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BIOLOGY PROJECT
--------------------------------------------------------------------
File
---------------
TOPIC - DIABETES...
Submitted by – harsh Jain
Class – xii
Session - 2017-18
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that HARSH JAIN of CLASS XII of SHRI
KRISHNA PUBLIC SCHOOL, INDORE has completed his
projec...
ACKNOWLED
GEMENT
In the accomplishment of this project successfully,
many people have best owned upon me their blessings
a...
Thanking You,
HARSH JAIN
CONTENTS
I. AIM OF THE PROJECT.
II. INTRODUCTION.
III. TYPES OF DIABETES.
IV. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS....
X. YOGA CURES DIABETES.
XI. CONCLUSION:CARE AND
PREVENTION.
XII. BIBLOGRAPHY.
Aim of the project:-
 To study about DIABETES and
suggest ways to fight it.
BLUE RING – THE UNIVERSAL
SYMBOL OF DIABETES.
INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a
group of metabolic disorders in which there ar...
TYPES OF DIABETES:-
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or
the cells of the bodynot respon...
SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight
loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia ...
CAUSES
 Type 1
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta
cells of the pancreatic is...
DIAGNOSIS
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrentor persistenthigh blood sugar,
and is diagnosed by demonstrating ...
PREVENTION
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes – which accounts for 85-90% of all ca...
MANAGEMENT
 LIFESTYLE
People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease
and treatment, good nutrition to ...
YOGA CURES DIABETES
Yoga Asana useful for Diabetes cure are those which bring about a
stretch and twist in lower thoracic ...
CONCLUSION: CARE AND
PREVENTION
1. Plan what you eat and follow a balanced meal plan. See your
dietitian at least once a y...
8. Record your blood glucose and urine ketone test results in a
record keeping log. Bring your log book with you to all of...
BIBLOGRAPHY
 N.C.E.R.T. CLASS XII – BIOLOGYtextbook.
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus
 https://www.moks...
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Biology project

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Biology project

  1. 1. BIOLOGY PROJECT -------------------------------------------------------------------- File --------------- TOPIC - DIABETES SUBMITTED TO - miss prachi agarwal
  2. 2. Submitted by – harsh Jain Class – xii Session - 2017-18
  3. 3. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that HARSH JAIN of CLASS XII of SHRI KRISHNA PUBLIC SCHOOL, INDORE has completed his project file under my guidance. He has taken proper care and has shown utmost sincerity in completing this project. I certify that this project is up to my expectations and as per the guidelines issued by C.B.S.E. MISS PRACHIAGARWAL, DEPARTMENTOFBIOLOGY, S.K.P.S. INDORE Signature- _____________________ INVIGILATOR’S - _____________________ SIGNATURE PRINCIPAL’S- ________________________ SCHOOL’S STAMP SIGNATURE
  4. 4. ACKNOWLED GEMENT In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many people have best owned upon me their blessings and heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the people who have been concerned with the project. Primarily, I would like to thank school’s principal SIR PAUL and biology teacher MISS PRACHI AGARWAL, her valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me patch this project and make it full proof success her suggestions and her instructions has served as a major contributor towards the completion of the project.
  5. 5. Thanking You, HARSH JAIN CONTENTS I. AIM OF THE PROJECT. II. INTRODUCTION. III. TYPES OF DIABETES. IV. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. V. CAUSES. VI. DIAGNOSIS. VII. PREVENTION. VIII. MANAGEMENT. IX. VISITING A DOCTOR.
  6. 6. X. YOGA CURES DIABETES. XI. CONCLUSION:CARE AND PREVENTION. XII. BIBLOGRAPHY.
  7. 7. Aim of the project:-  To study about DIABETES and suggest ways to fight it. BLUE RING – THE UNIVERSAL SYMBOL OF DIABETES.
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis , hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Specialty Endocrinology Symptoms Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger Complications Diabetic ketoacidosis , nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers Diagnostic method High blood sugar Treatment Healthy diet, physical exercise Medication Insulin, metformin Frequency 415 million (8.5%) Deaths 1.5–5.0 million per year
  9. 9. TYPES OF DIABETES:- Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the bodynot responding properly to the insulin produced.There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:  Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.  Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses alack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The most commoncause is excessive bodyweight and not enough exercise.  Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. Comparison of type 1 and 2 diabetes Feature Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Onset Sudden Gradual Age at onset Mostly in children Mostly in adults Body size Thin or normal Often obese Ketoacidosis Common Rare Autoantibodies Usually present Absent Endogenous insulin Low or absent Normal, decreased or increased Concordance in identical twins 50% 90% Prevalence ~10% ~90%
  10. 10. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM. Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
  11. 11. CAUSES  Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell- mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin. It causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affected people are otherwisehealthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenilediabetes" becausea majority of these diabetes cases were in children.  Type 2 Type 2 DMis primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 DM, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than 30), lack of physicalactivity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization. Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in thoseof Chinese and Japanesedescent, 60– 80% of cases in thoseof European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders.Even thosewho are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio.  Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in severalrespects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. Itoccurs in about2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.
  12. 12. DIAGNOSIS Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrentor persistenthigh blood sugar, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:  Fasting plasma glucoselevel ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl)  Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours after a 75 g oral glucoseload as in a glucosetolerance test  Symptoms of high blood sugar and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl)  Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %). A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the abovemethods on a different day. Itis preferable to measurea fasting glucoselevel because of the ease of measurement and the considerabletime commitment of formalglucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantageover the fasting test. According to the currentdefinition, two fasting glucosemeasurements above 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) is considered diagnostic for diabetes mellitus. WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria Condition 2 hour glucose Fasting glucose HbA1c Unit mmol/l(mg/dl) mmol/l(mg/dl) mmol/ mol DCCT % Normal <7.8 (<140) <6.1 (<110) <42 <6.0 Impaired fasting glycaemia <7.8 (<140) ≥6.1(≥110) & <7.0(<126) 42-46 6.0–6.4 Impaired glucose tolerance ≥7.8 (≥140) <7.0 (<126) 42-46 6.0–6.4 Diabetes mellitus ≥11.1 (≥200) ≥7.0 (≥126) ≥48 ≥6.5
  13. 13. PREVENTION There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes – which accounts for 85-90% of all cases – can often be prevented or delayedby maintaininga normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and consuming a healthfuldiet. Higher levelsof physicalactivity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetesby 28%.Dietary changes known to be effective in helpingto prevent diabetes includemaintaininga diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturatedfats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetesand its complications,so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well. The relationshipbetween type 2 diabetesand the main modifiablerisk factors (excess weight, unhealthydiet, physical inactivityand tobacco use) is similarin all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinantsof diabetesare a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization, urbanization,populationaging, and the general health policy environment.
  14. 14. MANAGEMENT  LIFESTYLE People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds  MEDICATIONS Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar levels. There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications. Some are available by mouth, such as metformin, while others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists. Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analogs.  SURGERY A pancreas transplant is occasionally considered for people with type 1 diabetes who have severe complications of their disease, including end stage kidney disease requiring kidney transplantation.  SUPPORT In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.
  15. 15. YOGA CURES DIABETES Yoga Asana useful for Diabetes cure are those which bring about a stretch and twist in lower thoracic and upper lumbar region, where pancreas is located. These yoga asana are believed to increase the blood supply, massage the organs, activate its cells and thereby cause an increase in secretion of insulin; reducing high blood sugar.  Yoga asana regenerates/rejuvenates pancreatic cells by abdominal stretching; also by enhancing enzymatic process it may increase utilization and metabolism of glucose in peripheral tissues.  Yoga Asana can cause muscular relaxation, enhance muscular development and improve circulation to muscles; all of these might enhance insulin receptor expression on muscles and causes increase in glucose uptake by muscles and thus reducing blood sugar.  It has been seen that various yoga postures can improve sensitivity of b-cells of the pancreas to glucose signal and also improve insulin sensitivity. This can result in better glucose uptake and reduction of blood sugar.  Certain Yoga Asana can directly stimulate pancreas by enhancing circulation in the meridian of pancreas and rejuvenates its capacity to produce insulin.  Evidence suggests that regular yoga practice can significant reduce body weight, which is particularly important to keep diabetes under check.  Symptoms of diabetes can be worsened by increase in blood pressure. Yoga Asana like corpse pose, bridge pose child pose and yoga nidra has been seen beneficial in controlling hypertension.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION: CARE AND PREVENTION 1. Plan what you eat and follow a balanced meal plan. See your dietitian at least once a year. 2. Exercise at least five times a week for 30 minutes each session. Talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program. Tell your doctor what kind of exercise you want to do so adjustments can be made to your medicine schedule or meal plan, if necessary. 3. Follow your medicine schedule as prescribed by your doc tor. 4. Know what medicines (brand and generic names) you are taking and how they work. Keep a list of your medicines with you at all times. 5. Test your blood glucose regularly, as recommended by your health care provider. Test your blood glucose more often when you're sick. 6. Try to continuously keep your blood glucose level at the recommended range. If your blood glucose is less than 70 mg/dl and you have more than one unexplained low blood glucose reaction a week, call your doctor. If your blood glucose is greater than 160 mg/dl for more than a week or if you have two consecutive readings greater than 300 mg/dl, call your doctor. 7. Contact your doctor when your blood glucose is over 300 mg/dl. Test your urine for ketones if recommended by your doctor.
  17. 17. 8. Record your blood glucose and urine ketone test results in a record keeping log. Bring your log book with you to all of your doctor's visits. 9. Keep your scheduled appointments with your health care providers. See your doctor at least every three to four months for regular check –ups if you are treated with insulin. See your doctor every four to six months if you are treated with other diabetes medicines or if you are managing diabetes with diet and exercise alone. More frequent visits might be necessary if your blood glucose is not controlled or if complications of diabetes are progressing. Make sure your health care provider checks your blood pressure and weight and examines your feet and insulin injection sites. 10. Have a glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) at least two times a year or more frequently as recommended by your doctor. 11. Have an eye exam (including a retinopathy screening test) and urinalysis test once a year, or as recommended by your doctor. (Your doctor might request that you have these tests more frequently.) 12. Have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels checked (lipid profile test) once a year. 13. Have a dental exam every six months. 14. If you have any signs of infection, call your doctor or health care provider. 15. DO NOT SMOKE.
  18. 18. BIBLOGRAPHY  N.C.E.R.T. CLASS XII – BIOLOGYtextbook.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus  https://www.mokshamantra.com/yoga-for- diabetes-high-blood-sugar  http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-diabetes- mellitus-diabetic-high-blood-sugar-signs-and- symptoms-stick-89511273.html  http://www.who.int/diabetes/en/  http://ndep.nih.gov

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