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AI, Design, & More-than-Human Justice
Josh Gellers, PhD, LEED Green Associate
University of North Florida
Image: MidJourney
1. Argue that AI ethics needs a theory of justice that
includes the more-than-human world
2. Demonstrate how AI can be designed to foster
more-than-human justice
“[W]e’re missing a moral framework of
justice in artificial intelligence.”
Le Bui and Noble (2020, p. 163)
Only 0.4% of human-robot interaction
research mentions justice.
Ostrowski et al. (2022)
Justice in AI Ethics
Individual case or class of injustices related to
the use of AI
Examples: Bender et al. (2021); Birhane (2021);
Sloan & Warner (2020)
Attempts to comprehensively assess AI impacts
across theories of justice or explore the relevance
of justice theory to AI
Examples: Coeckelbergh (2022); Gabriel (2022)
A Framework for Justice
1) WHO are the subjects?
2) WHAT is considered a “just” outcome?
3) HOW will justice be achieved?
(Biermann and Kalfagianni 2020; Fraser 2008; Pope et al 2021)
Image: MidJourney
Determining the “Who” of Justice
● “principle of humanism”
(Hubbard, 2011)
● “all-affected principle”
(Pogge, 1999)
● “all-subjected principle”
(Fraser, 2008)
 AI Ethics
Image: MidJ
AI ethics has all but
ignored nonhumans.
Exceptions: Coghlan & Parker (2023); Daley
(2021); Owe & Baum (2021); Singer & Tse (2022)
Image: MidJourney
Premises Conclusions
Robots are increasingly found in social spaces and the
environment (Donhauser 2019).
Human/nature and nature/culture binaries are no longer tenable
in the Anthropocene (Biermann 2020; Hoły-Łuczaj and Blok
2022).
Technology is part of and constitutes the environment (Hui 2020).
Human-centered design is ethically and environmentally
problematic (Chan 2018; Forlano 2017).
We need a theory of justice that
accommodates technological entities and
the ecological systems in which they are
embedded.
Robots should be designed to contribute to
the pursuit of more-than-human justice.
Comparing Approaches to More-than-Human Justice
Who What How
Multispecies Justice Individual entities and whole
species or ecosystems and
relationships between them
Inclusive, inter-acting,
functioning, and flourishing
environments
Communicative modalities, humans as
diplomats, (re)designing institutions
Planetary Justice Humans OR humans, non-human
animals, and nature
Securing the integrity of the
planetary system for humans
(esp. poor) OR humans, future
generations, and more-than-
human world
Pro-poor policies, Indigenous
innovations, strengthening people’s basic
capabilities OR political rights for the
more-than-human world, incorporating
future generations into decision-making
Socio-ecological
Justice
Humans and non-humans (all-
subjected principle)
Preserving and promoting basic
capabilities for full functioning
Bidirectional communicative process,
fair procedures, a representative
structure, and empowerment
Q: Can AI be a subject of more-than-human justice?
A: Yes, if it plays a role in
ecosystems, makes up part of the
Earth system, and/or is subject to
governance structures.
Image: MidJourney
DESIGN = ETHICS  ACTION
Image: MidJourney
Design Principles for More-than-Human Justice
Avoid harm to the integrity, stability, and dignity of entities and systems
Consider context (social, environmental, technical, cultural) where deployed
Design to augment human and non-human capabilities to achieve flourishing
Evaluate how affordances/disaffordances affect different parties
Use participatory design to include diverse users and stakeholders
Utilize intersectional benchmarks during testing
Design Contexts
Case Study:
Personal
Delivery
Device
MtHJ Design Considerations
- Participatory design with human & non-
human stakeholders
- Sustainable materials
- Renewable power source
- Animal avoidant computer vision
- Communicates presence to nearby
animals
- Signals proximity to visually impaired
pedestrians
- Conveys damage to environment and
infrastructure to authorities
- Double cycling cargo
Thank you!
Questions?
Contact:
(e) josh.gellers@unf.edu
(X) @JoshGellers
(w) JoshGellers.com
Image: MidJourney

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Artificial Intelligence, Design, and More-than-Human Justice

  • 1. AI, Design, & More-than-Human Justice Josh Gellers, PhD, LEED Green Associate University of North Florida Image: MidJourney
  • 2. 1. Argue that AI ethics needs a theory of justice that includes the more-than-human world 2. Demonstrate how AI can be designed to foster more-than-human justice
  • 3. “[W]e’re missing a moral framework of justice in artificial intelligence.” Le Bui and Noble (2020, p. 163)
  • 4. Only 0.4% of human-robot interaction research mentions justice. Ostrowski et al. (2022)
  • 5. Justice in AI Ethics Individual case or class of injustices related to the use of AI Examples: Bender et al. (2021); Birhane (2021); Sloan & Warner (2020) Attempts to comprehensively assess AI impacts across theories of justice or explore the relevance of justice theory to AI Examples: Coeckelbergh (2022); Gabriel (2022)
  • 6. A Framework for Justice 1) WHO are the subjects? 2) WHAT is considered a “just” outcome? 3) HOW will justice be achieved? (Biermann and Kalfagianni 2020; Fraser 2008; Pope et al 2021) Image: MidJourney
  • 7. Determining the “Who” of Justice ● “principle of humanism” (Hubbard, 2011) ● “all-affected principle” (Pogge, 1999) ● “all-subjected principle” (Fraser, 2008)  AI Ethics Image: MidJ
  • 8. AI ethics has all but ignored nonhumans. Exceptions: Coghlan & Parker (2023); Daley (2021); Owe & Baum (2021); Singer & Tse (2022) Image: MidJourney
  • 9. Premises Conclusions Robots are increasingly found in social spaces and the environment (Donhauser 2019). Human/nature and nature/culture binaries are no longer tenable in the Anthropocene (Biermann 2020; Hoły-Łuczaj and Blok 2022). Technology is part of and constitutes the environment (Hui 2020). Human-centered design is ethically and environmentally problematic (Chan 2018; Forlano 2017). We need a theory of justice that accommodates technological entities and the ecological systems in which they are embedded. Robots should be designed to contribute to the pursuit of more-than-human justice.
  • 10. Comparing Approaches to More-than-Human Justice Who What How Multispecies Justice Individual entities and whole species or ecosystems and relationships between them Inclusive, inter-acting, functioning, and flourishing environments Communicative modalities, humans as diplomats, (re)designing institutions Planetary Justice Humans OR humans, non-human animals, and nature Securing the integrity of the planetary system for humans (esp. poor) OR humans, future generations, and more-than- human world Pro-poor policies, Indigenous innovations, strengthening people’s basic capabilities OR political rights for the more-than-human world, incorporating future generations into decision-making Socio-ecological Justice Humans and non-humans (all- subjected principle) Preserving and promoting basic capabilities for full functioning Bidirectional communicative process, fair procedures, a representative structure, and empowerment
  • 11. Q: Can AI be a subject of more-than-human justice? A: Yes, if it plays a role in ecosystems, makes up part of the Earth system, and/or is subject to governance structures. Image: MidJourney
  • 12. DESIGN = ETHICS  ACTION Image: MidJourney
  • 13. Design Principles for More-than-Human Justice Avoid harm to the integrity, stability, and dignity of entities and systems Consider context (social, environmental, technical, cultural) where deployed Design to augment human and non-human capabilities to achieve flourishing Evaluate how affordances/disaffordances affect different parties Use participatory design to include diverse users and stakeholders Utilize intersectional benchmarks during testing
  • 15. Case Study: Personal Delivery Device MtHJ Design Considerations - Participatory design with human & non- human stakeholders - Sustainable materials - Renewable power source - Animal avoidant computer vision - Communicates presence to nearby animals - Signals proximity to visually impaired pedestrians - Conveys damage to environment and infrastructure to authorities - Double cycling cargo
  • 16. Thank you! Questions? Contact: (e) josh.gellers@unf.edu (X) @JoshGellers (w) JoshGellers.com Image: MidJourney