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Section Three Unit 7 Measuring Ingredients and Changing Formula Yields
Objectives Selecting the proper measuring equipment for liquids and dry ingredients Changing formula yields using a baker’s percentage Determining formula yields Changing formula yields based on production requirements
Terms to Know Specific terms to know from this unit: Balance beam scale Liquid measures Production yield Yield
Measuring Dry Ingredients Baker’s beam scale Digital scale
Measuring Liquids Use various spoons, cups, or cylinders Baker’s generally convert liquid measure to weights by assuming 1 pint = 1 pound Use weights for dense  liquids such as honey  and molasses
Changing Formula Yields Change yields based on production requirements Total yield conversion Baker’s percentage  conversion
Total Yield Method RQ of each ingredient = CF x OQ of each ingredient then, Conversion Factor  (CF) = Total Original Quantity (OQ) ÷ Total Required Quantity (RQ)
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb Butter 1 lb, 2 oz Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz Eggs 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb Walnuts ½ lb                 Convert to ounces
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 Eggs 10 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 Walnuts ½ lb 8                 Total
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 Eggs 10 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 Walnuts ½ lb 8   Totals 85               Determine Total RQ
Total Yield Method - Example Use RQ and OQ to determine CF Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 Eggs 10 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 Walnuts ½ lb 8   Totals 85       Total RQ   156      
Total Yield Method - Example RQ CF =  OQ
Total Yield Method - Example 156 CF =    85
Total Yield Method - Example CF =  1.83
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 Eggs 10 10 1.83 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83   Totals 85       Total RQ   156       Multiply OQ by CF
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 32.94 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 62.22 Eggs 10 10 1.83 18.3 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83 14.64   Totals 85       Total RQ   156       Convert
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 3 lb, 14 oz Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 32.94 2 lb, 1 oz Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 62.22 3 lb, 14 oz Eggs 10 10 1.83 18.3 18 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 1 lb, 2 oz Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83 14.64 15 oz   Totals 85       Total RQ   156      
Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 3 lb, 14 oz Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 32.94 2 lb, 1 oz Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 62.22 3 lb, 14 oz Eggs 10 10 1.83 18.3 18 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 1 lb, 2 oz Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83 14.64 15 oz   Totals 85       Total RQ   156      
Baker’s Percentage Method Compare percentages of each ingredient with flour Sum up percentages of all ingredients Divide total required quantity (RQ) by total of percentages in original quantity (as a decimal) This determines the RQ of flour Multiply the RQ times the percentages (as a decimal) of each ingredient to provide the RQ for each ingredient
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General Bread Flour 5 lb Water 3 lb Yeast 2-½ oz Salt 2 oz Sugar 6 oz Vegetable Oil 6 oz Egg Yolks 6 Eggs 6       Convert to ounces
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General Bread Flour 5 lb 80 Water 3 lb 48 Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 Salt 2 oz 2 Sugar 6 oz 6 Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 Egg Yolks 6 6 Eggs 6 6       Determine percentage (based on flour)
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6       Total Total
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6 193.5%     156.5   Determine Total RQ
Baker’s Percentage - Example Use RQ and total % to determine CF Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6 193.5%     156.5 104  
Baker’s Percentage - Example RQ CF =    Total %
Baker’s Percentage - Example 104 CF =    1.935
Baker’s Percentage - Example CF =  53.7 or 54
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6 193.5%     156.5 104   Multiply each percentage by CF
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 60% Water 3 lb 48 33 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 1.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 1.4 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 3.78 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 3.78 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 3.78 7% Eggs 6 6 3.78 193.5%     156.5 104   Convert
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 3 lb, 6 oz 60% Water 3 lb 48 33 2 lb, 1 oz 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 1.5 1-½ oz 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 1.4 1-¼ oz 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 3.78 4 7% Eggs 6 6 3.78 4 193.5%     156.5 104  
Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 3 lb, 6 oz 60% Water 3 lb 48 33 2 lb, 1 oz 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 1.5 1-½ oz 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 1.4 1-¼ oz 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 3.78 4 7% Eggs 6 6 3.78 4 193.5%     156.5 104  
Summary Accurate measurements are critical to baking Conversion of recipes to produce the desired yield is critical to baking operations
Exercises Demonstration of baker’s beam scale Hands-on examples of yield conversions
Equipment Needed Baker’s beam scale Various liquid measures Ingredients (as necessary)

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Baker's Percentage/Measurement

  • 1. Section Three Unit 7 Measuring Ingredients and Changing Formula Yields
  • 2. Objectives Selecting the proper measuring equipment for liquids and dry ingredients Changing formula yields using a baker’s percentage Determining formula yields Changing formula yields based on production requirements
  • 3. Terms to Know Specific terms to know from this unit: Balance beam scale Liquid measures Production yield Yield
  • 4. Measuring Dry Ingredients Baker’s beam scale Digital scale
  • 5. Measuring Liquids Use various spoons, cups, or cylinders Baker’s generally convert liquid measure to weights by assuming 1 pint = 1 pound Use weights for dense liquids such as honey and molasses
  • 6. Changing Formula Yields Change yields based on production requirements Total yield conversion Baker’s percentage conversion
  • 7. Total Yield Method RQ of each ingredient = CF x OQ of each ingredient then, Conversion Factor (CF) = Total Original Quantity (OQ) ÷ Total Required Quantity (RQ)
  • 8. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb Butter 1 lb, 2 oz Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz Eggs 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb Walnuts ½ lb                 Convert to ounces
  • 9. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 Eggs 10 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 Walnuts ½ lb 8                 Total
  • 10. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 Eggs 10 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 Walnuts ½ lb 8   Totals 85               Determine Total RQ
  • 11. Total Yield Method - Example Use RQ and OQ to determine CF Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 Eggs 10 10 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 Walnuts ½ lb 8   Totals 85       Total RQ   156      
  • 12. Total Yield Method - Example RQ CF = OQ
  • 13. Total Yield Method - Example 156 CF = 85
  • 14. Total Yield Method - Example CF = 1.83
  • 15. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 Eggs 10 10 1.83 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83   Totals 85       Total RQ   156       Multiply OQ by CF
  • 16. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 32.94 Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 62.22 Eggs 10 10 1.83 18.3 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83 14.64   Totals 85       Total RQ   156       Convert
  • 17. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 3 lb, 14 oz Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 32.94 2 lb, 1 oz Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 62.22 3 lb, 14 oz Eggs 10 10 1.83 18.3 18 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 1 lb, 2 oz Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83 14.64 15 oz   Totals 85       Total RQ   156      
  • 18. Total Yield Method - Example Brownies   Original Quantity (OQ)   Required Quantity (RQ) Ingredient General in Oz CF in Oz General Bitter Chocolate ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 3 lb, 14 oz Butter 1 lb, 2 oz 18 1.83 32.94 2 lb, 1 oz Sugar 2 lb, 2 oz 34 1.83 62.22 3 lb, 14 oz Eggs 10 10 1.83 18.3 18 Cake Flour ¾ lb 12 1.83 21.96 1 lb, 2 oz Walnuts ½ lb 8 1.83 14.64 15 oz   Totals 85       Total RQ   156      
  • 19. Baker’s Percentage Method Compare percentages of each ingredient with flour Sum up percentages of all ingredients Divide total required quantity (RQ) by total of percentages in original quantity (as a decimal) This determines the RQ of flour Multiply the RQ times the percentages (as a decimal) of each ingredient to provide the RQ for each ingredient
  • 20. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General Bread Flour 5 lb Water 3 lb Yeast 2-½ oz Salt 2 oz Sugar 6 oz Vegetable Oil 6 oz Egg Yolks 6 Eggs 6       Convert to ounces
  • 21. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General Bread Flour 5 lb 80 Water 3 lb 48 Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 Salt 2 oz 2 Sugar 6 oz 6 Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 Egg Yolks 6 6 Eggs 6 6       Determine percentage (based on flour)
  • 22. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6       Total Total
  • 23. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6 193.5%     156.5   Determine Total RQ
  • 24. Baker’s Percentage - Example Use RQ and total % to determine CF Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6 193.5%     156.5 104  
  • 25. Baker’s Percentage - Example RQ CF = Total %
  • 26. Baker’s Percentage - Example 104 CF = 1.935
  • 27. Baker’s Percentage - Example CF = 53.7 or 54
  • 28. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 60% Water 3 lb 48 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 7% Eggs 6 6 193.5%     156.5 104   Multiply each percentage by CF
  • 29. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 60% Water 3 lb 48 33 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 1.5 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 1.4 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 3.78 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 3.78 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 3.78 7% Eggs 6 6 3.78 193.5%     156.5 104   Convert
  • 30. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 3 lb, 6 oz 60% Water 3 lb 48 33 2 lb, 1 oz 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 1.5 1-½ oz 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 1.4 1-¼ oz 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 3.78 4 7% Eggs 6 6 3.78 4 193.5%     156.5 104  
  • 31. Baker’s Percentage - Example Braided Egg Bread (Challah) Original Quantity (OQ) Required Quantity (RQ) Percent Ingredient General in Oz in Oz General 100% Bread Flour 5 lb 80 54 3 lb, 6 oz 60% Water 3 lb 48 33 2 lb, 1 oz 3% Yeast 2-½ oz 2.5 1.5 1-½ oz 2.5% Salt 2 oz 2 1.4 1-¼ oz 7% Sugar 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Vegetable Oil 6 oz 6 3.78 3-¾ oz 7% Egg Yolks 6 6 3.78 4 7% Eggs 6 6 3.78 4 193.5%     156.5 104  
  • 32. Summary Accurate measurements are critical to baking Conversion of recipes to produce the desired yield is critical to baking operations
  • 33. Exercises Demonstration of baker’s beam scale Hands-on examples of yield conversions
  • 34. Equipment Needed Baker’s beam scale Various liquid measures Ingredients (as necessary)

Editor's Notes

  1. Balance Beam Scale – A measuring device with two balanced platforms and a graduated bar, using either standard (English) or metric measurements. Liquid Measures – Volumetric measurement of fluids (such as water and oil) that are converted to weight by using the ratio of one pint equals one pound. Production Yield – A method of scaling recipes using the conversion factor between required quantity and original quantity. Yield – The final amount of product resulting from the proper completion of a recipe. Additional Source : Steve Labensky, Gaye Ingram, & Sarah Labensky. Webster’s New World Dictionary of Culinary Arts . Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1997.