cancer of the mouth, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum, breast, prostate and pharynx.  Suicide – Suicide rates among people who are alcohol-dependent or who abuse alcohol are much higher than among other people.
  • 11. PREVENTION AND CONTROL “Prevention is better than cure” is also true here. Tobacco, drug/alcohol abuse are more during young age and adolescence. The remedial measure should be taken in time. The following measures would be particularly useful for prevention and control of alcohol and addiction during adolescents. 1.Avoid undue Peer pressure. 2.Education and counselling. 3.Seeking help from parents and peers. 4.Looking for Danger Signs. 5.Seeking Professional and Medical helps.
  • 12. DIAGNOSIS OF ADDICTION Blood test or imaging scan can determine whether somebody is addicted to drug or alcohol or smoking, and to what degree. Blood test - this may be ordered to determine whether the substance is still in the blood (whether the substance has been taken recently). It is not used to diagnose addiction. A GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) can help the patient determine their degree of dependence by asking pertinent questions, or using a specific questionnaire. The following questions may help determine how dependent a patient is:  How many cigarettes do you smoke per day?  Do you find it hard not to smoke in places where it is not allowed, such as in a church, school, movie theatre, library, public transport, hospital, etc.?  If you had to give up, which cigarette would you miss the most (e.g. the first one in the morning)?  Do you smoke more cigarettes during the first few hours after waking up, than during the rest of the day?  If you are ill, with a bad cold or the flu, do you still take drug or alcohol?  Have you ever smoked more than you intended to?
  • 13.  Have you ever neglected a duty because you were smoking, or so that you could have a cigarette? TREATMENT OF ADDICTION  DO-IT-YOURSELF – Experts say about 30% of people with an alcohol problem manage to reduce their drinking or abstain without seeking professional help. There is a great deal of material in books and the internet that may help the self-helper.  COUNSELLING – A qualified counsellor can help the alcoholic talk through his/her problems and then devise a plan to tackle the drinking. Cbt (cognitive behavioral therapy) is commonly used to treat alcohol dependency.  DETOXIFICATION – The patient takes some medication to prevent withdrawal symptoms (delirium tremens) which many alcoholics experience when they give up drinking.
  • 14. HISTORY OF ADDICTION 1. BEER Since the dawn of history, mankind has found ways to relieve the daily grind of life. In ancient Mesopotamia (the area now known as Iraq), agriculture slowly began to flourish, and a large network of city states started to gain prominence. With the cultivation of wheatand barley came another product: beer. After all, the water wasn'tparticularly healthy, andthe weak alcohol contentin beer killed off a lot of harmful organisms in the water. While the beer wasn'tparticularly strong, it also wasn'tparticularly nice, as the concept of sterility was unknown in 3,000 BCE. However, beer was consumed in bulk. Consequently, addiction to alcohol was rampant in the so-called cradle of civilization, and people during that time generally lived much shorter lives thanks to disease and, presumably, drunkenness. 2. OPIUM Throughout the timethat beerwasgainingpopularity, the Indians, Assyriansand Egyptianswerecultivating andpreparingopiumfrom the opium poppy. Indeed, the upper classes of many civilizations would use this to relax and pass time, although some uses are much less benign. One Egyptian scrollrecommends using opium to soothe a crying baby. 3. HALLUCINOGENS AND NATURAL HIGHS
  • 15. Moving on 15 centuries, the ancient Greece used a special form of mead (fermented honey)or beer to induce visions known as mysteries. Naturally, there is something very mystical in seeing hallucinations, and plants containing entheogens (natural chemicals that induce hallucinations) have been widely cultivatedthroughouttheworld;theseincludethepeyote cactus,flyagaric,and cannabis. Clearly, this is a form of drug abuse, although it was a socially acceptable one at the time. 4. COCAINE During the second millennium, worldtrade startedto bemoreprominent. Ships started sailingfrom China to Europe-Marco Polorediscovered major trade routes to India and China, and in 1492, cocaine came to be major product of trade. After that, the American continent became ripe for development. Various conquistadors discoveredthe drugs thatkeptthe locals going, especially cocaine, which was touted as a wonder cure for all ailments. 5. TOBACCO One of the major drugs that came out of the New World was tobacco. Sir Walter Raleigh famously introduced dried tobacco leaves to England, where they were controlled and taxed heavily. Again, abuse of tobacco led to very expensive addictions, as itwas a risky butincrediblyprofitable voyage for those whomadeit over the Atlant.
  • 16. THE PROFILE OF 5 PATIENTS Case No: 1 Patient Name: Sofia Akhtar Age: 65 Type: T2DM Gender: Female Date of Admission: 22/12/15 Comments: After I am started having T2DM, my life has totally changed. I am the first person to have diabetes in my family. At the onset of this disease I felt very much weakness and hunger. Case No: 2 Patient Name: Mrs Neha Das Age: 40 Type: T1DM Gender: Female Date of Admission: 22/12/15 Comments: I am middle aged house wife and I have lots of difficulties to tackle this disease due to weakness. I cannot meet the common need of my family, and some time I become unconsciousness and my family gets worried. Recently my husband spends lotsof money for this disease but I didn’t get any such good result. Case No: 3 Patient Name: Shubankar Deka Age: 45 Type: T1DM Gender: Male Date of Admission: 06/01/16
  • 17. Comments: I started having this disease at the age of 35, I didn’t take much attention to it due to very busy job. I din’ took medicine regularly or neither did any physical exercise and now I’m suffering from this dangerous disease I have to lose my job, during urination I feel burning sensation. Now I am unable to take care of my family, Case No:4 Patient Name: Karan Barman Age: 54 Type: T2DM Gender: Male Date of Admission: 06/01/16 Comments: I am poor worker who earn few just to stay alive and to take care of family. I don’t have much savings that I would go in a big hospital for better cure or for medicine. Nowadays I also cannot go to work site as I remain weak and my hand and leg shakes if I try to do any hard work. Due to this I cannot send my children to school. Case No:5 Patient Name: Miss Rupali Nath Age: 33 Type: T2DM Gender: Female Date of admission: 15/01/16 Comments: I am both working women and house wife I have no time to care of my health I always remain busy taking care of my family and doing stressful work at my office and due to this I had gained my weight rapidly, presently my weight is about 93 kg and my recent diagnosis says that I am suffering from diabetes.
  • 18.
  • 20. BIBLIOGRAPHY Special thanks to the following source: -  Internet (Wikipedia)  NCERT biology class XI  Some diabetic patients  Online library