SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 4
Critique Paper: Bilingualism

Introduction: I Can Roar

Jerry does not hesitate to open the door upon hearing a knock from somebody he does not
have a chance to see. Taken by surprise, he sees a basket with a young (mouse) in it with the
message, “Please feed him lots of milk”. Without any indecision, Jerry takes the responsibility
for the poor young. On the other hand, Tom always looks for ways on how he could catch Jerry.
Eat him or shoo him off is one mania he has. A time comes when Jerry has to feed the young
milk, they have to sneak and get some milk from Tom. No matter what happens, Jerry never lets
Tom lay a finger on the young. Unfortunately, Tom is so skilled that he is able to trap Jerry in a
bottle so he could run after the young. Preoccupied with hate, Tom catches the young and
punishes him. When Jerry hears the cry, the bottle gets broken and off he goes to look for the
young. Losing control of his temper, he ROARS like a LION. With all his might, he gives Tom
the apt punishment by battering, beating, thrashing, pummeling, hitting, banging, hammering
and pounding. With what happens, Tom follows every order Jerry has. He is even the one
feeding the young milk. Plus, he cannot take a rest since Jerry is on his side watching every
action he makes. Tom, the cat, fears Jerry, the mouse, who ROARS like a LION.

Unquestionably, almost everybody grows up with the until-now hit no-dialogue-cartoon-show
Tom and Jerry. The Tom and Jerry show has been in the limelight for a long time. With the idea
of watching such program on Cartoon Network, one has to decipher what every action Tom and
Jerry make since they do not really talk, which is basically normal among animals. They utter
words rarely. Thus, it is up to the viewers to dig up whatever Tom and Jerry would like to get
across. In relation to one of the countless episodes of the show, bilinguals are figuratively
connected with Jerry who roars like a lion. Foreigners would listen to and get interested in a
speaker more if he can speak their (the foreigners‟) language. Perhaps, it is the only conduit
that links them [to each other]. Can Jerry continue to roar or speak like a lion? To take this view
is endless for literally Jerry is a mouse. Going out of the story, can Jerry, allegorically compared
to a human, put into his system the accent of lions? Will it be promising for Jerry to make use of
code-switching or code-mixing? Is there a possibility for him to lose his first language?

If Jerry were a human, he would be considered a bilingual. From the very thoughts that shape
such word, bi- means two and –lingual means language, simply, a bilingual is a speaker who
can speak two languages. Not limited to the prefix bi-, bilinguals and multilinguals are the ones
who can speak two or more languages. Believed that there is separate or common store of
lexicons, bilinguals can make use of the executive function of the brain by training themselves in
terms of what language he has to focus on. One can pull out a pint of curiosity asking
themselves how.

Upon going over some researches on bilingualism, the Internet has taken this critique paper to a
network of quotes which made one of the episodes of Tom and Jerry remembered. The episode
has led this paper to one extract it is very similar to. Failed to look for the book (by Paradis,
1983) where such quote has been taken, it would still be worthwhile sharing what imprints it
leaves any readers in attendance on the internet.

“A mouse saved her young from a ferocious cat by barking 'bow wow'. After the cat ran away,
the mouse said to her offspring 'See, children, it pays to know a second language'.” Efstathiadis


Some Issues on Bilingualism

There are many vital, big issues regarding bilingualism. That is why it is such a lost not to be
able to present all of them here. Among those countless issues, three are chosen to be
enlarged:


Is it a need for non-native speakers to learn and/or use the accent of those native ones?

Nowadays, a lot are falling crazily in love with the English language not only because it is
considered the international language but also it is a miracle that people have seen its aid not
only in communication but also in considering that English is a symbol of education,
international mobility and modernity, status marker and ethnic identity. Truly, it has changed the
way speakers look at how the world transforms. Before, almost everybody was so into saying
they did not want to lose their L1 but now everybody thinks and/or knows it is an edge to be a
man of two languages. This fact leads to the uproar about what accent has to be used.

Many say American accent is superior to others while others say it is not. Instead, it is British.
Due to this, many non-native English speakers are so blind that they push themselves too much
in the learning and/or using the American or British accent. What these learners fail to realize
and/or recognize is it is enough to be globally understandable. Technically, this is called
transatlantic accent or more popularly known as neutral accent. It means a language is spoken
without obvious regional influences so that it can be understood universally. According to
studies, only simultaneous bilinguals are able to fully adopt into the system the accent of the
second language they have acquired. It follows that it is so challenging on the part of sequential
bilinguals that no matter what they do, not a full native accent is achieved. This is worse on the
part of late bilinguals who learned their second language at a later time. Taking Sisyphus
principle, it is pointless for any sequential and late bilinguals to get the accent Americans or
British have. It figures why Filipinos and Koreans, respectively, and other non-native English
speakers could not get full access to the native English speakers‟ accent. Therefore, it is not a
need to learn the accent of L2. What is imperative is every speaker, no matter what language
they speak, has to speak as clearly as possible. Upon one forcing doing such, he will end up
incorporating fake accent, heavy accent, imitating an accent and MTI (mother tongue influence).

What works in conversation? Code-switching? Code-mixing?

There are speakers who question the switching of languages done by bilinguals. Is it a matter of
a disorder? Probably, the answer to such question, rhetorical though, is a big yes. Many believe
that a bilingual‟s brain undergoes rigorous language processes. Does a bilingual use conceptual
mediation? Or perchance, word association? Who knows? The bigger perspective is that when
a bilingual speaks his L2, does the interference (or maybe, intraference, if it existed) of the first
language make him a skilled speaker? Switching from one language to another is termed as a
crutch syndrome. A bilingual who is stumped in one language can keep on speaking by
depending on a translated complete utterance, or word or phrase as a stand-by. It is divided into
two: code-switching and code-mixing, in that order. Code-switching can be used
interchangeably with any other terms for language blending. In a more nuanced definition where
code-switching involves inserting whole utterances – inter-sententially – in a second, non-
dominant language during conversation, while the more specific term of code-mixing (or
borrowing) involves the blending of non-dominant language words or phrases within an
utterance – intra-sententially. Using this definition, and presuming that English is the dominant
language in the following utterances „Is this what we are having for dinner today? Sira naba
tuktok mo? [Are you crazy?] It‟s not Saturday and I don‟t eat tuyo [smoked/dried fish] except on
Saturdays. It just doesn‟t seem right!‟ The first italicized utterance is a code-switch, while the
second italicized word in the next utterance is a code-mix. Some say that this crutch syndrome
is a model of incompetence. If I were to be asked, I would put on the platter the answer going
against the preceding sentence. Is it not a skill, through code-switching or code-mixing, to
bridge gaps in the conversation which is about to break? In the first place, we care about what
one really wants to say, that is, the message. As long as the listener can put everything inclined
to what is really meant, and provided that he is capable of uttering the code-switched or code-
mixed language, conversation is saved and carried on. Thus, such crutch syndrome can
undeniably do away with linguistic limitations within the conversation. As to what has to be
chosen, the speaker has to consider the situation whether it is appropriate to code-switch.
Conceivably, do code-mixing if it is the one apposite.


Can first language (L1) be lost upon learning second language (L2)?

To lose L1, replaced by L2, is like losing one‟s identity. There have been studies conducted to
dig up unfathomable concepts pertaining to bilingualism. One is done by a German linguist. He
is Leopold. He had this study for ten years from 1939 to 1949. Leopold was a German linguist,
whose daughter Hildegard had an American mother and lived from an early age in the USA.
German was used in the home at first, but this soon gave way to English, the environment
language. The study showed that young children can quickly (within 6 months) forget the old
language and pick up a new one, if they move to another country. Initially the two languages are
mixed up, but differentiation quickly emerges. It can be clearly seen that language dominance
has a powerful influence transferred to any who stays in its territory. It is not to be blamed since
children do not have any choice but shape their language to the one used/uttered in the society
they belong to. To make things worse, a non-native English speaking family moving to America
does not have any pick but, also, adopt the English language. In the end, children pick up the
English language leaving or even forgetting their L1. Needless to say, there are many factors to
why L1 is forgotten. Is it really lost? Does it stay in one‟s system, even if, not the domain of use?
I do believe Noam Chomsky. Chomsky said that even if a person can no longer use a language,
he/she can relearn the language much faster than someone who has never known that
language. According to him, “There’s got to be a residue of the language somewhere …. You
can’t really erase the system”. No, not totally. Rarely, in our family, Pangasinan is uttered. I was
born in Pangasinan but raised here (Baguio City). With a little pint of exposure, I could somehow
understand Pangasinan. It is not lost totally.

Conclusion

There are many existing myths about bilingualism. It only means young generations owe their
knowledge about bilingualism to those who have given and/or presented researches
and/studies just to magnify the world of one person with a tongue capable of speaking two or
more languages. With the researches and/studies, everybody is not in the hot seat to say that it
is not a need to adopt the accent of L2, that is, transatlantic or neutral accent is preferred; that it
is the decision of the speaker whether he is going to incorporate code-switching or code-mixing;
and that upon the learning of L2, those who live in an environment with English as a dominant
language, do not totally lose L1.

References

Books:

de Klerk, V. (2006). Corpus Linguistics and World Englishes: An Analysis of Xhosa English.
Great Britain: Biddles Ltd.

Harley, T. A. (2008). The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory. UK: Ashford Colour
Press Ltd.

Online:

Grosjean, F. (2012). Can a First Language be Totally Forgotten? Retrieved, July 17, 2012, from
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/life-bilingual/201207/can-first-language-be-totally-
forgotten

PDF:

An Integrated Neurolinguistic Theory of Bilingualism: 1976-2000 (Michel Paradis, 2009)

Bilingual/Immersion Education: Indicators Of Good Practice - Final Report to the Ministry of
Education (S. May, R. Hill, S. Tiakiwai, 2004)

Bilingual Language Processing (Timothy Desmet* and Wouter Duyck, 2007)

The Right of the Deaf Child to Grow up Bilingual (François Grosjean)

The Bilingual Family Newsletter (1990).

From: International Journal of Bilingualism

       Effects of Input on the Early Grammatical Development of Bilingual Children (Elma
Blom, 2010)

        Interpreter-mediated Interaction as Bilingual Speech: Bridging Macro- and Micro-
sociolinguistics in Codeswitching Research (Philipp Sebastian Angermeyer, 2010)
Is it Language Relearning or Language Reacquisition? Hints from a Young Boy‟s Code-
switching During His Journey Back to His Native Language (Tove I. Dahl, Curt Rice, Marie
Steffensen, Ludmila Amundsen, 2010)

      What is the Impact of Age of Second Language Acquisition on the Production of
Consonants and Vowels Among Childhood Bilinguals? (Andrea A. N. MacLeod, Carol Stoel-
Gammon, 2010)

More Related Content

What's hot

Competence and Performance
Competence and PerformanceCompetence and Performance
Competence and Performance
Sahil Gupta
 
A mind at time 2
A mind at time 2A mind at time 2
A mind at time 2
parulata
 
Language for society
Language for societyLanguage for society
Language for society
Mug Duh
 
1 introduction to the study of language (1)
1  introduction to the study of language (1)1  introduction to the study of language (1)
1 introduction to the study of language (1)
Adriana Rodriguez
 
Intro to language
Intro to languageIntro to language
Intro to language
CameliaN
 

What's hot (18)

Definition of language arts
Definition of language artsDefinition of language arts
Definition of language arts
 
Competence and Performance
Competence and PerformanceCompetence and Performance
Competence and Performance
 
12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time
12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time
12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time
 
12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time
12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time
12 rules-to-learn-languages-in-record-time
 
A mind at time 2
A mind at time 2A mind at time 2
A mind at time 2
 
Week 3 using language to style the speech
Week 3 using language to style the speechWeek 3 using language to style the speech
Week 3 using language to style the speech
 
10 Ways to Build Your Vocabulary in a Foreign Language
10 Ways to Build Your Vocabulary in a Foreign Language10 Ways to Build Your Vocabulary in a Foreign Language
10 Ways to Build Your Vocabulary in a Foreign Language
 
Week 10 lin321 types of language change
Week 10 lin321 types of language changeWeek 10 lin321 types of language change
Week 10 lin321 types of language change
 
Language for society
Language for societyLanguage for society
Language for society
 
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptxIsogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
Isogloss, Dialect, Idiolect, Vernacular.pptx
 
Inb220 tt week 4 ch 7 language
Inb220 tt week 4  ch 7 languageInb220 tt week 4  ch 7 language
Inb220 tt week 4 ch 7 language
 
Language, thought, and meaning
Language, thought, and meaningLanguage, thought, and meaning
Language, thought, and meaning
 
Linguistics: The Study of Language
Linguistics: The Study of LanguageLinguistics: The Study of Language
Linguistics: The Study of Language
 
Tema 2
Tema 2 Tema 2
Tema 2
 
1 introduction to the study of language (1)
1  introduction to the study of language (1)1  introduction to the study of language (1)
1 introduction to the study of language (1)
 
Intro to language
Intro to languageIntro to language
Intro to language
 
Tesol2011 pc
Tesol2011 pcTesol2011 pc
Tesol2011 pc
 
Taboo language
Taboo languageTaboo language
Taboo language
 

Viewers also liked

PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673
PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673
PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673
Philip Guillet
 
Wingate article critiques
Wingate article critiquesWingate article critiques
Wingate article critiques
Nicole Wingate
 
MA Thesis Review F. Vakleva
MA Thesis Review F. VaklevaMA Thesis Review F. Vakleva
MA Thesis Review F. Vakleva
Fani Vakleva
 
Acceptable internet use in schools
Acceptable internet use in schoolsAcceptable internet use in schools
Acceptable internet use in schools
vlferrari
 
L. Emmerson Individual Research Review Article
L. Emmerson Individual Research Review ArticleL. Emmerson Individual Research Review Article
L. Emmerson Individual Research Review Article
Laura Emmerson
 
Report_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_Raees
Report_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_RaeesReport_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_Raees
Report_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_Raees
Raees Afridi
 
Article review
Article reviewArticle review
Article review
piqahamin
 
Research critique front page
Research critique front pageResearch critique front page
Research critique front page
jilly17
 
article criticque
article criticquearticle criticque
article criticque
Oscar Ririn
 
S porter article summaries final
S porter article summaries finalS porter article summaries final
S porter article summaries final
savannahporter1
 
Information literacy paper
Information literacy paperInformation literacy paper
Information literacy paper
Laurie Roberts
 

Viewers also liked (20)

PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673
PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673
PhilipGuillet.Critique1.PC673
 
Wingate article critiques
Wingate article critiquesWingate article critiques
Wingate article critiques
 
MA Thesis Review F. Vakleva
MA Thesis Review F. VaklevaMA Thesis Review F. Vakleva
MA Thesis Review F. Vakleva
 
CPC PAPER
CPC PAPERCPC PAPER
CPC PAPER
 
Acceptable internet use in schools
Acceptable internet use in schoolsAcceptable internet use in schools
Acceptable internet use in schools
 
Analysis of ASL
Analysis of ASLAnalysis of ASL
Analysis of ASL
 
Anderson Dissertation Reviews
Anderson Dissertation ReviewsAnderson Dissertation Reviews
Anderson Dissertation Reviews
 
L. Emmerson Individual Research Review Article
L. Emmerson Individual Research Review ArticleL. Emmerson Individual Research Review Article
L. Emmerson Individual Research Review Article
 
Report_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_Raees
Report_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_RaeesReport_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_Raees
Report_on_Critique_Ansi_SQL_By_Raees
 
Article review
Article reviewArticle review
Article review
 
Article review umah devi m chandar
Article review umah devi m chandarArticle review umah devi m chandar
Article review umah devi m chandar
 
Review article ingles
Review article inglesReview article ingles
Review article ingles
 
Research critique front page
Research critique front pageResearch critique front page
Research critique front page
 
Comppaper2
Comppaper2Comppaper2
Comppaper2
 
Critique two
Critique twoCritique two
Critique two
 
Article summaries
Article summariesArticle summaries
Article summaries
 
article criticque
article criticquearticle criticque
article criticque
 
S porter article summaries final
S porter article summaries finalS porter article summaries final
S porter article summaries final
 
Information literacy paper
Information literacy paperInformation literacy paper
Information literacy paper
 
Revised article review 2
Revised article review 2Revised article review 2
Revised article review 2
 

Similar to Bilingualism

Language And Prescriptive Grammar
Language And Prescriptive GrammarLanguage And Prescriptive Grammar
Language And Prescriptive Grammar
Rick McKinnon
 
#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx
#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx
#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx
boadverna
 
Feral Children Presentation
Feral Children PresentationFeral Children Presentation
Feral Children Presentation
zmiers
 
1 Feral Children Presentation
1 Feral Children Presentation1 Feral Children Presentation
1 Feral Children Presentation
zmiers
 
Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language
Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of LanguageNature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language
Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language
John Reinjoe Namit
 
Overview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo Tomás
Overview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo TomásOverview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo Tomás
Overview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo Tomás
Mauricio Buitrago
 

Similar to Bilingualism (13)

Language And Prescriptive Grammar
Language And Prescriptive GrammarLanguage And Prescriptive Grammar
Language And Prescriptive Grammar
 
Language Essays
Language EssaysLanguage Essays
Language Essays
 
21202244123_bilingualism_Nadya Jasmine R_Nadya Jasmine R
21202244123_bilingualism_Nadya Jasmine R_Nadya Jasmine R21202244123_bilingualism_Nadya Jasmine R_Nadya Jasmine R
21202244123_bilingualism_Nadya Jasmine R_Nadya Jasmine R
 
Short Introduction to Second Language
Short Introduction to Second Language Short Introduction to Second Language
Short Introduction to Second Language
 
Disglossia, Bilingualism, and Multilingualism.pptx
Disglossia, Bilingualism, and Multilingualism.pptxDisglossia, Bilingualism, and Multilingualism.pptx
Disglossia, Bilingualism, and Multilingualism.pptx
 
#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx
#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx
#5 was the only child and perhaps because of that I learned read.docx
 
Feral Children Presentation
Feral Children PresentationFeral Children Presentation
Feral Children Presentation
 
1 Feral Children Presentation
1 Feral Children Presentation1 Feral Children Presentation
1 Feral Children Presentation
 
Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language
Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of LanguageNature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language
Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language Nature of Language
 
Overview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo Tomás
Overview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo TomásOverview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo Tomás
Overview on Psycholinguistics: Universidad Santo Tomás
 
Second Language Acquisition 631 class
Second Language Acquisition 631 classSecond Language Acquisition 631 class
Second Language Acquisition 631 class
 
Second Language Acquisition 631
Second Language Acquisition 631Second Language Acquisition 631
Second Language Acquisition 631
 
Language for society
Language for societyLanguage for society
Language for society
 

More from Al Alva

More from Al Alva (11)

Comprehension and Language (handout version)
Comprehension and Language (handout version)Comprehension and Language (handout version)
Comprehension and Language (handout version)
 
Comprehension and Language
Comprehension and LanguageComprehension and Language
Comprehension and Language
 
Diglossia by Ferguson
Diglossia by FergusonDiglossia by Ferguson
Diglossia by Ferguson
 
Social Mobilization (Handout)
Social Mobilization (Handout)Social Mobilization (Handout)
Social Mobilization (Handout)
 
Social Mobilization
Social MobilizationSocial Mobilization
Social Mobilization
 
Non verbal communication
Non verbal communicationNon verbal communication
Non verbal communication
 
Sociolinguistics: A Reaction to Virginity and Language
Sociolinguistics: A Reaction to Virginity and LanguageSociolinguistics: A Reaction to Virginity and Language
Sociolinguistics: A Reaction to Virginity and Language
 
Methods Synergistics
Methods SynergisticsMethods Synergistics
Methods Synergistics
 
Bilingualism
Bilingualism Bilingualism
Bilingualism
 
Factors affecting first language acquisition
Factors affecting first language acquisition Factors affecting first language acquisition
Factors affecting first language acquisition
 
Suggestopedia
SuggestopediaSuggestopedia
Suggestopedia
 

Recently uploaded

MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
Krashi Coaching
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
中 央社
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
中 央社
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
 
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING IIII BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II
 
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General QuizPragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT VẬT LÝ 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯ...
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
Software testing for project report .pdf
Software testing for project report .pdfSoftware testing for project report .pdf
Software testing for project report .pdf
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
Championnat de France de Tennis de table/
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 

Bilingualism

  • 1. Critique Paper: Bilingualism Introduction: I Can Roar Jerry does not hesitate to open the door upon hearing a knock from somebody he does not have a chance to see. Taken by surprise, he sees a basket with a young (mouse) in it with the message, “Please feed him lots of milk”. Without any indecision, Jerry takes the responsibility for the poor young. On the other hand, Tom always looks for ways on how he could catch Jerry. Eat him or shoo him off is one mania he has. A time comes when Jerry has to feed the young milk, they have to sneak and get some milk from Tom. No matter what happens, Jerry never lets Tom lay a finger on the young. Unfortunately, Tom is so skilled that he is able to trap Jerry in a bottle so he could run after the young. Preoccupied with hate, Tom catches the young and punishes him. When Jerry hears the cry, the bottle gets broken and off he goes to look for the young. Losing control of his temper, he ROARS like a LION. With all his might, he gives Tom the apt punishment by battering, beating, thrashing, pummeling, hitting, banging, hammering and pounding. With what happens, Tom follows every order Jerry has. He is even the one feeding the young milk. Plus, he cannot take a rest since Jerry is on his side watching every action he makes. Tom, the cat, fears Jerry, the mouse, who ROARS like a LION. Unquestionably, almost everybody grows up with the until-now hit no-dialogue-cartoon-show Tom and Jerry. The Tom and Jerry show has been in the limelight for a long time. With the idea of watching such program on Cartoon Network, one has to decipher what every action Tom and Jerry make since they do not really talk, which is basically normal among animals. They utter words rarely. Thus, it is up to the viewers to dig up whatever Tom and Jerry would like to get across. In relation to one of the countless episodes of the show, bilinguals are figuratively connected with Jerry who roars like a lion. Foreigners would listen to and get interested in a speaker more if he can speak their (the foreigners‟) language. Perhaps, it is the only conduit that links them [to each other]. Can Jerry continue to roar or speak like a lion? To take this view is endless for literally Jerry is a mouse. Going out of the story, can Jerry, allegorically compared to a human, put into his system the accent of lions? Will it be promising for Jerry to make use of code-switching or code-mixing? Is there a possibility for him to lose his first language? If Jerry were a human, he would be considered a bilingual. From the very thoughts that shape such word, bi- means two and –lingual means language, simply, a bilingual is a speaker who can speak two languages. Not limited to the prefix bi-, bilinguals and multilinguals are the ones who can speak two or more languages. Believed that there is separate or common store of lexicons, bilinguals can make use of the executive function of the brain by training themselves in terms of what language he has to focus on. One can pull out a pint of curiosity asking themselves how. Upon going over some researches on bilingualism, the Internet has taken this critique paper to a network of quotes which made one of the episodes of Tom and Jerry remembered. The episode has led this paper to one extract it is very similar to. Failed to look for the book (by Paradis, 1983) where such quote has been taken, it would still be worthwhile sharing what imprints it leaves any readers in attendance on the internet. “A mouse saved her young from a ferocious cat by barking 'bow wow'. After the cat ran away, the mouse said to her offspring 'See, children, it pays to know a second language'.” Efstathiadis Some Issues on Bilingualism There are many vital, big issues regarding bilingualism. That is why it is such a lost not to be able to present all of them here. Among those countless issues, three are chosen to be enlarged: Is it a need for non-native speakers to learn and/or use the accent of those native ones? Nowadays, a lot are falling crazily in love with the English language not only because it is considered the international language but also it is a miracle that people have seen its aid not only in communication but also in considering that English is a symbol of education,
  • 2. international mobility and modernity, status marker and ethnic identity. Truly, it has changed the way speakers look at how the world transforms. Before, almost everybody was so into saying they did not want to lose their L1 but now everybody thinks and/or knows it is an edge to be a man of two languages. This fact leads to the uproar about what accent has to be used. Many say American accent is superior to others while others say it is not. Instead, it is British. Due to this, many non-native English speakers are so blind that they push themselves too much in the learning and/or using the American or British accent. What these learners fail to realize and/or recognize is it is enough to be globally understandable. Technically, this is called transatlantic accent or more popularly known as neutral accent. It means a language is spoken without obvious regional influences so that it can be understood universally. According to studies, only simultaneous bilinguals are able to fully adopt into the system the accent of the second language they have acquired. It follows that it is so challenging on the part of sequential bilinguals that no matter what they do, not a full native accent is achieved. This is worse on the part of late bilinguals who learned their second language at a later time. Taking Sisyphus principle, it is pointless for any sequential and late bilinguals to get the accent Americans or British have. It figures why Filipinos and Koreans, respectively, and other non-native English speakers could not get full access to the native English speakers‟ accent. Therefore, it is not a need to learn the accent of L2. What is imperative is every speaker, no matter what language they speak, has to speak as clearly as possible. Upon one forcing doing such, he will end up incorporating fake accent, heavy accent, imitating an accent and MTI (mother tongue influence). What works in conversation? Code-switching? Code-mixing? There are speakers who question the switching of languages done by bilinguals. Is it a matter of a disorder? Probably, the answer to such question, rhetorical though, is a big yes. Many believe that a bilingual‟s brain undergoes rigorous language processes. Does a bilingual use conceptual mediation? Or perchance, word association? Who knows? The bigger perspective is that when a bilingual speaks his L2, does the interference (or maybe, intraference, if it existed) of the first language make him a skilled speaker? Switching from one language to another is termed as a crutch syndrome. A bilingual who is stumped in one language can keep on speaking by depending on a translated complete utterance, or word or phrase as a stand-by. It is divided into two: code-switching and code-mixing, in that order. Code-switching can be used interchangeably with any other terms for language blending. In a more nuanced definition where code-switching involves inserting whole utterances – inter-sententially – in a second, non- dominant language during conversation, while the more specific term of code-mixing (or borrowing) involves the blending of non-dominant language words or phrases within an utterance – intra-sententially. Using this definition, and presuming that English is the dominant language in the following utterances „Is this what we are having for dinner today? Sira naba tuktok mo? [Are you crazy?] It‟s not Saturday and I don‟t eat tuyo [smoked/dried fish] except on Saturdays. It just doesn‟t seem right!‟ The first italicized utterance is a code-switch, while the second italicized word in the next utterance is a code-mix. Some say that this crutch syndrome is a model of incompetence. If I were to be asked, I would put on the platter the answer going against the preceding sentence. Is it not a skill, through code-switching or code-mixing, to bridge gaps in the conversation which is about to break? In the first place, we care about what one really wants to say, that is, the message. As long as the listener can put everything inclined to what is really meant, and provided that he is capable of uttering the code-switched or code- mixed language, conversation is saved and carried on. Thus, such crutch syndrome can undeniably do away with linguistic limitations within the conversation. As to what has to be chosen, the speaker has to consider the situation whether it is appropriate to code-switch. Conceivably, do code-mixing if it is the one apposite. Can first language (L1) be lost upon learning second language (L2)? To lose L1, replaced by L2, is like losing one‟s identity. There have been studies conducted to dig up unfathomable concepts pertaining to bilingualism. One is done by a German linguist. He is Leopold. He had this study for ten years from 1939 to 1949. Leopold was a German linguist, whose daughter Hildegard had an American mother and lived from an early age in the USA. German was used in the home at first, but this soon gave way to English, the environment language. The study showed that young children can quickly (within 6 months) forget the old language and pick up a new one, if they move to another country. Initially the two languages are
  • 3. mixed up, but differentiation quickly emerges. It can be clearly seen that language dominance has a powerful influence transferred to any who stays in its territory. It is not to be blamed since children do not have any choice but shape their language to the one used/uttered in the society they belong to. To make things worse, a non-native English speaking family moving to America does not have any pick but, also, adopt the English language. In the end, children pick up the English language leaving or even forgetting their L1. Needless to say, there are many factors to why L1 is forgotten. Is it really lost? Does it stay in one‟s system, even if, not the domain of use? I do believe Noam Chomsky. Chomsky said that even if a person can no longer use a language, he/she can relearn the language much faster than someone who has never known that language. According to him, “There’s got to be a residue of the language somewhere …. You can’t really erase the system”. No, not totally. Rarely, in our family, Pangasinan is uttered. I was born in Pangasinan but raised here (Baguio City). With a little pint of exposure, I could somehow understand Pangasinan. It is not lost totally. Conclusion There are many existing myths about bilingualism. It only means young generations owe their knowledge about bilingualism to those who have given and/or presented researches and/studies just to magnify the world of one person with a tongue capable of speaking two or more languages. With the researches and/studies, everybody is not in the hot seat to say that it is not a need to adopt the accent of L2, that is, transatlantic or neutral accent is preferred; that it is the decision of the speaker whether he is going to incorporate code-switching or code-mixing; and that upon the learning of L2, those who live in an environment with English as a dominant language, do not totally lose L1. References Books: de Klerk, V. (2006). Corpus Linguistics and World Englishes: An Analysis of Xhosa English. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd. Harley, T. A. (2008). The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory. UK: Ashford Colour Press Ltd. Online: Grosjean, F. (2012). Can a First Language be Totally Forgotten? Retrieved, July 17, 2012, from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/life-bilingual/201207/can-first-language-be-totally- forgotten PDF: An Integrated Neurolinguistic Theory of Bilingualism: 1976-2000 (Michel Paradis, 2009) Bilingual/Immersion Education: Indicators Of Good Practice - Final Report to the Ministry of Education (S. May, R. Hill, S. Tiakiwai, 2004) Bilingual Language Processing (Timothy Desmet* and Wouter Duyck, 2007) The Right of the Deaf Child to Grow up Bilingual (François Grosjean) The Bilingual Family Newsletter (1990). From: International Journal of Bilingualism Effects of Input on the Early Grammatical Development of Bilingual Children (Elma Blom, 2010) Interpreter-mediated Interaction as Bilingual Speech: Bridging Macro- and Micro- sociolinguistics in Codeswitching Research (Philipp Sebastian Angermeyer, 2010)
  • 4. Is it Language Relearning or Language Reacquisition? Hints from a Young Boy‟s Code- switching During His Journey Back to His Native Language (Tove I. Dahl, Curt Rice, Marie Steffensen, Ludmila Amundsen, 2010) What is the Impact of Age of Second Language Acquisition on the Production of Consonants and Vowels Among Childhood Bilinguals? (Andrea A. N. MacLeod, Carol Stoel- Gammon, 2010)