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2. Analyzing the different organelles in Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic cells through their
functions (List of organelles,structure, composition, diagram, charts, functions).
Differentiate between Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cell?
Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles
in which nucleus is included. Eukaryotes can be
single-celled or multi-celled, such as plants, fungi,
& insects.
Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or any
other membrane-bound organelle.
For example Bacteria.
List of Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic organelles:
List of Eukaryotic organelles
Eukaryotic
organelles
organelle
Chloroplasts
Golgi apparatusLysosomes
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Page | 2
List of Prokaryotic organelles
Structure of Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Organelles:
Structure of Eukaryotic organelles
Nucleus
The Nucleus is membrane bounded
organelles. It contains genetic material
(DNA) of Eukaryotic organisms.
Golgi apparatus
A major organelle in
most eukaryotic cells is the structure of
flattened membrane-bound sacs called
the Golgi apparatus.
Lysosomes
In the eukaryotic cells are specialized
vesicles called lysosomes. It contains
digestive enzymes. The
name lysosome means "releasing body.
Prokaryotic
organelles
CytoplasmCell Membrane Ribosome
Pilli PlasmidFlagella
Page | 3
Endoplasmic Reticulum
It is the extension of plasma membrane.
There are Two types of ER.
I. SER
II. RER
Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are organelles present in
plant cells & eukaryotic algae that carry
on photosynthesis. Chloroplasts take in
sunlight & use it in conjunction with
water & carbon dioxide gas to produce
food for the plant.
Mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double-
membrane-bound organelle present in
most eukaryotic organisms. It is ATP
house.
Structure of Prokaryotic organelles
Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells is a gel-like
substance in which all of the other cellular
organelles are dangling..
Page | 4
Ribosome
They are protein factories. They have two sub
units.
I. Large subunit
II. Small subunit
Flagella
Flagella are primarily used for cell movement.
They are present in prokaryotes as well as some
eukaryotes.
Pilli
It is the hair-like structures on the cell surface
of prokaryotic cells. Pilli are formed by the
Protein i.e pilllin
Plasmid
It is the extra chromosomal DNA molecule within
a cell.
Cell Membrane
It is the outer membrane of a cell. It is also
known as plasma membrane.
Page | 5
Compositionof Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic :
Composition of Prokaryotic
Prokaryotes are Single celled organisms that absence organelles or other internal membrane-bound
structures. Therefore, they do not have a nucleus. A fragment of circular, double-stranded DNA present in
an area of the cell called the nucleoid.
Composition of Eukaryotic
A eukaryotic cell has a Cell membrane, ribosomes & cytoplasm,. Nevertheless, unlike prokaryotic
cells, eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus. Numerous membrane-bound organelles (Along with
the chloroplasts, ER, ATP house & Golgi complex).
Page | 6
Diagramof eukaryotic cell & prokaryotic cell:
Charts of eukaryotic cell& prokaryotic cell:
Eukaryotic
 Eukaryotic have a
nucleus.
 The DNA of eukaryotic
exists as many strands.
 The nuclear envelope
surrounds the nucleus,
regulating what goes in &
out.
 The organelles of
eukaryotic are wrapped in
membranes.
 Eukaryotic cells are
bigger than prokaryotic cells.
 Eukaryotic ribosomes are
bigger than those of
prokaryotic.
Prokaryotic
 Prokaryotic have no nuclei
 The DNA of Prokaryotic is
Present in the the” nucleoid”
 Prokaryotic cells are smaller than
Eukaryotic cells.
 Prokaryotic don’t have
 Microtubules In their cilia.
 Prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller
Then those of eukaryotic.
 The plasma membrane of
Prokaryotic Is made of
“peptidoglycans” or
Protein-sugars.
Common
 Both have
cytoplasm.
 Both have
plasma
membranes
 Both have
chromosome,
which carry the
genes.
 Both have
ribosomes,
which read
genes to make
the proteins.
Page | 7
Functions of eukaryotic cell & prokaryotic cell:
Eukaryotic cell & Prokaryotic cell are used for translation of RNA into
proteins. Eukaryotes & prokaryotes can both perform transport, DNA replication, transcription, translation,
& movement.
3.Describe the different feature of eukaryotic cell& prokaryotic cells (Difference).
prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cell
Cell Size range 0.5-100 m Cell Size range 10-150 m
No Organelles Many membrane bound organelles
Chemically complex cell wall(may contains
peptidoglycan)
Nucleus (membrane bound)
May have plasmids
(DNA outside chromosome)
Many Chromosomes
Plasma membrane
Typically lacks receptor
Diploid genome
Small Ribosomes Chemically simple cell walls & fungi
DNA transcription & mRNA translation
happens simultaneously(in cytosol)
DNA transcription in nucleus, & messenger
RNA translation in cytosol
Flagellum
Simple, built from two proteins
Flagellum ,Complex ,built from
microtubules
May have pilli May have cilia
Haploid genome Plasmid DNA not common
No histones in chromosome Plasma membrane with receptors
Compactgenome (little repetitive DNA) Usually large amount of non- coding &
repetitive DNA
May have a glycocalyx cover Glycocalyx only if no cell wall
Nucleoid (Not membrane bound) Large ribosomes in nucleus small ribosomes
in organelles
One chromosome DNA ”Wound ” around histones
Mucilaginous capsule Cytoskeleton (actin, microtubules)
Deficiency of cytoskeleton No mucilaginous capsule
Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction
Circular DNA(in cytosol) Linear DNA (in nucleus)

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Analyzing the different organelles in eukaryotic & prokaryotic cells through their functions (list of organelles, structure, composition, diagram, charts, functions).

  • 1. Page | 1 2. Analyzing the different organelles in Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic cells through their functions (List of organelles,structure, composition, diagram, charts, functions). Differentiate between Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cell? Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles in which nucleus is included. Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled, such as plants, fungi, & insects. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. For example Bacteria. List of Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic organelles: List of Eukaryotic organelles Eukaryotic organelles organelle Chloroplasts Golgi apparatusLysosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondria Nucleus
  • 2. Page | 2 List of Prokaryotic organelles Structure of Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Organelles: Structure of Eukaryotic organelles Nucleus The Nucleus is membrane bounded organelles. It contains genetic material (DNA) of Eukaryotic organisms. Golgi apparatus A major organelle in most eukaryotic cells is the structure of flattened membrane-bound sacs called the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes In the eukaryotic cells are specialized vesicles called lysosomes. It contains digestive enzymes. The name lysosome means "releasing body. Prokaryotic organelles CytoplasmCell Membrane Ribosome Pilli PlasmidFlagella
  • 3. Page | 3 Endoplasmic Reticulum It is the extension of plasma membrane. There are Two types of ER. I. SER II. RER Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are organelles present in plant cells & eukaryotic algae that carry on photosynthesis. Chloroplasts take in sunlight & use it in conjunction with water & carbon dioxide gas to produce food for the plant. Mitochondria The mitochondrion is a double- membrane-bound organelle present in most eukaryotic organisms. It is ATP house. Structure of Prokaryotic organelles Cytoplasm The cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells is a gel-like substance in which all of the other cellular organelles are dangling..
  • 4. Page | 4 Ribosome They are protein factories. They have two sub units. I. Large subunit II. Small subunit Flagella Flagella are primarily used for cell movement. They are present in prokaryotes as well as some eukaryotes. Pilli It is the hair-like structures on the cell surface of prokaryotic cells. Pilli are formed by the Protein i.e pilllin Plasmid It is the extra chromosomal DNA molecule within a cell. Cell Membrane It is the outer membrane of a cell. It is also known as plasma membrane.
  • 5. Page | 5 Compositionof Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic : Composition of Prokaryotic Prokaryotes are Single celled organisms that absence organelles or other internal membrane-bound structures. Therefore, they do not have a nucleus. A fragment of circular, double-stranded DNA present in an area of the cell called the nucleoid. Composition of Eukaryotic A eukaryotic cell has a Cell membrane, ribosomes & cytoplasm,. Nevertheless, unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus. Numerous membrane-bound organelles (Along with the chloroplasts, ER, ATP house & Golgi complex).
  • 6. Page | 6 Diagramof eukaryotic cell & prokaryotic cell: Charts of eukaryotic cell& prokaryotic cell: Eukaryotic  Eukaryotic have a nucleus.  The DNA of eukaryotic exists as many strands.  The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus, regulating what goes in & out.  The organelles of eukaryotic are wrapped in membranes.  Eukaryotic cells are bigger than prokaryotic cells.  Eukaryotic ribosomes are bigger than those of prokaryotic. Prokaryotic  Prokaryotic have no nuclei  The DNA of Prokaryotic is Present in the the” nucleoid”  Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells.  Prokaryotic don’t have  Microtubules In their cilia.  Prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller Then those of eukaryotic.  The plasma membrane of Prokaryotic Is made of “peptidoglycans” or Protein-sugars. Common  Both have cytoplasm.  Both have plasma membranes  Both have chromosome, which carry the genes.  Both have ribosomes, which read genes to make the proteins.
  • 7. Page | 7 Functions of eukaryotic cell & prokaryotic cell: Eukaryotic cell & Prokaryotic cell are used for translation of RNA into proteins. Eukaryotes & prokaryotes can both perform transport, DNA replication, transcription, translation, & movement. 3.Describe the different feature of eukaryotic cell& prokaryotic cells (Difference). prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cell Cell Size range 0.5-100 m Cell Size range 10-150 m No Organelles Many membrane bound organelles Chemically complex cell wall(may contains peptidoglycan) Nucleus (membrane bound) May have plasmids (DNA outside chromosome) Many Chromosomes Plasma membrane Typically lacks receptor Diploid genome Small Ribosomes Chemically simple cell walls & fungi DNA transcription & mRNA translation happens simultaneously(in cytosol) DNA transcription in nucleus, & messenger RNA translation in cytosol Flagellum Simple, built from two proteins Flagellum ,Complex ,built from microtubules May have pilli May have cilia Haploid genome Plasmid DNA not common No histones in chromosome Plasma membrane with receptors Compactgenome (little repetitive DNA) Usually large amount of non- coding & repetitive DNA May have a glycocalyx cover Glycocalyx only if no cell wall Nucleoid (Not membrane bound) Large ribosomes in nucleus small ribosomes in organelles One chromosome DNA ”Wound ” around histones Mucilaginous capsule Cytoskeleton (actin, microtubules) Deficiency of cytoskeleton No mucilaginous capsule Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Circular DNA(in cytosol) Linear DNA (in nucleus)