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AHLCON INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL
Investigatory Project of
Biology
Topic: DRUG ADDICTION
NAME : Sanya verma
CLASS : XII - B
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Sanya Verma , a student of class XII
(science) of school Ahlcon International School has successfully
completed the biology investigatory project on the selected
topic “A case study on ADDICTION: DRUG ABUSE” assigned by
the biology subject teacher (Mrs Navleen chopra Ma’am) as a
part of the (practical section) class XII Annual Exam for the year
2019-20.
Dated:
signature of the teacher
(Mrs navleen chopra)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This is to acknowledge that this investigatory project would not
have been successful without the help of the source that are
mention below. I would also like to give thanks to our lab assistant
sushil sir who had always supported us. It was a great opportunity
making this investigatory project so at the onset a very great
thanks to our respected subject teacher Mrs navleen
chopra(ma’am) without her guidance this investigatory project
would not have been possible. Lastly I would like to thank our
parents who really helped us in each and every movement,
friends and everyone who is directly or indirectly associated with
the completion of this investigatory project of biology.
INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION
2. WHAT IS ADDICTION
3. TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE
4. CAUSES OF ADDICTION
5. EFFECTS OF ADDICTION
6. DIAGONISIS OF ADDICTION
7. THE PROFILE OF FIVE PATIENTS
8. TREATMENT OF ADDICTION
9. SCENARIO OF ADDICTION
10. CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
Addiction is one of the biggest disease of the
world. More than millions of the individual are
struggling against addiction. It takes away the
happiness of the people by avoiding them to
get what they want and many of the people
were also not able to take correct decision.
According to the recent studies it has been
found that adolescent are more vulnerable to
addiction. Addiction is that type of diseases
whose rehabilitation is very difficult. As we know
prevention is better than cure so we can
prevent our self from getting addicted by not
living under peer pressure.
WHAT IS DRUG ADDICTION?
Addiction is the habitual, physiological, psychological
dependence on a substance or practice which is beyond
voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a
substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is
called an addict. Addiction is a chronic, progressive and
sometimes fatal disorder with both genetic and
environmental roots. It manifests as a compulsion that
derives an individual to continue to behave in a way that
is harmful to self and loved ones, despite an intense desire
to halt that behaviour. It is a disease of “more”- an active
addict needs an increasing amount of substance to get
high and is unable to cease usage without painful
withdrawal symptoms.
This is true whether the
addictive substance is a drug
or tobacco or alcohol or a
behaviour. Medically,
addiction is of three types :
Tobacco Addiction, Alcohol
Addiction, Drug Addiction
TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE
Heroin Hallucinogens
Cocaine Cannabinoid
Crack Alcohol
 Heroin
 As a destructive opioid, heroin can lead to seizures, psychosis,
and hallucinations when it is abused.
 Heroin injections can also spread diseases such as human
immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis.
 This drug is known to cause serious health issues when it is abused
because it interferes with the brain’s receptors.
 Once heroin enters the brain, it is converted to morphine and
binds rapidly to opioid receptors
 With heroin, the rush is usually accompanied by a warm flushing of
the skin, dry mouth, and a heavy feeling in the extremities
 Opioids can depress breathing by changing neurochemical
activity in the brain stem, where automatic body functions such as
breathing and heart rate are controlled
 cocaine
 Cocaine is a very dangerous stimulant even when taken in
small amounts. It induces euphoria, increases blood
pressure, and accelerates the heart rate.
 The drug may lead to fatal strokes or heart attacks for some
users.
 Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most
frequently used as a recreational drug.
 Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most
frequently used as a recreational drug.
 Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses
such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal
surgery.
 It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and
injected into a vein.
Crack
 A potent form of cocaine, crack is often smoked and
suddenly creates an intense euphoric sensation for a
short while.
 Crack has turned into a problem because it is cheap
and easy to buy and use. Abusing the substance,
however, can lead to immediate addiction.
 Abusers are also at risk of suffering heart attacks and
strokes with every use. Long-term use can cause liver,
kidney, and lung damage.
 The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include
constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased
temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.
hallucinogens
 Hallucinogens are a class of drugs that cause profound distortions
in a person's perceptions of reality, otherwise known as
hallucinations.
 PCP (phencyclidine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are
hallucinogens, which means that they make users feel, see, and
hear things that are not real.
 While they experience hallucinations with these drugs,
users lose touch with reality and enter mental states of
disconnection.
 Atropa belladona and datura also contain
hallucinogenic properties.
cannabinoids
 cannabinoids is the most common illegal drug that is
abused, and many people begin using it as a
recreational drug in social situations.
 Continued abuse of marijuana can lead to addiction,
and the substance can affect the physical coordination,
memory, and mental functions of users over time.
 In humans, psychoactive cannabinoids produce euphoria,
enhancement of sensory perception, tachycardia,
antinociception, difficulties in concentration and
impairment of memory. The cognitive deficiencies seem to
persist after withdrawal.
 Although there are studies that show potential benefits
from Cannabinoids, there are many side effects from taking
the drug. This shows that an addiction to this natural drug
can be hazardous.
alcohols
 Abusing alcohol can cause psychological, physical, and
social problems, and it can lead to the destruction of
relationships, friendships, and marriages.
 Furthermore, alcohol abuse can lead to injury or death
to the people around them while they are under the
influence.
 Alcohol withdrawal can be fatal because of delirium
tremens, which is a symptom with the potential to trigger
heart failure or stroke. Refraining from drinking also is not
easy when it becomes a habit because of mental and
physical issues.
 The liver is an organ which helps break down and
remove harmful substances from your body, including
alcohol. Long-term alcohol use interferes with this
process. It also increases your risk for chronic liver
inflammation and liver disease.
CAUSES OF ADDICTION
Drug use is often voluntary in the first instance. The development of a full addiction occurs through a
variety of circumstances.
However, the brain changes during a substance-related disorder in ways that can take a long time
to bring back to a healthy state.
A person whose brain's reward circuitry has not altered as a result of addiction experiences positive
feelings in relation to generally rewarding behaviors, such as exercising, being with family, or
consuming delicious food. These should all make a person feel good
Some of the causes of addiction are :-
1. Peer pressure
2. Stress and depression
3. Lack of education
4. Religious rituals
EFFECTS OF ADDICTION
• Fatigue - the patient is tired most of the time.
• Memory loss - especially the patient's short-term memory.
• Eye muscles - the eye muscles can become significantly
weaker.
• Liver diseases - the patient has a considerably higher chance
of developing hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is an
irreversible and progressive condition
• Heart problems - regular heaving drinking can lead to
cardiomyopathy (damaged heart muscle), heart failure, and
stroke.
• Menstruation - alcoholism will usually stop menstruation or
disrupt it.
• Cancer - alcoholics have a much higher risk of developing
several cancers, including cancer of the mouth, oesophagus,
liver, colon, rectum, breast, prostate and pharynx.
• Suicide - suicide rates among people who are alcohol-
dependent or who abuse alcohol are much higher than among
other people.
EFFECTS ON LUNGS :
Drug use can lead to a variety of respiratory problems.
Smoking cigarettes, for example, has been shown to cause
bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Marijuana smoke
can also cause respiratory problems, including chronic
bronchitis. Smoking crack cocaine can also cause lung
damage and severe respiratory problems. The use of some
drugs, such as opioids, may cause breathing to slow, block
air from entering the lungs, or make asthma symptoms
worse
EFFECTS ON BRAIN :
Drugs interfere with the way neurons send, receive, and
process signals via neurotransmitters. Some drugs, such as
marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their
chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter in
the body. This allows the drugs to attach onto and activate the
neurons. Although these drugs mimic the brain's own
chemicals, they don't activate neurons in the same way as a
natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages
being sent through the network.
Other drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the
neurons to release abnormally large amounts of natural
neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these
brain chemicals by interfering with transporters.
PREVENTION & CONTROL
“Prevention is better than cure” is also true here. Tobacco, drug/alcohol abuse are more during
young age and adolescence. The remedial measure should be taken in time. The following
measures would be particularly useful for prevention and control of alcohol and addiction during
adolescents.
1.Avoid undue Peer pressure.
2.Education and counselling.
3.Seeking help from parents and peers.
4.Looking for Danger Signs.
5.Seeking Professional and Medical helps.
DIAGNOSIS OF ADDICTION
Blood test or imaging scan can determine whether
somebody is addicted to drug or alcohol or smoking, and
to what degree.
Blood test - this may be ordered to determine whether the
substance is still in the blood (whether the substance has
been taken recently). It is not used to diagnose addiction.
A GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) can
help the patient determine their degree of dependence
by asking pertinent questions, or using a specific
questionnaire.
Although there's no cure for drug addiction, treatment
options explained below can help you overcome an
addiction and stay drug-free. Your treatment depends on
the drug used and any related medical or mental health
disorders you may have. Long-term follow-up is important
to prevent relapse.
CASE STUDIES OF 5 PATIENTS
Case no: 1 Patient name: Sofia Akhtar
Age: 65 Type: T2DM
Gender: Female Date of admission: 22/12/15
Comments: After I am started having T2DM, my life has totally changed. I am the first person
to have diabetes in my family. At the onset of this disease I felt very much weakness and
hunger.
Case no: 2 Patient name: Mrs. Neha Das
Age: 40 Type: T1DM
Gender: Female Date of admission: 22/12/15
Comments: I am middle aged house wife and I have lots of difficulties to tackle
this disease due to weakness. I cannot meet the common need of my family, and some time I
become unconsciousness and my family gets worried. Recently my husband spends lots of
money for this disease but I didn’t get any such good result.
Case no: 3 Patient name: Shubankar Deka
Age: 45 Type: T1DM
Gender: Male Date of admission:06/01/16
Comments: I started having this disease at the age of 35, I didn’t take much attention to it due to very
busy job. I din’ took medicine regularly or neither did any physical exercise and now I’m suffering from
this dangerous disease I have to lose my job, during urination I feel burning sensation. Now I am
unable to take care of my family,
Case no:4 Patient name: Karan Barman
Age: 54 Type: T2DM
Gender: Male Date of admission:06/01/16
Comments: I am poor worker who earn few just to stay alive and to take care of family. I don’t have
much savings that I would go in a big hospital for better cure or for medicine. Nowadays I also cannot
go to work site as I remain weak and my hand and leg shakes if I try to do any hard work. Due to this I
cannot send my children to school.
Case no:5 Patient name: Miss Rupali Nath
Age: 33 Type: T2DM
Gender: Female Date of admission:15/01/16
Comments: I am both working women and house wife I have no time to care of my health I always
remain busy taking care of my family and doing stressful work at my office and due to this I had
gained my weight rapidly, presently my weight is about 93 kg and my recent diagnosis says that I am
suffering from diabetes.
TREATMENT OF ADDICTION
Do-it-yourself - experts say about 30% of people with an
alcohol problem manage to reduce their drinking or
abstain without seeking professional help. There is a great
deal of material in books and the internet that may help the
self-helper.
Counselling - a qualified counsellor can help the alcoholic
talk through his/her problems and then devise a plan to
tackle the drinking. CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) is
commonly used to treat alcohol dependency.
Detoxification - the patient takes some medication to
prevent withdrawal symptoms (delirium tremens) which
many alcoholics experience when they give up drinking.
SCENARIO OF DRUG
ADDICTION
CONCLUSION
 Drug use and addiction cause a lot of disease and disability in the world.
 Recent advances in neuroscience may help improve policies to reduce the harm that the
use of tobacco , alcohol, and other psychoactive drugs act on society.
 This report is concerned with the implications of drug use for workplace safety and
productivity. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use by the U.S. work
force, the impact of such use on job-related behavior, and the effectiveness of workplace
drug intervention programs.
 This emphasis on workplace productivity rather than social consequences affects the
purpose, methods, and evaluation criteria used in this report, just as it often affects
researchers investigating these issues.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Special thanks to the following source: -
• Internet (Wikipedia)
• NCERT biology class XII
• Some diabetic patients
• Online library

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432034471-Investigatory-Project-on-Drug-Addiction-Final.pdf

  • 1. AHLCON INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL Investigatory Project of Biology Topic: DRUG ADDICTION NAME : Sanya verma CLASS : XII - B
  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Sanya Verma , a student of class XII (science) of school Ahlcon International School has successfully completed the biology investigatory project on the selected topic “A case study on ADDICTION: DRUG ABUSE” assigned by the biology subject teacher (Mrs Navleen chopra Ma’am) as a part of the (practical section) class XII Annual Exam for the year 2019-20. Dated: signature of the teacher (Mrs navleen chopra)
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is to acknowledge that this investigatory project would not have been successful without the help of the source that are mention below. I would also like to give thanks to our lab assistant sushil sir who had always supported us. It was a great opportunity making this investigatory project so at the onset a very great thanks to our respected subject teacher Mrs navleen chopra(ma’am) without her guidance this investigatory project would not have been possible. Lastly I would like to thank our parents who really helped us in each and every movement, friends and everyone who is directly or indirectly associated with the completion of this investigatory project of biology.
  • 4. INDEX 1. INTRODUCTION 2. WHAT IS ADDICTION 3. TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE 4. CAUSES OF ADDICTION 5. EFFECTS OF ADDICTION 6. DIAGONISIS OF ADDICTION 7. THE PROFILE OF FIVE PATIENTS 8. TREATMENT OF ADDICTION 9. SCENARIO OF ADDICTION 10. CONCLUSION
  • 5. INTRODUCTION Addiction is one of the biggest disease of the world. More than millions of the individual are struggling against addiction. It takes away the happiness of the people by avoiding them to get what they want and many of the people were also not able to take correct decision. According to the recent studies it has been found that adolescent are more vulnerable to addiction. Addiction is that type of diseases whose rehabilitation is very difficult. As we know prevention is better than cure so we can prevent our self from getting addicted by not living under peer pressure.
  • 6. WHAT IS DRUG ADDICTION? Addiction is the habitual, physiological, psychological dependence on a substance or practice which is beyond voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an addict. Addiction is a chronic, progressive and sometimes fatal disorder with both genetic and environmental roots. It manifests as a compulsion that derives an individual to continue to behave in a way that is harmful to self and loved ones, despite an intense desire to halt that behaviour. It is a disease of “more”- an active addict needs an increasing amount of substance to get high and is unable to cease usage without painful withdrawal symptoms. This is true whether the addictive substance is a drug or tobacco or alcohol or a behaviour. Medically, addiction is of three types : Tobacco Addiction, Alcohol Addiction, Drug Addiction
  • 7. TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE Heroin Hallucinogens Cocaine Cannabinoid Crack Alcohol
  • 8.  Heroin  As a destructive opioid, heroin can lead to seizures, psychosis, and hallucinations when it is abused.  Heroin injections can also spread diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis.  This drug is known to cause serious health issues when it is abused because it interferes with the brain’s receptors.  Once heroin enters the brain, it is converted to morphine and binds rapidly to opioid receptors  With heroin, the rush is usually accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, dry mouth, and a heavy feeling in the extremities  Opioids can depress breathing by changing neurochemical activity in the brain stem, where automatic body functions such as breathing and heart rate are controlled
  • 9.  cocaine  Cocaine is a very dangerous stimulant even when taken in small amounts. It induces euphoria, increases blood pressure, and accelerates the heart rate.  The drug may lead to fatal strokes or heart attacks for some users.  Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug.  Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug.  Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.  It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein.
  • 10. Crack  A potent form of cocaine, crack is often smoked and suddenly creates an intense euphoric sensation for a short while.  Crack has turned into a problem because it is cheap and easy to buy and use. Abusing the substance, however, can lead to immediate addiction.  Abusers are also at risk of suffering heart attacks and strokes with every use. Long-term use can cause liver, kidney, and lung damage.  The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.
  • 11. hallucinogens  Hallucinogens are a class of drugs that cause profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations.  PCP (phencyclidine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are hallucinogens, which means that they make users feel, see, and hear things that are not real.  While they experience hallucinations with these drugs, users lose touch with reality and enter mental states of disconnection.  Atropa belladona and datura also contain hallucinogenic properties.
  • 12. cannabinoids  cannabinoids is the most common illegal drug that is abused, and many people begin using it as a recreational drug in social situations.  Continued abuse of marijuana can lead to addiction, and the substance can affect the physical coordination, memory, and mental functions of users over time.  In humans, psychoactive cannabinoids produce euphoria, enhancement of sensory perception, tachycardia, antinociception, difficulties in concentration and impairment of memory. The cognitive deficiencies seem to persist after withdrawal.  Although there are studies that show potential benefits from Cannabinoids, there are many side effects from taking the drug. This shows that an addiction to this natural drug can be hazardous.
  • 13. alcohols  Abusing alcohol can cause psychological, physical, and social problems, and it can lead to the destruction of relationships, friendships, and marriages.  Furthermore, alcohol abuse can lead to injury or death to the people around them while they are under the influence.  Alcohol withdrawal can be fatal because of delirium tremens, which is a symptom with the potential to trigger heart failure or stroke. Refraining from drinking also is not easy when it becomes a habit because of mental and physical issues.  The liver is an organ which helps break down and remove harmful substances from your body, including alcohol. Long-term alcohol use interferes with this process. It also increases your risk for chronic liver inflammation and liver disease.
  • 14. CAUSES OF ADDICTION Drug use is often voluntary in the first instance. The development of a full addiction occurs through a variety of circumstances. However, the brain changes during a substance-related disorder in ways that can take a long time to bring back to a healthy state. A person whose brain's reward circuitry has not altered as a result of addiction experiences positive feelings in relation to generally rewarding behaviors, such as exercising, being with family, or consuming delicious food. These should all make a person feel good Some of the causes of addiction are :- 1. Peer pressure 2. Stress and depression 3. Lack of education 4. Religious rituals
  • 15. EFFECTS OF ADDICTION • Fatigue - the patient is tired most of the time. • Memory loss - especially the patient's short-term memory. • Eye muscles - the eye muscles can become significantly weaker. • Liver diseases - the patient has a considerably higher chance of developing hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is an irreversible and progressive condition • Heart problems - regular heaving drinking can lead to cardiomyopathy (damaged heart muscle), heart failure, and stroke. • Menstruation - alcoholism will usually stop menstruation or disrupt it. • Cancer - alcoholics have a much higher risk of developing several cancers, including cancer of the mouth, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum, breast, prostate and pharynx. • Suicide - suicide rates among people who are alcohol- dependent or who abuse alcohol are much higher than among other people.
  • 16. EFFECTS ON LUNGS : Drug use can lead to a variety of respiratory problems. Smoking cigarettes, for example, has been shown to cause bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Marijuana smoke can also cause respiratory problems, including chronic bronchitis. Smoking crack cocaine can also cause lung damage and severe respiratory problems. The use of some drugs, such as opioids, may cause breathing to slow, block air from entering the lungs, or make asthma symptoms worse
  • 17. EFFECTS ON BRAIN : Drugs interfere with the way neurons send, receive, and process signals via neurotransmitters. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter in the body. This allows the drugs to attach onto and activate the neurons. Although these drugs mimic the brain's own chemicals, they don't activate neurons in the same way as a natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages being sent through the network. Other drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the neurons to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals by interfering with transporters.
  • 18. PREVENTION & CONTROL “Prevention is better than cure” is also true here. Tobacco, drug/alcohol abuse are more during young age and adolescence. The remedial measure should be taken in time. The following measures would be particularly useful for prevention and control of alcohol and addiction during adolescents. 1.Avoid undue Peer pressure. 2.Education and counselling. 3.Seeking help from parents and peers. 4.Looking for Danger Signs. 5.Seeking Professional and Medical helps.
  • 19. DIAGNOSIS OF ADDICTION Blood test or imaging scan can determine whether somebody is addicted to drug or alcohol or smoking, and to what degree. Blood test - this may be ordered to determine whether the substance is still in the blood (whether the substance has been taken recently). It is not used to diagnose addiction. A GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) can help the patient determine their degree of dependence by asking pertinent questions, or using a specific questionnaire. Although there's no cure for drug addiction, treatment options explained below can help you overcome an addiction and stay drug-free. Your treatment depends on the drug used and any related medical or mental health disorders you may have. Long-term follow-up is important to prevent relapse.
  • 20. CASE STUDIES OF 5 PATIENTS Case no: 1 Patient name: Sofia Akhtar Age: 65 Type: T2DM Gender: Female Date of admission: 22/12/15 Comments: After I am started having T2DM, my life has totally changed. I am the first person to have diabetes in my family. At the onset of this disease I felt very much weakness and hunger. Case no: 2 Patient name: Mrs. Neha Das Age: 40 Type: T1DM Gender: Female Date of admission: 22/12/15 Comments: I am middle aged house wife and I have lots of difficulties to tackle this disease due to weakness. I cannot meet the common need of my family, and some time I become unconsciousness and my family gets worried. Recently my husband spends lots of money for this disease but I didn’t get any such good result.
  • 21. Case no: 3 Patient name: Shubankar Deka Age: 45 Type: T1DM Gender: Male Date of admission:06/01/16 Comments: I started having this disease at the age of 35, I didn’t take much attention to it due to very busy job. I din’ took medicine regularly or neither did any physical exercise and now I’m suffering from this dangerous disease I have to lose my job, during urination I feel burning sensation. Now I am unable to take care of my family, Case no:4 Patient name: Karan Barman Age: 54 Type: T2DM Gender: Male Date of admission:06/01/16 Comments: I am poor worker who earn few just to stay alive and to take care of family. I don’t have much savings that I would go in a big hospital for better cure or for medicine. Nowadays I also cannot go to work site as I remain weak and my hand and leg shakes if I try to do any hard work. Due to this I cannot send my children to school. Case no:5 Patient name: Miss Rupali Nath Age: 33 Type: T2DM Gender: Female Date of admission:15/01/16 Comments: I am both working women and house wife I have no time to care of my health I always remain busy taking care of my family and doing stressful work at my office and due to this I had gained my weight rapidly, presently my weight is about 93 kg and my recent diagnosis says that I am suffering from diabetes.
  • 22. TREATMENT OF ADDICTION Do-it-yourself - experts say about 30% of people with an alcohol problem manage to reduce their drinking or abstain without seeking professional help. There is a great deal of material in books and the internet that may help the self-helper. Counselling - a qualified counsellor can help the alcoholic talk through his/her problems and then devise a plan to tackle the drinking. CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) is commonly used to treat alcohol dependency. Detoxification - the patient takes some medication to prevent withdrawal symptoms (delirium tremens) which many alcoholics experience when they give up drinking.
  • 24. CONCLUSION  Drug use and addiction cause a lot of disease and disability in the world.  Recent advances in neuroscience may help improve policies to reduce the harm that the use of tobacco , alcohol, and other psychoactive drugs act on society.  This report is concerned with the implications of drug use for workplace safety and productivity. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use by the U.S. work force, the impact of such use on job-related behavior, and the effectiveness of workplace drug intervention programs.  This emphasis on workplace productivity rather than social consequences affects the purpose, methods, and evaluation criteria used in this report, just as it often affects researchers investigating these issues.
  • 25. BIBLIOGRAPHY Special thanks to the following source: - • Internet (Wikipedia) • NCERT biology class XII • Some diabetic patients • Online library