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An Introduction to
Kubernetes
Imesh Gunaratne
Product Lead, WSO2 Private PaaS
Committer & PMC Member, Apache Stratos
Agenda
● Linux Containers
● Docker
● Kubernetes
● Kubernetes Architecture
● Kubernetes Demo
Linux Containers
Linux Containers
Linux Container Brief for IEEE WG P2302, Boden Russell
Linux Containers
An operating system–level virtualization
method for running multiple isolated Linux
systems (containers) on a single control host.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LXC
Linux Kernel Features used by Linux
Containers
● Namespaces
(mnt, pid, net, ipc, uts/hostname, user ids)
● cgroups
(cpu, memory, disk, i/o - resource management)
● AppArmor, SELinux
(security/access control)
● seccomp
(computation isolation)
● chroot
(file system isolation)
http://www.slideshare.net/imesh/evoluation-of-linux-container-virtualization
LXC Engine: A Hypervisor for
Containers
Linux Container Brief for IEEE WG P2302, Boden Russell
More about Linux Containers
https://linuxcontainers.org
Docker
● A platform for managing Linux Containers
● Began as an open-source implementation of
the deployment engine which powers
dotCloud
● Started in March, 2013
● Provided an easy to use API and powerful
container image management features
● Attracted the community very fast
https://github.com/docker/docker/blob/master/README.md
Docker is built on
● cgroup and namespacing capabilities of
the Linux kernel
● Go programming language
(written in Go)
● Docker Image Specification
(for container image management)
● Libcontainer Specification
(namespaces, filesystem, resources, security, etc)
https://github.com/docker/docker/blob/master/README.md
Virtual Machines Vs Docker
https://www.docker.com/whatisdocker/
Docker Architecture
Enterprise Docker, Adrien BLIND, Aurelien GABET, Arnaud MAZIN
Docker Image Structure
https://docs.docker.com/terms/image/
Docker - Hello World
# Get one base Docker image
>docker pull ubuntu
# List Docker images available
>docker images
# Run hello world
>docker run ubuntu:14.04 echo "hello world"
Docker Paris Meetup, Victor Vieux, dotCloud Inc
Detached mode
# Run hello world in detached mode (-d)
>docker run -d ubuntu sh -c "while true; do echo
hello world; sleep 1; done"
# Get container’s ID
>docker ps
# Attach to the container
>docker attach <container-id>
# Stop/start/restart the container
>docker stop <container-id>
Docker Paris Meetup, Victor Vieux, dotCloud Inc
Problems with standalone Docker
Load Balancer
Docker Containers
Docker Host
● Running a server cluster on a set of Docker containers,
on a single Docker host is vulnerable to single point of
failure!
Kubernetes
Kubernetes
● Kubernetes is a platform for hosting Docker
containers in a clustered environment with
multiple Docker hosts
● Provides container grouping, load
balancing, auto-healing, scaling features
● Project was started by Google
● Contributors == Google, CodeOS, Redhat,
Mesosphere, Microsoft, HP, IBM, VMWare,
Pivotal, SaltStack, etc
Key Concepts of Kubernetes
● Pod - A group of Containers
● Labels - Labels for identifying pods
● Kubelet - Container Agent
● Proxy - A load balancer for Pods
● etcd - A metadata service
● cAdvisor - Container Advisor provides resource
usage/performance statistics
● Replication Controller - Manages replication
of pods
● Scheduler - Schedules pods in worker nodes
● API Server - Kubernetes API server
Kubernetes Architecture
Overlay Network: 10.1.0.0/16
(Flannel, Open vSwitch, etc)
Kubernetes
Master
Kubernetes
Minion 1
Kubernetes
Minion 2
Kubernetes
Minion n
Service Network:
172.17.8.0/24
etcd
Docker
Registry
API
Replication
Controllers
Scheduler
Kubelet Proxy
cAdvisor Pods
Docker A Docker B
Kubernetes Master
Kubernetes Master
Kubelet Info Service
API Scheduler Replication Controllers
Kubernetes Minion (Worker Node)
Kubernetes Minion
Kubelet
Proxy
Pod 1 Pod 2 Pod n
cAdvisor
ContainersContainersContainers
ContainersContainersContainers
ContainersContainersContainers
Kubernetes
Services
Kubernetes
Services
Kubernetes
Services
Kubernetes Component Architecture
https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes/blob/master/DESIGN.md
Kubernetes Demo
References
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypervisor
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LXC
● http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~rich/class/cs290-
cloud/papers/lxc-namespace.pdf
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cgroups
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AppArmor
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security-Enhanced_Linux
● http://www.lorien.ch/server/chroot.html
References
● SELinux for Everyday Users, PaulWay
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seccomp
● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chroot
● Linux Container Brief for IEEE WG P2302, Boden
Russell
● http://kubernetes.io/
● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fcb4aoSAZ98
● http://www.slideshare.net/enakai/architecture-
overview-kubernetes-with-red-hat-enterprise-linux-71

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An Introduction to Kubernetes

  • 1. An Introduction to Kubernetes Imesh Gunaratne Product Lead, WSO2 Private PaaS Committer & PMC Member, Apache Stratos
  • 2. Agenda ● Linux Containers ● Docker ● Kubernetes ● Kubernetes Architecture ● Kubernetes Demo
  • 4. Linux Containers Linux Container Brief for IEEE WG P2302, Boden Russell
  • 5. Linux Containers An operating system–level virtualization method for running multiple isolated Linux systems (containers) on a single control host. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LXC
  • 6. Linux Kernel Features used by Linux Containers ● Namespaces (mnt, pid, net, ipc, uts/hostname, user ids) ● cgroups (cpu, memory, disk, i/o - resource management) ● AppArmor, SELinux (security/access control) ● seccomp (computation isolation) ● chroot (file system isolation) http://www.slideshare.net/imesh/evoluation-of-linux-container-virtualization
  • 7. LXC Engine: A Hypervisor for Containers Linux Container Brief for IEEE WG P2302, Boden Russell
  • 8. More about Linux Containers https://linuxcontainers.org
  • 9.
  • 10. Docker ● A platform for managing Linux Containers ● Began as an open-source implementation of the deployment engine which powers dotCloud ● Started in March, 2013 ● Provided an easy to use API and powerful container image management features ● Attracted the community very fast https://github.com/docker/docker/blob/master/README.md
  • 11. Docker is built on ● cgroup and namespacing capabilities of the Linux kernel ● Go programming language (written in Go) ● Docker Image Specification (for container image management) ● Libcontainer Specification (namespaces, filesystem, resources, security, etc) https://github.com/docker/docker/blob/master/README.md
  • 12. Virtual Machines Vs Docker https://www.docker.com/whatisdocker/
  • 13. Docker Architecture Enterprise Docker, Adrien BLIND, Aurelien GABET, Arnaud MAZIN
  • 15. Docker - Hello World # Get one base Docker image >docker pull ubuntu # List Docker images available >docker images # Run hello world >docker run ubuntu:14.04 echo "hello world" Docker Paris Meetup, Victor Vieux, dotCloud Inc
  • 16. Detached mode # Run hello world in detached mode (-d) >docker run -d ubuntu sh -c "while true; do echo hello world; sleep 1; done" # Get container’s ID >docker ps # Attach to the container >docker attach <container-id> # Stop/start/restart the container >docker stop <container-id> Docker Paris Meetup, Victor Vieux, dotCloud Inc
  • 17. Problems with standalone Docker Load Balancer Docker Containers Docker Host ● Running a server cluster on a set of Docker containers, on a single Docker host is vulnerable to single point of failure!
  • 19. Kubernetes ● Kubernetes is a platform for hosting Docker containers in a clustered environment with multiple Docker hosts ● Provides container grouping, load balancing, auto-healing, scaling features ● Project was started by Google ● Contributors == Google, CodeOS, Redhat, Mesosphere, Microsoft, HP, IBM, VMWare, Pivotal, SaltStack, etc
  • 20. Key Concepts of Kubernetes ● Pod - A group of Containers ● Labels - Labels for identifying pods ● Kubelet - Container Agent ● Proxy - A load balancer for Pods ● etcd - A metadata service ● cAdvisor - Container Advisor provides resource usage/performance statistics ● Replication Controller - Manages replication of pods ● Scheduler - Schedules pods in worker nodes ● API Server - Kubernetes API server
  • 21. Kubernetes Architecture Overlay Network: 10.1.0.0/16 (Flannel, Open vSwitch, etc) Kubernetes Master Kubernetes Minion 1 Kubernetes Minion 2 Kubernetes Minion n Service Network: 172.17.8.0/24 etcd Docker Registry API Replication Controllers Scheduler Kubelet Proxy cAdvisor Pods Docker A Docker B
  • 22. Kubernetes Master Kubernetes Master Kubelet Info Service API Scheduler Replication Controllers
  • 23. Kubernetes Minion (Worker Node) Kubernetes Minion Kubelet Proxy Pod 1 Pod 2 Pod n cAdvisor ContainersContainersContainers ContainersContainersContainers ContainersContainersContainers Kubernetes Services Kubernetes Services Kubernetes Services
  • 26. References ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtualization ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypervisor ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LXC ● http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~rich/class/cs290- cloud/papers/lxc-namespace.pdf ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cgroups ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AppArmor ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security-Enhanced_Linux ● http://www.lorien.ch/server/chroot.html
  • 27. References ● SELinux for Everyday Users, PaulWay ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seccomp ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chroot ● Linux Container Brief for IEEE WG P2302, Boden Russell ● http://kubernetes.io/ ● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fcb4aoSAZ98 ● http://www.slideshare.net/enakai/architecture- overview-kubernetes-with-red-hat-enterprise-linux-71