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TOPIC - DIABETES
SUBMITTED TO - miss prachi agarwal
Submitted by – harsh Jain
Class – xii
Session - 2017-18
This is to certify that HARSH JAIN of CLASS XII of SHRI
KRISHNA PUBLIC SCHOOL, INDORE has completed his
project file under my guidance. He has taken proper
care and has shown utmost sincerity in completing this
I certify that this project is up to my expectations and
as per the guidelines issued by C.B.S.E.
INVIGILATOR’S - _____________________
PRINCIPAL’S- ________________________ SCHOOL’S STAMP
In the accomplishment of this project successfully,
many people have best owned upon me their blessings
and heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to
thank all the people who have been concerned with
Primarily, I would like to thank school’s principal SIR
PAUL and biology teacher MISS PRACHI AGARWAL, her
valuable guidance has been the ones that helped me
patch this project and make it full proof success her
suggestions and her instructions has served as a major
contributor towards the completion of the project.
I. AIM OF THE PROJECT.
III. TYPES OF DIABETES.
IV. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS.
IX. VISITING A DOCTOR.
X. YOGA CURES DIABETES.
XI. CONCLUSION:CARE AND
Aim of the project:-
To study about DIABETES and
suggest ways to fight it.
BLUE RING – THE UNIVERSAL
SYMBOL OF DIABETES.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a
group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood
sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar
include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If
left untreated, diabetes can cause many
complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis
, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term
complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney
disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Symptoms Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger
Complications Diabetic ketoacidosis , nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, heart
disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers
High blood sugar
Treatment Healthy diet, physical exercise
Medication Insulin, metformin
Frequency 415 million (8.5%)
Deaths 1.5–5.0 million per year
TYPES OF DIABETES:-
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or
the cells of the bodynot responding properly to the insulin
produced.There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough
insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells
fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses alack of
insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as
"non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset
diabetes". The most commoncause is excessive bodyweight and not
Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant
women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood
Comparison of type 1 and 2 diabetes
Feature Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes
Onset Sudden Gradual
Age at onset Mostly in children Mostly in adults
Body size Thin or normal Often obese
Ketoacidosis Common Rare
Autoantibodies Usually present Absent
Endogenous insulin Low or absent
in identical twins
Prevalence ~10% ~90%
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight
loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst),
and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly
(weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much
more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM.
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes
although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the
known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue,
slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can
cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to
changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin
rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta
cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be
further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1
diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-
mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin. It
causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and
Europe. Most affected people are otherwisehealthy and of a healthy weight
when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually
normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or
adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenilediabetes" becausea majority of
these diabetes cases were in children.
Type 2 DMis primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. A number of
lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 DM,
including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than 30), lack of
physicalactivity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization. Excess body fat is
associated with 30% of cases in thoseof Chinese and Japanesedescent, 60–
80% of cases in thoseof European and African descent, and 100% of Pima
Indians and Pacific Islanders.Even thosewho are not obese often have a
high waist–hip ratio.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in severalrespects,
involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and
responsiveness. Itoccurs in about2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve
or disappear after delivery.
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrentor persistenthigh blood sugar,
and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:
Fasting plasma glucoselevel ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl)
Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours after a 75 g oral
glucoseload as in a glucosetolerance test
Symptoms of high blood sugar and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %).
A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be
confirmed by a repeat of any of the abovemethods on a different day. Itis
preferable to measurea fasting glucoselevel because of the ease of
measurement and the considerabletime commitment of formalglucose
tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic
advantageover the fasting test. According to the currentdefinition, two fasting
glucosemeasurements above 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) is considered diagnostic
for diabetes mellitus.
WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria
Condition 2 hour glucose Fasting glucose HbA1c
Unit mmol/l(mg/dl) mmol/l(mg/dl)
Normal <7.8 (<140) <6.1 (<110) <42 <6.0
Impaired fasting glycaemia <7.8 (<140)
Impaired glucose tolerance ≥7.8 (≥140) <7.0 (<126) 42-46 6.0–6.4
Diabetes mellitus ≥11.1 (≥200) ≥7.0 (≥126) ≥48 ≥6.5
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes – which accounts for 85-90% of all cases –
can often be prevented or delayedby maintaininga normal
body weight, engaging in physical activity, and consuming a
healthfuldiet. Higher levelsof physicalactivity (more than 90
minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetesby 28%.Dietary
changes known to be effective in helpingto prevent diabetes
includemaintaininga diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and
choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturatedfats found in
nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and
eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can
also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also
associated with an increased risk of diabetesand its
complications,so smoking cessation can be an important
preventive measure as well.
The relationshipbetween type 2 diabetesand the main
modifiablerisk factors (excess weight, unhealthydiet,
physical inactivityand tobacco use) is similarin all regions of
the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying
determinantsof diabetesare a reflection of the major forces
driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization,
urbanization,populationaging, and the general health
People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease
and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and
exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term
blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds
Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar
levels. There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic
medications. Some are available by mouth, such as metformin,
while others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists.
Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a
combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analogs.
A pancreas transplant is occasionally considered for people with
type 1 diabetes who have severe complications of their disease,
including end stage kidney disease requiring kidney transplantation.
In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United
Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with
hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications,
difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other
circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a
team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective
YOGA CURES DIABETES
Yoga Asana useful for Diabetes cure are those which bring about a
stretch and twist in lower thoracic and upper lumbar region, where
pancreas is located. These yoga asana are believed to increase the
blood supply, massage the organs, activate its cells and thereby
cause an increase in secretion of insulin; reducing high blood sugar.
Yoga asana regenerates/rejuvenates pancreatic cells by abdominal
stretching; also by enhancing enzymatic process it may increase
utilization and metabolism of glucose in peripheral tissues.
Yoga Asana can cause muscular relaxation, enhance muscular
development and improve circulation to muscles; all of these
might enhance insulin receptor expression on muscles and causes
increase in glucose uptake by muscles and thus reducing blood
It has been seen that various yoga postures can improve
sensitivity of b-cells of the pancreas to glucose signal and also
improve insulin sensitivity. This can result in better glucose uptake
and reduction of blood sugar.
Certain Yoga Asana can directly stimulate pancreas by enhancing
circulation in the meridian of pancreas and rejuvenates its
capacity to produce insulin.
Evidence suggests that regular yoga practice can significant reduce
body weight, which is particularly important to keep diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes can be worsened by increase in blood
pressure. Yoga Asana like corpse pose, bridge pose child pose and
yoga nidra has been seen beneficial in controlling hypertension.
CONCLUSION: CARE AND
1. Plan what you eat and follow a balanced meal plan. See your
dietitian at least once a year.
2. Exercise at least five times a week for 30 minutes each session.
Talk to your doctor before starting any exercise program. Tell your
doctor what kind of exercise you want to do so adjustments can be
made to your medicine schedule or meal plan, if necessary.
3. Follow your medicine schedule as prescribed by your doc tor.
4. Know what medicines (brand and generic names) you are taking
and how they work. Keep a list of your medicines with you at all
5. Test your blood glucose regularly, as recommended by your health
care provider. Test your blood glucose more often when you're sick.
6. Try to continuously keep your blood glucose level at the
recommended range. If your blood glucose is less than 70 mg/dl and
you have more than one unexplained low blood glucose reaction a
week, call your doctor. If your blood glucose is greater than 160
mg/dl for more than a week or if you have two consecutive readings
greater than 300 mg/dl, call your doctor.
7. Contact your doctor when your blood glucose is over 300 mg/dl.
Test your urine for ketones if recommended by your doctor.
8. Record your blood glucose and urine ketone test results in a
record keeping log. Bring your log book with you to all of your
9. Keep your scheduled appointments with your health care
providers. See your doctor at least every three to four months for
regular check –ups if you are treated with insulin. See your doctor
every four to six months if you are treated with other diabetes
medicines or if you are managing diabetes with diet and exercise
More frequent visits might be necessary if your blood glucose is not
controlled or if complications of diabetes are progressing. Make sure
your health care provider checks your blood pressure and weight and
examines your feet and insulin injection sites.
10. Have a glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) at least two times a
year or more frequently as recommended by your doctor.
11. Have an eye exam (including a retinopathy screening test) and
urinalysis test once a year, or as recommended by your doctor. (Your
doctor might request that you have these tests more frequently.)
12. Have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels checked (lipid profile
test) once a year.
13. Have a dental exam every six months.
14. If you have any signs of infection, call your doctor or health care
15. DO NOT SMOKE.
N.C.E.R.T. CLASS XII – BIOLOGYtextbook.