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A REPORT ON DRUG ADDICTION
BY KOMAL PRASAD PANDEY
SUBMITTED TO MR SHYAM BAHADUR SOMAI SIR
AKNOWLEDGLEMENT
I would like to express my special thanks to my biology master Mr.Shyam Bahadur
Somai for his guidance and his support in completion of this project
I would also like express my gratitude to the principal ,the vice principle and
Administrative officer for giving me this wonderful opporturnity.
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that komal prasad pandey of
class 12 has successfully completed this biology
report on topic DRUG ADDICTION prescribed by
mr shyam bahadur somai during academic
section 2080 as per the guidelience of neb board
secondary education
Mr shyam bahadur somai
External examiner
INDEX
SN Content Page no
1 Certificate 1
2 Aknowledgement 2
3 index 3
4 Aim objective 4
5 Report on drug
dependence
5
6 Classification of drugs 6
7 alcoholism 7
Classification of Drugs
There are a large number of drugs on which people become dependent. These are classifies into four major groups:
sedatives and tranquillizers, opiate narcotics, stimulations and hallucinogens.
Commonly used as smack Heroin is chemically diacetylmorphine which is
a white, odorless, bitter crystalline compound. This is obtained by
acetylation of morphine which is extracted from latex of poppy plant
Papaver somniferum. Generally taken by snorting and injection, heroin is
a depressant and slows down body function.
2. Cannabinoids:
Natural cannabinoids are obtained from the inflorescences of the plant
Cannabis sativa. The flower tops, leaves and the resin of the plant are
used in various combinations to produce marijuana, hashish, charas and
ganja. Generally taken by inhalation and oral ingestion, these are known
for their effects on cardiovascular system of the body.
3. Cocaine:
It is obtained from coca plant Erythroxylum coca, native to South
America. It interferes with the transport of the neuro-transmitter
dopamine. Cocaine, commonly called coke or crack is usually snorted. It
has the potent stimulating action on central nervous system, producing
sense of euphoria and increased energy. Excessive dosage of cocaine
causes hallucinations.
How drug addiction Begin?
There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction.
1. Curiosity: Frequent references to drugs by public media create
curiosity for having a personal experience of the drugs.
2. Friend’s pressure: Frequent appreciation of drug experience by friends
allures others to start the use of drugs.
3. Frustration and Depression: Some people start taking drugs to get
relief from frustration and depression.
4. Desire for More Work: Students sometimes take drugs to keep awake
the whole night to prepare for examination. It is not desirable as it may
cause mental breakdown.
5. Looking for a Different World: A wrong notion that the drugs open up a
new world tempts some young pupils to start taking-drugs.
6. Relief from Pain: A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs with
physician’s advice at times leads to addiction.
7. Family History: Children may take to drugs by seeing their elders in
the family.
8. Excitement and Adventure: The young take to drugs to satisfy their
instinct for excitement and adventure.
Smoking, Drinking and Use of Drugs
Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or regularly are social diseases. Young people
take to these habits for fun, show off or curiosity, as an adventure or feeling of freedom, or as
a gesture of defiance against the elders who themselves indulge in these activities but check
the youngsters. Temporary escape from the life problems and mental relaxation felt on taking
the drugs in the beginning increase people’s interest in them. Soon they become habitual and
find in difficult to leave. The daily dose to get the desired effect increases with time.
Short-Term Effects
• Loss of appetite
• Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature
• Contracted blood vessels
• Increased rate of breathing
• Dilated pupils
• Disturbed sleep patterns
• Nausea
• Hyperstimulation
• Bizarre, erratic, sometimes violent behavior
• Hallucinations, hyperexcitability, irritability
• Tactile hallucination that creates the illusion of bugs burrowing under the skin
• Intense euphoria
• Anxiety and paranoia
• Depression
• Intense drug craving
• Panic and psychosis
• Convulsions, seizures and sudden death from high doses (even one time)
Long-Term Effects
• Permanent damage to blood vessels of ear and brain, high blood
pressure, leading to heart attacks, strokes and death
• Liver, kidney and lung damage
• Respiratory failure
• Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected
• Malnutrition, weight loss
• Auditory and tactile hallucinations
• Sexual problems, reproductive damage and infertility (for both men
and women)
• Disorientation, apathy, confused exhaustion
• Irritability and mood disturbances
• Increased frequency of risky behavior
• Delirium or psychosis
• Severe depression
• Tolerance and addiction (even after just one use)
TOBBACOO
Tobacco
Sources:
It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indian first started smoking. Now the tobacco plant has
spread the world over. It has large, quote to Lancelot leaves and terminal clusters of tubular, white or
pink flowers.
Modes of Use:
Tobacco is used for smoking, chewing and snuffing. Its main stimulating component is poisonous volatile
alkaid nicotine, which causes addiction. Nicotine synthesis occurs in the roots of the plant but it is stored
in the leaves. The leaves contain 2 to 8% nicotine. Inhaling tobacco smoke from cigars, cigarettes,
biddies, pipes and hubble-bubble is called smoking. Cigar is a roll of tobacco leaf. Cigarette is cut tobacco
wrapped in paper. Bidi is tobacco wrapped. In a piece of leaf. Tobacco smoke is drawn directly from pipe
and through water is hubble-bubble. Smoking may give some temporary relief to the strained nerves but
in the long run it proves a dangerous health hazard. The quantity of nicotine contained in one cigar may
prove fatal if injected intravenously into a person. When smoked only 10% of the smoke is inhaled. Hence,
no immediate ill effect is observed. Smokers may develop a physiological craving for nicotine and then
they cannot give up smoking.
Effect of Nicotine:
Nicotine is a low concentration.
(i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses.
(ii) Relaxes the muscles.
(iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and pressure.
(iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk of heart diseases.
(v) Retards fetal growth in expecting mothers and
(vi) Causes tobacco addiction. High concentration of nicotine paralyses nerve cells
Harmful components of Tobacco Smoke:
Besides the poisonous nicotine, the tobacco smoke contains carbon-
monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tar.
Other Effects:
(i) Smoking affects economy:
A smoker not only waste money, but also runs risk of burns and fires.
(ii) Smoking mars personality:
Teeth may become stained. Lips may get discolored and breath
becomes foul. A person with a cigarette hanging from the mouth
look odd.
(iii) Smoking is annoying to others:
Cigarette smoke is quite annoying to non-smokers. It may prove even
more harmful to them. A smoker should avoid smoking. When in the
company of non smokers. A smoker makes the nearby people passive
smokers through inhaling smoke released by him.
ALCOHOLISM
Alcohol
An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol,
although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds.
Ethanol is a centrally-acting drug with a depressant effect. Beer is an alcoholic
beverage and thus has the same harmful effects as other kinds of alcohol, depending
on the quantity consumed.
Reasons for Drinking:
• Psychological factors are curiosity, poor stress
control, escape from reality, poor impulse control, low self – esteem, positive
attitudes towards alcohol, to get rid of problems, to overcome loneliness, relief from
tension and to gain courage.
• Social factors are peer pressure, modeling, easy availability of alcohol in the
market, party culture, family environment (Parent/s drinking alcohol), lack of family
support, to keep up social norms and to show their masculinity.
• Biological factors are genetic vulnerability like family history of alcoholism in
parents or near relatives and to get sleep.
Impact of Drinking Alcohol:
Unlike other foods, alcohol does not require digestion. When one drinks, alcohol is absorbed directly into the
bloodstream through the walls of the stomach and the intestine.
Once alcohol enters the bloodstream it circulates throughout the body. Alcohol is metabolized in the liver and
is changed to carbon dioxide, water and some calories of energy which gets converted into fat. A small
amount of alcohol goes out of the body through breath, urine and sweat. Regular, excessive use of alcohol
causes acute and chronic problems related to health, occupation, family and social relationships.
Health Problems:
Alcohol can damage every system of our body.
Gastro intestinal system (stomach and intestines): Increased acid secretion leading to acidity, ulcers, gastritis,
and cancer
Liver : Hepatitis, jaundice and vomiting of blood due to cirrhosis of liver, liver cancer, acute liver failure.
Pancreas : Pancreatic damage due to inflammation of pancreas and acute pancreatitis leading to sudden
death.
Central nervous system: (brain and spinal cord): Permanent damage of brain resulting in memory
disturbances, other nervous problems, fits and mental illnesses.
Cardio vascular system: High blood pressure, increased tendency to heart attacks, enlargement of the heart.
Hangovers: Excessive drinking can lead to hangovers, thus causing problems like headache, nausea, vomit and
body aches.
Weight gain: alcohol consumption in larger quantities can lead to weight gain, because alcoholic beverages
are usually high in calories.
Weak immune system: alcohol consumption makes your immune system weak, thus making your body more
susceptible to infections.
Cancer: alcohol when consumed in excessive quantities puts you at a higher risk of developing cancer
Fetal alcohol syndrome: Drinking alcohol in pregnancy may cause the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (physical
abnormalities, growth retardation and developmental delay).
Sources:
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid having a penetrating odor and
burning taste. It is one of the products of the distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices
and starches with the help of yeast enzymes. It is the principal constituent and the in
toxicating principle of wines.
Modes of Use:
Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy and wine and in relatively high
concentration as arrack, brandy, whisky, rum, gin, vodka etc.
CONCLUSION
 ALWAYS SAY NO TO DRUGS

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drug addiction report.pptx

  • 1. A REPORT ON DRUG ADDICTION BY KOMAL PRASAD PANDEY SUBMITTED TO MR SHYAM BAHADUR SOMAI SIR
  • 2. AKNOWLEDGLEMENT I would like to express my special thanks to my biology master Mr.Shyam Bahadur Somai for his guidance and his support in completion of this project I would also like express my gratitude to the principal ,the vice principle and Administrative officer for giving me this wonderful opporturnity.
  • 3. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that komal prasad pandey of class 12 has successfully completed this biology report on topic DRUG ADDICTION prescribed by mr shyam bahadur somai during academic section 2080 as per the guidelience of neb board secondary education Mr shyam bahadur somai External examiner
  • 4. INDEX SN Content Page no 1 Certificate 1 2 Aknowledgement 2 3 index 3 4 Aim objective 4 5 Report on drug dependence 5 6 Classification of drugs 6 7 alcoholism 7
  • 5. Classification of Drugs There are a large number of drugs on which people become dependent. These are classifies into four major groups: sedatives and tranquillizers, opiate narcotics, stimulations and hallucinogens.
  • 6. Commonly used as smack Heroin is chemically diacetylmorphine which is a white, odorless, bitter crystalline compound. This is obtained by acetylation of morphine which is extracted from latex of poppy plant Papaver somniferum. Generally taken by snorting and injection, heroin is a depressant and slows down body function. 2. Cannabinoids: Natural cannabinoids are obtained from the inflorescences of the plant Cannabis sativa. The flower tops, leaves and the resin of the plant are used in various combinations to produce marijuana, hashish, charas and ganja. Generally taken by inhalation and oral ingestion, these are known for their effects on cardiovascular system of the body. 3. Cocaine: It is obtained from coca plant Erythroxylum coca, native to South America. It interferes with the transport of the neuro-transmitter dopamine. Cocaine, commonly called coke or crack is usually snorted. It has the potent stimulating action on central nervous system, producing sense of euphoria and increased energy. Excessive dosage of cocaine causes hallucinations.
  • 7. How drug addiction Begin? There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction. 1. Curiosity: Frequent references to drugs by public media create curiosity for having a personal experience of the drugs. 2. Friend’s pressure: Frequent appreciation of drug experience by friends allures others to start the use of drugs. 3. Frustration and Depression: Some people start taking drugs to get relief from frustration and depression. 4. Desire for More Work: Students sometimes take drugs to keep awake the whole night to prepare for examination. It is not desirable as it may cause mental breakdown. 5. Looking for a Different World: A wrong notion that the drugs open up a new world tempts some young pupils to start taking-drugs. 6. Relief from Pain: A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs with physician’s advice at times leads to addiction. 7. Family History: Children may take to drugs by seeing their elders in the family. 8. Excitement and Adventure: The young take to drugs to satisfy their instinct for excitement and adventure.
  • 8. Smoking, Drinking and Use of Drugs Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or regularly are social diseases. Young people take to these habits for fun, show off or curiosity, as an adventure or feeling of freedom, or as a gesture of defiance against the elders who themselves indulge in these activities but check the youngsters. Temporary escape from the life problems and mental relaxation felt on taking the drugs in the beginning increase people’s interest in them. Soon they become habitual and find in difficult to leave. The daily dose to get the desired effect increases with time. Short-Term Effects • Loss of appetite • Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature • Contracted blood vessels • Increased rate of breathing • Dilated pupils • Disturbed sleep patterns • Nausea • Hyperstimulation • Bizarre, erratic, sometimes violent behavior • Hallucinations, hyperexcitability, irritability • Tactile hallucination that creates the illusion of bugs burrowing under the skin • Intense euphoria • Anxiety and paranoia • Depression • Intense drug craving • Panic and psychosis • Convulsions, seizures and sudden death from high doses (even one time)
  • 9. Long-Term Effects • Permanent damage to blood vessels of ear and brain, high blood pressure, leading to heart attacks, strokes and death • Liver, kidney and lung damage • Respiratory failure • Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected • Malnutrition, weight loss • Auditory and tactile hallucinations • Sexual problems, reproductive damage and infertility (for both men and women) • Disorientation, apathy, confused exhaustion • Irritability and mood disturbances • Increased frequency of risky behavior • Delirium or psychosis • Severe depression • Tolerance and addiction (even after just one use)
  • 11. Tobacco Sources: It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indian first started smoking. Now the tobacco plant has spread the world over. It has large, quote to Lancelot leaves and terminal clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers. Modes of Use: Tobacco is used for smoking, chewing and snuffing. Its main stimulating component is poisonous volatile alkaid nicotine, which causes addiction. Nicotine synthesis occurs in the roots of the plant but it is stored in the leaves. The leaves contain 2 to 8% nicotine. Inhaling tobacco smoke from cigars, cigarettes, biddies, pipes and hubble-bubble is called smoking. Cigar is a roll of tobacco leaf. Cigarette is cut tobacco wrapped in paper. Bidi is tobacco wrapped. In a piece of leaf. Tobacco smoke is drawn directly from pipe and through water is hubble-bubble. Smoking may give some temporary relief to the strained nerves but in the long run it proves a dangerous health hazard. The quantity of nicotine contained in one cigar may prove fatal if injected intravenously into a person. When smoked only 10% of the smoke is inhaled. Hence, no immediate ill effect is observed. Smokers may develop a physiological craving for nicotine and then they cannot give up smoking. Effect of Nicotine: Nicotine is a low concentration. (i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses. (ii) Relaxes the muscles. (iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and pressure. (iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk of heart diseases. (v) Retards fetal growth in expecting mothers and (vi) Causes tobacco addiction. High concentration of nicotine paralyses nerve cells
  • 12. Harmful components of Tobacco Smoke: Besides the poisonous nicotine, the tobacco smoke contains carbon- monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tar. Other Effects: (i) Smoking affects economy: A smoker not only waste money, but also runs risk of burns and fires. (ii) Smoking mars personality: Teeth may become stained. Lips may get discolored and breath becomes foul. A person with a cigarette hanging from the mouth look odd. (iii) Smoking is annoying to others: Cigarette smoke is quite annoying to non-smokers. It may prove even more harmful to them. A smoker should avoid smoking. When in the company of non smokers. A smoker makes the nearby people passive smokers through inhaling smoke released by him.
  • 14. Alcohol An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. Ethanol is a centrally-acting drug with a depressant effect. Beer is an alcoholic beverage and thus has the same harmful effects as other kinds of alcohol, depending on the quantity consumed. Reasons for Drinking: • Psychological factors are curiosity, poor stress control, escape from reality, poor impulse control, low self – esteem, positive attitudes towards alcohol, to get rid of problems, to overcome loneliness, relief from tension and to gain courage. • Social factors are peer pressure, modeling, easy availability of alcohol in the market, party culture, family environment (Parent/s drinking alcohol), lack of family support, to keep up social norms and to show their masculinity. • Biological factors are genetic vulnerability like family history of alcoholism in parents or near relatives and to get sleep.
  • 15. Impact of Drinking Alcohol: Unlike other foods, alcohol does not require digestion. When one drinks, alcohol is absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the walls of the stomach and the intestine. Once alcohol enters the bloodstream it circulates throughout the body. Alcohol is metabolized in the liver and is changed to carbon dioxide, water and some calories of energy which gets converted into fat. A small amount of alcohol goes out of the body through breath, urine and sweat. Regular, excessive use of alcohol causes acute and chronic problems related to health, occupation, family and social relationships. Health Problems: Alcohol can damage every system of our body. Gastro intestinal system (stomach and intestines): Increased acid secretion leading to acidity, ulcers, gastritis, and cancer Liver : Hepatitis, jaundice and vomiting of blood due to cirrhosis of liver, liver cancer, acute liver failure. Pancreas : Pancreatic damage due to inflammation of pancreas and acute pancreatitis leading to sudden death. Central nervous system: (brain and spinal cord): Permanent damage of brain resulting in memory disturbances, other nervous problems, fits and mental illnesses. Cardio vascular system: High blood pressure, increased tendency to heart attacks, enlargement of the heart. Hangovers: Excessive drinking can lead to hangovers, thus causing problems like headache, nausea, vomit and body aches. Weight gain: alcohol consumption in larger quantities can lead to weight gain, because alcoholic beverages are usually high in calories. Weak immune system: alcohol consumption makes your immune system weak, thus making your body more susceptible to infections. Cancer: alcohol when consumed in excessive quantities puts you at a higher risk of developing cancer Fetal alcohol syndrome: Drinking alcohol in pregnancy may cause the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (physical abnormalities, growth retardation and developmental delay).
  • 16. Sources: Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid having a penetrating odor and burning taste. It is one of the products of the distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices and starches with the help of yeast enzymes. It is the principal constituent and the in toxicating principle of wines. Modes of Use: Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy and wine and in relatively high concentration as arrack, brandy, whisky, rum, gin, vodka etc.