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This	
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  for	
  sale,	
  it	
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  prepared	
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private	
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FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  1	
  
	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  COURSE-­‐B.DES	
  (FASHION	
  DESIGN)	
  
	
  	
  COURSE	
  CODE-­‐	
  B.DES	
  (FD)	
  
SUBJECT	
  HEAD	
   ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN	
   MODE	
  OF	
  STUDY	
  
SUBJECT	
  CODE	
   BFD(504)	
   PRACTICAL	
  
	
   	
   	
  
	
  
ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN	
  
B.Design	
  in	
  Fashion-­‐	
  3rd
	
  year	
  
Students	
  Course	
  compiled	
  by	
  Mr.	
  Tamoghna	
  Mandal	
  
Senior,	
  Faculty	
  Fashion	
  Design	
  Department	
  
STUDENT’S	
  LEARNING	
  BOOKLET	
  
	
   	
   	
   FDDI	
  
MINISTRY	
  OF	
  COMMERCE	
  &	
  INDUSTRY	
  
GOVERNMENT	
  OF	
  INDIA	
  
	
  	
  A-­‐10/A,	
  SECTOR-­‐24,	
  NOIDA-­‐201301	
  
Copy	
  Right	
  Reserved	
  
	
  	
  (For	
  private	
  circulation	
  only)	
  
	
   	
   	
  Free	
  Student’s	
  Course	
  Material	
  (Not	
  for	
  Sale)	
  
	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  2	
  
	
  
	
  
CONTENTS-­‐	
  
_________________________________________	
  
UNIT1.	
  	
  JEWELLERY………………………………………………………………….1-­‐20	
  
UNIT2.	
  	
  BAGS…………………………………………………………………………21-­‐39	
  
UNIT3.	
  SHOES………………………………………………………………………..40-­‐52	
  
UNIT4.	
  	
  BELTS…………………………………………………………………………53-­‐	
  74	
  
UNIT5.	
  SCARVES…………………………………………………………………….	
  75-­‐82	
  
UNIT6.	
  DESIGN	
  RESEARCH	
  AND	
  MARKET	
  SURVEY……………………83-­‐84	
  
UNIT7.	
  EXPERIMENT	
  WITH	
  MATERIAL	
  AND	
  FINAL	
  CONCEPT……85-­‐87	
  
UNIT8.	
  SAMPLE	
  RESEARCH	
  AND	
  SURFACE	
  ORNAMENTATION….88	
  
UNIT9.	
  MERCHANDISE	
  INFORMATION	
  TERMINOLOGY…………..89	
  
______________________________________
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  3	
  
	
  
UNIT	
  1	
   JEWELERY	
  
Jewelery
Amber pendants wheat grain shaped jewelry burnt clay Indian jewelry( terracotta)
FIG1.1 – Pictures showing different forms of 19th
century jewelry.
Jewelery consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches,
rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewelery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and
the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries
metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewelry, but other
materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest types of
archaeological artifact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be
the oldest known jewelry The basic forms of jewelry vary between cultures but are often
extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewelry listed above have
persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle,
important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence
on jewelry in terms of design and style has come from Asia.
Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as
amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often
been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material
properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly
every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing
jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures,
but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
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culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other
periods in European culture.
The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old
French "jouel" and beyond that, to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. However, in
North America, the more common spelling is "jewelry," and although both spellings appear in
Canadian English, jewelry prevails by a two to one margin. In addition, "jewel," not "Jewell," is
the standard spelling in all forms of English.
	
  
Materials	
  and	
  methods	
  
In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are
typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in
jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually
includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold
jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a
number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7%
pure gold), (though in the UK the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to
18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure
gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and
Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and
Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in
jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel
findings are sometimes used.
	
  
FIG	
  1.2	
  Showing	
  Bead	
  embroidery	
  design.	
  
Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved
or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay;
polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of
a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office
(the building which gives English jewellery its stamp of approval, the Hallmark) the right to
destroy the piece; however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
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  5	
  
	
  
Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood,
shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets,
earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used is known
as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of
seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create
broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork
during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or
beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures.
Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding,
cutting, carving and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts).
Diamonds	
  
	
  
Fig	
  1.3:	
  Picture	
  showing	
  uncut	
  single	
  piece	
  diamonds.	
  The	
  shine	
  and	
  clarity	
  is	
  to	
  be	
  noted.	
  
	
  Diamond	
  
Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some
debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana,
Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production.
The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough
diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g).
Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary
of Burgundy in 1477.
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
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Other	
  gemstones	
  
Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:
Amber	
  
Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The
stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up
to 120 million years old.
Amethyst
Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for
its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.
Fig 1.3 showing Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum.
Emerald
Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are
known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history,
and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.
Jade
Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colors
as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to
as the stone of heaven.
Jasper
Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colors. Often, jasper will
feature unique and interesting patterns within the colored stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper
known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
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  7	
  
	
  
Quartz
Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-
known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz
(which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such as
Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of
quartz containing needle-like inclusions.
Ruby
Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious
gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj,
meaning king of precious stones.
Sapphire
The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue
colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United
States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious
gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire).
Turquoise
Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing
region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an
intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great
variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native
American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a
matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright
blue colour.
Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are
produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed
of and arise from minerals.
Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and
importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such
as cubic zirconium, which can be used in place of diamond.[13]
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
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Metal	
  finishes	
  
	
  
Fig	
  1.4	
  showing	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  gold	
  plated	
  jewellery	
  
For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most
common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the
most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin or matte finish reduces
the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones
such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by
brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving "brush strokes." Hammered
finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to
give it a wavy texture.
Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling
silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (a process known as flashing)
or may be plated with rhodium or
Jewelry	
  Manufacturing	
  
Today jewelry is crafted using the traditional method of simple tools and skilled fingers to
modern tools and hi tech means. The flow of ideas and the wide range of designs offer this
choice. Mass production or made to order is the other factor in choosing a particular method of
production. Here is an attempt to bring to the reader a comprehensive idea about jewelry
manufacturing.
I am sure many of you wonder at the marvels, beauty and workmanship of their favorite piece of
jewellery. Many questions might spring to mind, wondering how the delicate design was created
or the gem set? What makes the jewellery strong? Who are these artisans who wield their art
with such aplomb creating intricate piece de resistance' with impudence? Making jewellery is
definitely not a cake walk. Time, technology and experience have contributed to strengthening
the art of jewellery manufacturing. When early man began wearing jewellery fashioned out of
stones, bones or any attractive material that caught the eye he hammered, pounded, chiseled and
rubbed to get the required shape and size. As man matured and ideas grew, new techniques
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
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  text]	
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developed to capture his imagination in a world of gold, gems and glitter. From simple discs to
3D designs were woven with the help of tools and technology.
Today jewellery is crafted using the traditional method of simple tools and skilled fingers to
modern tools and hi tech means. The flow of ideas and the wide range of designs offer this
choice. Mass production or made to order is the other factor in choosing a particular method of
production. Here is an attempt to bring to the reader a comprehensive idea about jewellery
manufacturing.
REASONS FOR WEARING JEWELLRY
• It is functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place, or to tell the time (in the case of
watches)
• It works as a mark of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring
• It also signifies some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social
• It sometimes helps us to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets)
• It portrays a form of artistic display
• It acts as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning - such as love, mourning or luck.
TYPES OF JEWELLRY
Jewelry	
  can	
  be	
  classified	
  in	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  ways.	
  
On	
  the	
  basis	
  of	
  the	
  material	
  used	
  
Diamond Jewelry	
  -­‐	
  Diamonds	
  may	
  be	
  worn	
  in	
  all	
  sorts	
  of	
  jewelry,	
  including	
  rings,	
  bracelets,	
  necklaces	
  
and	
  earrings.	
  
	
  Pearl Jewellry	
  -­‐	
  Pearls	
  from	
  freshwater,	
  the	
  sea	
  or	
  cultured	
  can	
  be	
  made	
  into	
  earrings,	
  necklaces,	
  
bracelets	
  and	
  more.	
  
	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  
Fig	
  1.5	
  to	
  1.1.10	
  showing	
  all	
  types	
  of	
  jewelry	
  as	
  a	
  fashion	
  accessories.	
  
	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
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  10	
  
	
  
Gold Jewelry	
  -­‐	
  In	
  natural	
  State	
  its	
  bright	
  yellow	
  metal	
  and	
  is	
  extremely	
  soft.	
  So	
  it	
  is	
  always	
  mixed	
  with	
  
other	
  metals	
  for	
  commercial	
  purposes.	
  Four	
  types	
  of	
  Gold	
  Jewelry-­‐:	
  
Karat	
  Gold-­‐	
  To	
  consider	
  a	
  karat	
  gold	
  at	
  least	
  10	
  k	
  of	
  gold	
  in	
  an	
  alloy.	
  The	
  most	
  costly.24	
  karat	
  is	
  pure	
  
gold.14	
  karat	
  means	
  14	
  parts	
  of	
  gold	
  and	
  10	
  parts	
  of	
  other	
  metal.	
  
Gold	
  filled-­‐	
  A	
  thin	
  sheet	
  of	
  gold	
  is	
  rolled	
  and	
  then	
  adhered	
  to	
  the	
  base	
  metal.	
  The	
  amount	
  of	
  gold	
  has	
  to	
  
be	
  1/20	
  of	
  the	
  total	
  weight	
  of	
  the	
  item.	
  
Rolled	
  gold	
  plate-­‐	
  Similar	
  to	
  gold	
  filled	
  but	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  gold	
  in	
  an	
  alloy	
  is	
  much	
  less;	
  almost	
  /40	
  of	
  the	
  
total	
  metal’s	
  weight.	
  
Electroplated	
  gold-­‐	
  Any	
  inexpensive	
  jewelry	
  if	
  requires	
  a	
  shiny	
  look	
  then	
  a	
  fine	
  gold	
  surface	
  very	
  thin	
  in	
  
context	
  is	
  electroplated	
  and	
  passed	
  over	
  in	
  the	
  surface	
  of	
  the	
  metal	
  to	
  give	
  a	
  gold	
  like	
  golden	
  yellowish	
  
look	
  which	
  might	
  wear	
  away	
  within	
  few	
  months.	
  
	
  Silver Jewelry	
  –	
  It	
  is	
  white	
  and	
  relatively	
  low	
  cost	
  than	
  gold	
  but	
  very	
  valuable	
  and	
  precious.	
  It’s	
  
alloyed	
  with	
  copper	
  and	
  gets	
  the	
  name	
  sterling	
  silver.	
  For	
  less	
  costly	
  designs,	
  silver	
  also	
  gets	
  
electroplated.	
  For	
  sterling	
  silver	
  the	
  alloy	
  must	
  contain	
  925	
  parts	
  of	
  silver	
  and	
  75	
  parts	
  of	
  copper.	
  
	
  Gemstone Jewelry -­‐	
  Jewelry	
  with	
  colored	
  stones	
  that	
  are	
  not	
  diamonds.	
  This	
  may	
  include	
  precious	
  
and	
  semi-­‐precious	
  
Bead	
  Jewelry-­‐Bead	
  art	
  in	
  India	
  is	
  five	
  thousand	
  year	
  old	
  and	
  dates	
  back	
  to	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  Indus	
  Valley	
  
Civilization.	
  People	
  of	
  that	
  civilization	
  used	
  to	
  make	
  beads	
  out	
  of	
  gold,	
  silver,	
  copper,	
  clay,	
  ivory	
  and	
  
even	
  wood.	
  The	
  excavated	
  carried	
  out	
  there	
  came	
  out	
  with	
  finished	
  and	
  unfinished	
  beads	
  from	
  the	
  site.	
  
Filigree	
  Jewelry:	
  Filigree	
  work	
  is	
  done	
  on	
  silver	
  and	
  involves	
  lots	
  of	
  precision	
  and	
  technicality,	
  added	
  
with	
  great	
  amount	
  of	
  patience	
  and	
  an	
  eye	
  for	
  minute	
  details.	
  Historically,	
  filigree	
  work	
  was	
  quite	
  
popular	
  in	
  countries	
  like	
  Egypt,	
  Italy,	
  and	
  Spain.	
  India's	
  history	
  of	
  filigree	
  work	
  goes	
  back	
  to	
  early	
  
centuries.	
  
Ivory	
  Jewelry:	
  Jewelry	
  that	
  is	
  made	
  from	
  the	
  tusk	
  of	
  an	
  elephant	
  is	
  called	
  ivory	
  jewelry.	
  Importance	
  of	
  
ivory	
  jewelry	
  can	
  be	
  guessed	
  from	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  in	
  Gujarat,	
  the	
  bride	
  receives	
  an	
  ivory	
  bangle	
  from	
  her	
  
family	
  just	
  before	
  marriage	
  as	
  jewelry.	
  During	
  marriage	
  ceremony	
  wearing	
  of	
  ivory	
  bangles	
  is	
  must	
  for	
  
bride.	
  
Jadau	
  Jewelry:	
  Jadau	
  Jewelry	
  forms	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  major	
  examples	
  of	
  high	
  skilled	
  craftsmanship	
  that	
  was	
  
brought	
  into	
  India	
  by	
  Mughals.	
  Historically	
  speaking,	
  the	
  tradition	
  of	
  Jadau	
  work	
  has	
  been	
  in	
  practice	
  in	
  
the	
  states	
  of	
  Rajasthan	
  and	
  Gujarat	
  since	
  the	
  Mughal	
  era.	
  Jadau	
  jewellery	
  is	
  also	
  called	
  engraved	
  
jewelry.	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Kundan	
  Jewelry:	
  During	
  Mughal	
  period,	
  the	
  art	
  of	
  kundan	
  work	
  reached	
  Rajasthan	
  from	
  Delhi.	
  Later	
  on,	
  
craftsmen	
  from	
  the	
  different	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  country	
  migrated	
  to	
  the	
  place	
  and	
  made	
  Rajasthan	
  a	
  hub	
  of	
  
Kundankari.	
  Rulers	
  and	
  feudal	
  lords	
  gave	
  patronage	
  to	
  the	
  art	
  and	
  it	
  developed	
  into	
  perfection.	
  
Lac Jewelry:	
  Lac	
  jewelry,	
  also	
  known	
  as	
  lacquer	
  jewelry,	
  originated	
  in	
  Rajasthan	
  and	
  has	
  gained	
  
considerable	
  popularity	
  in	
  India	
  today.	
  Lac	
  jewelry	
  is	
  available	
  in	
  versatile	
  designs,	
  which	
  add	
  to	
  its	
  
beauty.	
  Among	
  the	
  various	
  items	
  in	
  lac	
  jewelry,	
  the	
  bangles	
  need	
  a	
  special	
  mention.	
  
Meenakari Jewelry:	
  In	
  Meenakari	
  jewelry,	
  precious	
  stones	
  are	
  set	
  and	
  then	
  enameled	
  with	
  gold.	
  
Historically	
  speaking,	
  the	
  art	
  was	
  introduced	
  to	
  Rajasthan	
  artisans	
  by	
  Raja	
  Mansingh	
  of	
  Amer.	
  He	
  invited	
  
Lahore-­‐based	
  skilled	
  artisans	
  to	
  his	
  kingdom,	
  and	
  their	
  intermingling	
  with	
  the	
  locals	
  craftsmen	
  resulted	
  
in	
  an	
  amalgam.	
  
Navratna	
  Jewelry:	
  In	
  Navratna	
  jewelry,	
  nine	
  auspicious	
  stones	
  are	
  used	
  in	
  a	
  single	
  ornament.	
  The	
  belief	
  
behind	
  this	
  is	
  that	
  the	
  nine	
  stones	
  together	
  ensure	
  well	
  being	
  of	
  the	
  person	
  who	
  wears	
  it.	
  In	
  India,	
  
Navratna	
  jewelry	
  has	
  been	
  given	
  major	
  importance,	
  because	
  of	
  its	
  astrological	
  significance	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  its	
  
innate	
  charm.	
  
	
  
	
  	
  	
   	
  
	
  
Fig	
  1.15	
  to	
  Fig	
  1.20	
  showing	
  all	
  fashion	
  jewelry	
  of	
  kundan,	
  lac,	
  glass	
  and	
  jadau.	
  
	
  
On	
  the	
  basis	
  of	
  the	
  usage	
  	
  
Fashion Jewelry	
  –	
  It	
  is	
  not	
  always	
  the	
  highest	
  of	
  quality;	
  fashion	
  jewellry	
  makes	
  a	
  statement	
  and	
  is	
  
typically	
  lower	
  cost.	
  
Costume Jewelry	
  -­‐	
  This	
  type	
  of	
  jewelry	
  is	
  worn	
  to	
  be	
  fancy	
  at	
  grander	
  events	
  and	
  occasions.	
  Usually	
  
more	
  gaudy	
  or	
  ornate.	
  
Traditional jewelry
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Bridal Jewelry	
  –	
  This	
  jewelry	
  type	
  just	
  for	
  the	
  wedding,	
  specifically.	
  Usually,	
  this	
  is	
  a	
  matching	
  
necklace	
  and	
  earring	
  set.	
  
Vintage Jewelry	
  –	
  This	
  vintage	
  jewelry	
  could	
  include	
  costume	
  or	
  any	
  type	
  of	
  heirloom	
  or	
  antique	
  
pieces.	
  
Methods	
  used	
  in	
  Jewelry	
  manufacturing	
  	
  
Methods that are typically used to make jewellery from gold and silver and its alloys are
Investment Casting, Die casting, cattle fish casting and hand fabrication. Many jewelers use
CAD/CAM to make jewellery. CAD computer aided designs and CAM i.e. computer aided
manufacturing to reproduce a model piece of jewellery that can be mass produced. Making
jewellery requires knowledge and expertise in gold smiting, stonecutting, engraving, mold
making, fabrication, wax carving, lost wax casting, electroplating, forging, and polishing. These
are the various steps needed to make jewellery. The first step in making a detailed piece is
making of a mold.
Mould	
  
Jewellery making begins with a mould. A mould is the exact and perfect replica of the piece to
be made, copied either from a design or a piece/object. A mould is shaped around the
shape/figure with the help of casting process. The casting process involves a number of steps.
There are two methods of casting, investment casting or die casting each with its own
advantages.
Investment	
  Casting	
  
Investment Casting is also called 'lost wax casting' since the wax is removed by heating in a kiln
or in an autoclave. It is the earliest metal technique evolved by mankind and has a history of
4,000 years. Believed to have been developed by the Mesopotamians, it remains the most
popular process of making gold (metal) jewellery and forms the basis of modern investment
casting process. This process involves dipping a mold into a ceramic mix. Sometimes new
materials like plastic or polystyrene foam is used instead of wax. This process has a number of
steps involved.
• A primary model is made in hard alloy like nickel silver or just silver.
• A rubber model is made by surrounding this primary model, using sheet rubber in a mold frame.
It is then vulcanized by placing it in a heated press. On cooling, it is cut with a scalpel into halves
or more and removing the primary model.
• This rubber mold is used to make many copies of the primary model on wax.
• Molten wax is then introduced into the mold cavity by using a wax injector. On cooling the wax
is removed to get an exact copy of the primary model in wax.
• After the desired number of models has been made the waxes are arranged in a tree all around a
central feeder in the casting machine. The central feeder is also called sprue. The tree placed in a
metal cylinder called flask.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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• A special mixture called investment plaster is mixed with water to form a thick liquid and poured
over the tree covering the wax models. Low vacuum removes air bubbles and then this is allowed
to cool and harden to form stiff and sturdy molds.
• Then the flask is inverted and placed in a kiln/furnace. The wax is melted by steam or air to
remove all the wax. The furnace is set in stages and the maximum temperature reached is 750
degrees centigrade. The melting process takes about 12 to 16 hours. This melting down of the
wax is called the 'lost wax process'.
• The wax is slowly melted and drained out completely and all that is left behind is the investment
plaster mold and this will now be used to pour the required molten metal (to be cased) into.	
  
• The casting process begins by putting the flask in a casting machine. The gold metal or its alloy is
melted and then cast into the investment mold. Then it is allowed to cool and solidify.
• After it has cooled down completely it is immersed into cold water which breaks off the
investment mold, leaving the casts in the tree. The casting are cut off and then made into
jewellery pieces which will then be polished into completion.
Two types of casting machines are used the centrifugal casting machine which is the older
technique or the modern technique of static vacuum assist machines.
Advantages	
  of	
  investment	
  casting	
  	
  
It is an age old proven method. It allows the jeweler flexibility to create complex designs. The
details can be copied perfectly. The control of color is better. The finished product can be highly
polished. It results in very fine surface finish. The metallurgical properties are also excellent.
Disadvantages	
  of	
  investment	
  casting	
  	
  
This process can result in porosity. Also the dimensions may not be as accurate as the die struck
method. This process can and is used for almost all gold jewellery and remains a favorite with
jewelers even after 6,000 years later!
Die	
  struck	
  method	
  
Die struck method is a casting method where the metal to be cast is forced under pressure into a
mold which is usually made out of metal. This is a bona fide method of producing complex
shapes. The earliest recorded history of die casting by pressure occurred in 1800's. Using a
plunger or compressed air, molten metal is forced into a metallic die and the pressure is
maintained until the metal settles and solidifies.
The pressure reaches 25 tons per square inch. The intense pressure causes the atoms in the metal
to move closer together and solidify to form dies or molds. Using compressed sheet metal and
steel dies mountings are formed with metal parts mechanically stamped out. Each part is
matched and fitted into the correct portion of halved die and stamped and shaped. A hydraulic
press is used.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Various	
  methods	
  of	
  cuttings	
  tools	
  of	
  stones	
  and	
  process	
  of	
  carvings	
  of	
  floral	
  design	
  being	
  displayed	
  in	
  
the	
  pictures	
  above.	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
In	
  the	
  above	
  picture,	
  cutting	
  into	
  desired	
  shape	
  has	
  been	
  shown	
  .In	
  the	
  adjacent	
  picture	
  a	
  lady	
  
inspecting	
  and	
  sorting	
  stones	
  for	
  the	
  correct	
  choice	
  of	
  stone	
  setting.	
  
	
  
	
  
In	
  the	
  above	
  picture	
  the	
  men	
  are	
  preparing	
  themselves	
  for	
  casting,	
  a	
  method	
  where	
  a	
  cast	
  and	
  mold	
  is	
  
made	
  in	
  which	
  molten	
  metals	
  are	
  forced	
  in.	
  The	
  adjacent	
  picture	
  is	
  showing	
  a	
  lady	
  giving	
  shape	
  to	
  a	
  
stones	
  to	
  enhance	
  beauty	
  and	
  sometimes	
  hide	
  imperfections	
  and	
  inclusions.	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Types	
  of	
  stone	
  setting	
  
There are thousands of variations of setting styles, but there are several fundamental types:
Bezel	
  setting	
  
	
  
A	
  bezel	
  set	
  sapphire	
  
The earliest known technique of attaching stones to jewelry was bezel setting. A bezel is a strip
of metal bent into the shape and size of the stone and then soldered to the piece of jewelry. Then
the stone is inserted into the bezel and the metal rubbed over the stone, holding it in place. This
method works well for either cabochon or faceted stones.
Prong	
  setting	
  
	
  
Prong	
  set	
  diamonds	
  
Prong setting is the simplest and most common type of setting, largely because it uses the least
amount of metal to hold the stone, thus showing it off to its best advantage. Generally it is simply
some number of wires, called prongs, which are of a certain size and shape, arranged in a shape
and size to hold the given stone, and fixed at the base. Then a burr of the proper size, is used to
cut what is known as a "bearing", which is a notch that corresponds to the angles of the stone.
The burr most often used is called a "hart bur" that is angled and sized for the job of setting
diamonds. That bearing is cut equally into all of the prongs and at the same height above the
base. Then the stone is inserted so that it goes into all of the bearings, pliers or a pusher are used
to bend the prongs gently over the crown of the stone, and the tops of the prongs are clipped off
with snips, filed to an even height above the stone, and finished. Usually a "cup burr" is used to
give the prong a nice round tip. A cup burr is in the shape of a hemisphere with teeth on the
inside, for making rounded tips on wires and prongs. There are many variations of prong settings
including just two prongs, the common 4 prongs or up to 24 or more with many variations
involving decoration, size and shapes of the prongs themselves, and how they are fixed or used
in jewelry. But the method of setting is generally the same for all of them no matter how many
prongs are present.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
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Channel	
  setting	
  
	
  
Channel	
  set	
  diamonds	
  
Channel setting is a method whereby stones are suspended between two bars or strips of metal,
called channels. Often when setting small stones and the bars go in a linear line with the design it
is called channel setting, and when the bars cross the lines of the design, it is called bar set. The
idea is the same, though. The channel is some variation of a "U" shape, with two sides and a
bottom. The sides are made just a bit narrower than the width of the stone or stones to be set, and
then, using the same burs as in prong setting, a small notch, which is again called a bearing, is
cut into each wall. The stone is put in place in those notches, and the metal on top is pushed
down, tightening the stone in place. The proper way to set a channel is to cut a notch for each
stone, but for cheaper production work sometimes a groove is cut along each channel. Also,
since the metal can be very stiff and strong, this is a situation where a reciprocating hammer,
which is like a jackhammer but jewelry sized, might be used to hammer down the metal, as it can
be difficult to do by hand. Then, as always, the metal is filed down and finished, and the inner
edge near the stones cleaned up and straightened as necessary. As with all jewelry, there can be
many variations of channel work. At times the walls will be raised—sometimes a center stone
will be set between two bars that rise high from the base ring—or the channel might just be cut
directly into some surface, making the stones flush with the metal. It is still channel setting,
though.
Bead	
  setting	
  
	
  
Example	
  of	
  bead	
  set	
  diamonds	
  
	
  
Example	
  of	
  pave	
  set	
  diamonds	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  17	
  
	
  
Bead setting is a generic term for setting a stone directly into metal using gravers, also called
burins, which are essentially tiny chisels. A hole is drilled directly into the metal surface, and
then a ball burr is used to make a concave depression just the size of the stone. Some setters will
set the stone into that concave depression, and some will use a hart burr to cut a bearing around
the edge. Then the stone is inserted into that space, and the gravers or burins are used to lift and
push a tiny bit of the metal into and over the edge of the stone. Then a beading tool, which is
simply a steel shaft with a concave dimple cut into the tip, is pushed onto the bit of metal,
rounding and smoothing it, pushing it firmly onto the stone, and creating a "bead". That is the
essential method, but there are many types of setting that use the technique. When many stones
are set in this fashion very closely together, about 1 millimeter apart covering a surface that is
called “pave”— from the French for paved or cobblestoned. When a long line is engraved into
the metal going up to each of the beads that is "star set", because of the look. The other common
usage is called "bead and bright", "grain setting" or "threading" in Europe, and other names at
times. This is when; after the stone is set as described above, the background metal around the
stone is cut away, usually in geometric shapes. In the end what is left is the stone with four beads
in a lowered box shape with an edge around it. Often it is a row of stones, so it will be in a long
shape with a raised edge and a row of stones and beads down the center. This type of setting is
still used often, but it was very common in the early to middle 20th century.
Burnish	
  setting	
  
	
  
Fig	
  showing	
  Burnish	
  set	
  diamonds	
  
Burnish setting, also sometimes referred to as flush setting, shot setting, or gypsy setting (The
term gypsy setting is used less often today because the word gypsy is seen as derogatory) is
similar to bead setting, but after the stone is inserted into the space, instead of using a graver to
lift beads, a burnishing tool is used to push the metal all around the stone. The stone will be
roughly flush with the surface, with a burnished or rubbed edge around it. This type of setting
has a long history but is gaining resurgence in contemporary jewelry. Sometimes the metal is
finished using sandblasting, as it shows off the work very well.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  18	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
This	
  hand	
  sketch	
  illustration	
  is	
  showing	
  the	
  details	
  effect	
  of	
  polished	
  diamond	
  inculcated	
  in	
  a	
  ring.	
  
	
  
	
  
This	
  above	
  illustration	
  is	
  showing	
  6	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  Prong	
  settings.	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  19	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
This	
  illustration	
  is	
  showing	
  diamond	
  setting	
  with	
  ring	
  attachment	
  and	
  different	
  stone	
  viability.	
  
	
  
	
  
The	
  diagram	
  features	
  different	
  names	
  suggestion	
  for	
  different	
  settings	
  of	
  diamond	
  in	
  a	
  ring	
  of	
  gold	
  or	
  
silver.	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  20	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  
	
  
EXERCISES	
  
1. Design	
  5	
  jewellery	
  of	
  different	
  materials	
  and	
  color	
  it	
  appropriately.	
  
2. List	
  10	
  best	
  national	
  and	
  International	
  jewellery	
  brands	
  and	
  write	
  a	
  brief	
  of	
  each	
  about	
  
the	
  brand,	
  foundation,	
  turnover	
  and	
  sales	
  profit	
  with	
  its	
  tie	
  ups	
  and	
  branding	
  
promotional	
  activities.	
  
	
  
Review	
  questions	
  
Q1.	
  What	
  are	
  Jewelries?	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  materials	
  and	
  methods	
  used	
  in	
  jewelry	
  making?	
  
Q2.	
  Describe	
  5	
  gemstones	
  and	
  their	
  usage	
  for	
  jewelry	
  designing?	
  
Q3.	
  Explain	
  5	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  Jewelry?	
  
Q4.	
  What	
  is	
  Investment	
  jewelry?	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  advantage	
  and	
  disadvantage	
  of	
  investment	
  jewelry?	
  
Q5.	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  Stone	
  cutting?	
  
Q6	
  Explain	
  the	
  following	
  in	
  short	
  answers-­‐:	
  
1. Jadau	
  Jewelry	
  
2. Prong	
  Setting	
  
3. Burnish	
  setting	
  
4. Die	
  –struck	
  method	
  
5. Traditional	
  jewelry	
  
6. Navaratna	
  jewelry	
  
7. Diamonds	
  
	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  21	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
UNIT	
  2	
   BAGS	
  
	
  
A	
   handbag,	
   or	
   purse	
   in	
   American	
   English,	
   is	
   a	
   handled	
   medium-­‐to-­‐large	
   bag	
   that	
   is	
   often	
  
fashionably	
  designed,	
  typically	
  used	
  by	
  women,	
  to	
  hold	
  personal	
  items	
  such	
  as	
  wallet/coins,	
  
keys,	
  cosmetics,	
  a	
  hairbrush,	
  mobile	
  phone	
  etc.	
  
Handbags	
  have	
  been	
  known	
  for	
  their	
  special	
  relation	
  to	
  women.	
  They	
  have	
  been	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  
popular	
  and	
  are	
  often	
  used	
  accessories	
  of	
  women	
  even	
  before	
  old	
  times.	
  Handbags	
  are	
  not	
  only	
  
considered	
  as	
  a	
  functional	
  item	
  that	
  help	
  them	
  carry	
  their	
  important	
  belongings,	
  but	
  women	
  consider	
  
them	
  as	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  significant	
  preferences	
  in	
  succeeding	
  the	
  best	
  fashion	
  style	
  they	
  dreaming	
  of,	
  
as	
  well.	
  The	
  purpose	
  of	
  Bags	
  has	
  exceeded	
  its	
  prime	
  purpose	
  of	
  convenience	
  and	
  fashion.	
  Bags	
  come	
  in	
  
different	
  sizes,	
  giving	
  us	
  the	
  opportunity	
  to	
  bring	
  things	
  all	
  the	
  time.	
  	
  
As	
  an	
  accessory,	
  bags	
  can	
  totally	
  change	
  the	
  way	
  we	
  look	
  or	
  dress	
  for	
  a	
  certain	
  occasion.	
  Nowadays,	
  
handbags	
  are	
  coming	
  out	
  with	
  plenty	
  varieties	
  of	
  styles	
  and	
  designs	
  to	
  choose	
  from.	
  Designers	
  are	
  
making	
  various	
  creations	
  with	
  different	
  styles	
  and	
  designs	
  that	
  can	
  match	
  with	
  the	
  lifestyle	
  of	
  today's	
  
savvy	
  women.	
  We	
  have	
  travel	
  bags,	
  baby	
  bags,	
  pet	
  bags,	
  school	
  bags,	
  formal	
  bags,	
  designer	
  bags,	
  school	
  
bags,	
  and	
  many	
  more.	
  Not	
  all	
  handbags	
  are	
  created	
  equal	
  –	
  some	
  are	
  classics,	
  some	
  are	
  trendy,	
  some	
  
are	
  practical,	
  some	
  are	
  simply	
  arm	
  candy.	
  	
  You	
  can	
  flaunt	
  a	
  bag	
  to	
  manifest	
  your	
  cool	
  personality,	
  to	
  
show	
  your	
  strong	
  attitude	
  or	
  even	
  to	
  complement	
  your	
  jovial	
  nature.	
  There	
  is	
  something	
  for	
  every	
  
personality,	
  and	
  also	
  for	
  every	
  occasion.	
  
Bags	
  are	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  essential	
  fashion	
  accessories	
  carried	
  by	
  a	
  woman,	
  every	
  woman	
  has	
  a	
  dream	
  to	
  
carry	
  a	
  matching	
  hand	
  bag	
  with	
  her	
  dress	
  and	
  so,	
  hand	
  bags	
  are	
  found	
  in	
  various	
  styles	
  and	
  patterns	
  that	
  
can	
  go	
  matching	
  with	
  any	
  kind	
  of	
  dress.	
  Bags	
  for	
  women	
  are	
  basically	
  to	
  carry	
  their	
  stuffs	
  in	
  a	
  more	
  
convenient	
  way	
  while	
  some	
  of	
  them	
  carry	
  for	
  show.	
  Aside,	
  from	
  its	
  main	
  purpose	
  of	
  storage	
  and	
  
portability,	
  bags	
  also	
  add	
  to	
  aesthetics.	
  
A	
  number	
  of	
  European	
  manufacturers	
  have	
  long	
  histories	
  of	
  producing	
  leather	
  goods.	
  Some	
  were	
  made	
  
by	
  famous	
  jewelry	
  companies	
  such	
  as	
  Tiffany	
  &	
  Co.	
  For	
  some	
  companies,	
  Gucci	
  and	
  Louis	
  Vuitton,	
  
handbags	
  were	
  introduced	
  to	
  their	
  product	
  range	
  relatively	
  recently	
  in	
  their	
  history	
  but	
  for	
  others	
  like	
  
H.J.	
  Cave	
  &	
  Sons,	
  they	
  have	
  been	
  around	
  almost	
  as	
  long	
  as	
  the	
  company.	
  Nonetheless,	
  handbags	
  are	
  
among	
  their	
  best-­‐known	
  products,	
  and	
  their	
  logos	
  are	
  recognized	
  in	
  many	
  countries	
  today.	
  	
  
The	
  most	
  expensive	
  of	
  the	
  luxury	
  handbags	
  are	
  made	
  by	
  Hermès.	
  Prices	
  start	
  at	
  $6000;	
  handbags	
  are	
  
made	
  to	
  order,	
  and	
  the	
  waiting	
  lists	
  are	
  years	
  long.	
  Hermès	
  handbag	
  designs	
  carry	
  the	
  names	
  of	
  
actresses,	
  socialites,	
  and	
  other	
  celebrities	
  who	
  were	
  frequently	
  photographed	
  with	
  a	
  particular	
  handbag,	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  22	
  
	
  
most	
  notably	
  the	
  "Birkin"	
  bag	
  named	
  after	
  Jane	
  Birkin,	
  and	
  the	
  "Kelly"	
  bag	
  named	
  after	
  Grace	
  Kelly.	
  
Other	
  designers	
  have	
  adopted	
  the	
  practice	
  of	
  naming	
  their	
  handbag	
  designs	
  after	
  celebrities,	
  for	
  
example	
  Marc	
  Jacobs,	
  who	
  created	
  the	
  "Stam"	
  purse,	
  named	
  after	
  model	
  Jessica	
  Stam.	
  
	
  
HISTORY	
  OF	
  HANDBAGS	
  
Handbags have been essential to fashion history ever since people have had something precious to carry
around with them and only the items have changed over time. Early handbags ware more functional rather
than being a fashion statement. They were typically small circular cut pieces of material that normally had
a leather strap. The leather strap was sewn around the circumference of the handbag to maintain its'
strength and security. The very first mention in written literature comes from the 14th century, even
though Egyptian hieroglyphs show pouches carried around the waist. Bags were attached to what were
called "girdles" which were fastened to the waist. Embroidery and jewels adorned these articles and were
used to show status - the richer the person, the more elaborate the bag.
In the 16th century, handbags took on more of an air of practicality with the use of everyday materials
such as leather with a drawstring fastener on top. During this period, cloth bags were used that were made
larger and used by travelers and carried diagonally across the body. The 17th century saw more variety
and both fashionable men and women carried small purses with more complex shapes. Young girls were
taught embroidery as a very necessary skill to make them marriageable and we see the rise of beautiful
and unique stitched artwork in handbags.
Neo-classical clothing became popular in the 18th century with a reduction in the amount of
underclothing worn by women. Wearing a purse would ruin the look of this clothing so fashionable ladies
started carrying their handbags which were called reticules. Reticules became a fashion statement. The
functional element of handbags although remaining important started to give way to the design of the
handbag in reasons why people chose a particular handbag for their wardrobe. Fashion magazines were
primarily responsible for making handbags a fashion statement as they began to comment on the best
handbags to use for specific events, occasions and locations. This led to the need to have different
handbags for different conditions. Handbags remained functional but not just as travelers carry bag but to
carry other personal items including a fan, perfume, smelling salts and make-up.
The term "handbag" first came into use in the early 1900's and generally referred to hand-held luggage
bags usually carried by men. These were an inspiration for new bags that became popularized for women,
including handbags with complicated fasteners, internal compartments, and locks. With this new fashion,
jewelers got into the act with special compartments for opera glasses, cosmetics, and fans.
The 1920's saw a revolution in fashion with varying hemlines and lighter clothing. Bags no longer needed
to match the outfit perfectly and the rage was for the stylish lady to carry a doll dressed exactly like
herself, complete with matching bag for her miniature companion!
The 1940's saw new austerity in clothing, including handbags with the war effort in mind. Metal frames,
zips, leather, and mirrors were in short supply so manufactures used plastic and wood. The 50's saw the
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/	
  (CONTROLLED)[Type	
  text]	
   Page	
  23	
  
	
  
rise of important designer houses including Chanel, Louis Vuitton, and Hermes and the 60's saw the
breakdown of old notions of the classical and the rise of youth culture.
Copy is the most sincere form of flattery and, if so, Kate Spade, Gucci, Hermes, Coach and Dior must be
very flattered! There are many replica handbags flooding the market. Some of these "designer fakes" even
carry the label of the Company they are imitating while others just have the signature "C" or "G" without
the label.
TYPES OF BAGS
Athletic bag: a soft, roomy bag used to carry sporting equipment
and apparel to the gym
Backpack: a bag that is supported by the shoulders with double
handles and lies across the back. Lightweight types of backpacks
are sometimes worn on only one shoulder strap. Backpacks are
often preferred to handbags for carrying heavy loads or carrying
any sort of equipment, because of the limited capacity to carry
heavy weights for long periods of time in the hands. Backpacks
are supported on either one or both shoulders. Perfect for students
who need to carry laptops, books, water bottle and snacks among
other things, they are the traditional school bags with a twist.
A backpack ought to have two padded straps – wider the straps,
better the support.
Baguette Bag: A purse that is relatively long from side to side
and small from top to bottom basically a little like a baguette with
a handle. It is long and narrow in shape similar to a French bread
loaf.
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Bowling Bag: A bag originally made to hold a bowling ball, this
has become a fashion item.
Bucket bag: roomy bag shaped like a bucket, usually has an open
top and shoulder strap.
Clutch Bag: Small but long bag (rectangular), evening bag
without a handle. You have to clutch it hence the name.
Cosmetic case: bags of varying sizes and shapes with a zip
closure lined to hold cosmetics
Coin Purse: Sometimes called change purses. A coin purse is a
small bag designed to hold coins and other small items.
Cross-Body Bag: Typically smaller in size, these bags are meant
to be worn across the body to allow you be hands-free while on
the go
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  commercial	
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  it	
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  solely	
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private	
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Drawstring Handbag: A bag with a string or cord cinch closure
Envelope bag: a flat, square or rectangular bag with a triangle-
shaped top flaps that fold over like an envelope.
Fold over clutch: a clutch with or without a handle that can be
tucked or folded.
Hobo Bag: a large crescent-shaped shoulder bag or any large bag
that hangs from your shoulder and has a main compartment
closure.
Jhola :A cousin of satchel bag is our good old mirror worked
“jhola” bags that we get off the streets. While the satchel can be
teamed with western wear, the mirror worked versions can be
carried with Indian casual wear. These Jholas come in varied
designs and colors, thus suited for every personality. It’s now safe
to say that that perception has changed. They are now considered
to be a major fashion draw for students throughout the country.
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  it	
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Messenger Bag: A bag with a long strap to be worn across the
body that winds around the chest resting the bag on the lower
back.. Messenger bags are often used by bicycle messengers,
though they are increasingly becoming an urban fashion icon.
Messenger bags ensure comfort to people carrying heavy and/or
bulky items, while allowing easy access to the contents. While
they can be found in the possession of either gender, they are
often commonly employed by men in a function analogous to a
woman's purse. These have also become fashionable in urban
environments, among cyclists and commuters. Materials used in
messenger bags are often more durable and water-resistant than
traditional bags. Typically, a messenger bag has a rectangular
shape with a fold over flap that is held closed by a buckle, clasp,
zipper or magnetic catch.
Muff: a winter bag made of real or faux fur, wool or velvet that
has zippered compartments and a slip opening for your hands.
Saddle Bag: a large bag (or pair of bags) hung over a saddle.
Many designers use saddle bag as an inspiration for their designs.
Therefore, their bags are called saddle bags, even though they are
not actually saddle bag
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  commercial	
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  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
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  the	
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private	
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Satchel: A structured handbag with double handles, locking
hardware and a wide, flat bottom. May be large or small. A
satchel is a bag, often one or sometimes two large straps.
The strap is often worn so that it diagonally crosses the body,
with the bag hanging on the opposite hip, rather than hanging
directly down from the shoulder. Handle is generally rigid and
curved. The main difference between a satchel and a briefcase is
that a satchel is soft-sided usually of leather. Also, satchels often
have straps while briefcases usually don't.
Most students are also using these bags to help them carry their
books, notebooks and other school supplies.
Sling Bag: A bag with a long strap (similar to a messenger bag),
yet smaller. This stylish design is quite similar to the messenger
counterparts, but slings are definitely way ahead considering style
and looks. When used by men, the bags are often called man
purses or man bags. This bag goes well with western casuals.
These bags are more famous amongst the men folk.
Tote Bag: A medium to large bag with two straps. Sometimes
sold as a reusable shopping bag, this bag can carry anything that is
too large for a common handbag – also called a ‘Shopper’
Weekend Bag: A bag of a size to carry clothing and personal
articles for a weekend trip
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  commercial	
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  it	
  is	
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  solely	
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private	
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  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
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Wristlet - a clutch shaped bag that comes with an attached leather
or bracelet-looking strap allowing you to hold your bag and dance
freely.
Duffel Bag: A large bag usually used for travel or sports. The
name comes from Duffel, a town in Belgium where the thick cloth
used to make the bag originated. Duffel bags are often used by
sailors, and are sometimes called sea bags in this capacity. More
recently, a duffel bag typically refers to the specific style of bag,
though the phrase may also be used to refer to any large bag made
of thick fabric. It is often used to carry luggage or sports
equipment by people who travel in the outdoors. Duffel bags
have large compartments to place numerous valuables such as
clothes, shoes, and other things when away from home.
Laptop Bags: A bag used to carry laptops, ipads or other portable
electronic devices. Typically has a single handle and is carried
like a briefcase. Most come with a removable shoulder strap.
Organizer Bags: Handbags with compartments and pockets for
organized storage of makeup, wallets, coin purses, appointment
books, and other personal items.
This	
  booklet	
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  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
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  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
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COMPONENT PARTS OF HANDBAGS:
Term Definition Examples
Closure Mechanism used to close the purse Drawstring, snap, zipper, toggle button, magnet,
Velcro, kiss-lock, clasp
Handle Refers to relatively short, usually rigid
hand grips
Leather, synthetic leather, chain, metal, bamboo,
wood, bone, plastic
Strap Commonly long, flexible loops Leather, synthetic leather, fabric
Lining Fabric used to line the interior of the
purse
Natural fabric, synthetic fabric, vinyl
Frame A rigid top structure from which a soft
bag is suspended; the closure is often a
kiss-lock type which snaps shut
Usually metal but may be plastic or another hard
material
Hardware (Usually) metal pieces Zippers, snaps, buckles, clasp closures, spring clasps
and loops used to attach removable straps, strap
adjustments, rings connecting straps to bags, feet
Feet Small nubs, typically four, found on the
bottom of a flat-bottomed bag to keep it
off of dirty surfaces
Metal, rubber, plastic
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LUGGAGE BAGS-:
Luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a traveler’s articles during transit.
The modern traveler can be expected to have packages containing clothing, toiletries, small possessions,
trip necessities, and on the return-trip, souvenirs. For some people, luggage and the style thereof is
representative of the owner's wealth.
Luggage has changed over time. Historically the most common types of luggage
were chests or trunks made of wood or other heavy materials. These would be shipped by professional
movers. Since the Second World War smaller and more lightweight suitcases and bags that can be carried
by an individual have become the main form of luggage.
TYPES OF LUGGAGE
No single piece of luggage is perfect for all kinds of travel. That's why there are so many types of
luggage, bags and packs to choose from.
Trunk - A wooden box, generally much larger than other kinds of luggage. Trunks come in smaller sizes
as in the case of footlockers and larger ones called steamers. These days trunks are more commonly used
for storage than transportation. Items large enough to require a trunk are now usually shipped in transport
cases.
Suitcase - A general term that may refer to wheeled or non-wheeled luggage, as well as soft or hard side
luggage. There are three types of suitcase. Each can be anywhere from 24 inches to 36 inches in size.
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Hard-sided suitcases: Hard-sided suitcases feature wheels, locks, and pull straps and are especially
durable against wear and tear. Many are constructed of plastic, metal, or other molded materials; others
feature wood or metal interior frames and a soft covering like fabric or leather.
Semi-soft suitcases: Lightweight semi-soft suitcases offer more room for expansion than other types of
suitcases and most have wheels and straps for easy transport.
Soft-sided suitcases: Light and expandable soft-sided suitcases have zipper closures and stiffeners instead
of an interior framework.
Garment bag - A style of luggage that folds over on itself to allow long garments such as suits or dresses
to be packed flat to avoid creasing. Garment bags come in both wheeled and non-wheeled models, and are
usually one of the largest pieces in any set of luggage.
4. Tote - A small bag, usually worn on the shoulder
5. Duffel bag - A barrel-shaped bag, almost exclusively soft side, is well suited to casual travel, with very
little organization inside. The spelling "duffle" is also valid.
This	
  booklet	
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  purpose	
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Wheeled Duffels
Nothing swallows up gear like a duffel bag, and one with wheels is a good choice
for multisport gear junkies. If your adventures frequently require gear of widely
varying sizes and shapes, rolling duffel is a smart way to corral it all. For light
packers, a carry-on wheeled duffel (22") offers less space but allows you to forego
the time and expense of checking a bag.
Wheeled Backpacks
Popular with adventure travelers, these combine the convenience of wheeled luggage with the mobility of
a backpack. You can transport lots of gear with a simple pull of the extendable handle.
Laptop Bags, Sleeves and Day Packs
These urban bags have a padded compartment to protect your 10"–17" laptop, plus a bevy of organizing
pockets to hold cables, peripherals and paperwork. Laptop sleeves can also be used with e-readers and
tablets.
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FEATURES OF LUGGAGE
Locks - locks serve multiple purposes; a deterrent to dishonest airport workers and locks also help keep
baggage closed during handling.
Expandable Luggage - suitcases that can be unzipped to expand for more packing space.
Wheels: The "Dawn-Mobile", the first suitcase on wheels, was invented in 1908 by James Cole, a
preacher for the Bible Students, to carry copies of the Bible commentary. Rolling suitcases were
reinvented in 1970, when Bernard D. Sadow applied for a patent that was granted in 1972 as United
States patent 3,653,474 for "Rolling Luggage". Sadow's four-wheeled suitcases, pulled using a loose
strap, were later surpassed in popularity by roll boards, suitcases that feature two wheels and are pulled in
an upright position using a long handle, and were invented in 1987 by US pilot Robert Plath.
Large suitcases and Pullmans
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PROMINENT BRANDS (INTERNATIONAL)-:
There is now an array of luxury luggage brands to pick from and all offer style and practicality in their
collections. Companies range from fashion heavyweights Louis Vuitton and Ralph Lauren to travel
specialists Tumi and Samsonite. Even sports car maker Porsche is getting involved with its Driver’s
Selection suitcases.
And many of today’s luggage lines have to satisfy the jetsetter’s requirements. Most offer two-wheel
mobility while some go further with four-wheel 360° freedom of movement. Victorinox, which made the
original Swiss army knife before turning to luggage, has in-built hangar clamps in its Deluxe Garment
Mobilizer to keep clothes wrinkle-free.
Luggage doesn’t always mean suitcases – Alfred Dunhill’s and Ralph Lauren’s weekender bags provide
an alternative for shorter stays. They are stylish without sacrificing function and are spacious enough to
allow you to bring what you need.
Italian luxury goods brand Bottega Veneta started in 1966. It is a lot younger than the other featured
labels but it offers something different to hard-shell suitcases. The fashion house uses its signature
intrecciato VN leather for its luggage line. The material is durable and stands up to the wear and tear of
frequent travel.
All of our luxury luggage lines feature because they strike the balance between style, function and
endurance. Traveling can be that much sweeter with a reliable companion in your hand.
Louis Vuitton
With roots in trunk making dating back as far as 1871, Louis Vuitton combines luxury with expert
craftsmanship to provide the ultimate in sophisticated luggage. The label's LV monogram appears on
most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches,
jewellery, accessories, sunglasses, and books.
Whether you’re seeking the signature Monogram canvas, personalized details or colorful designs,
globetrotters can’t go wrong with one of Louis Vuitton’s travel creations.
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Samsonite
International luggage specialist Samsonite has been leading
the field for more than 100 years. Samsonite International
S.A. is an American multinational luggage manufacturer and retailer, with products ranging from
large suitcases to small toiletries bags and briefcases. It was founded in Denver, Colorado in 1910
by Jesse Shwayder. Shwayder named one of his initial cases Samson, after the Biblical strongman, and
began using the trademark Samsonite in 1941. The company changed its name to Samsonite in 1966.
VIP Industries Ltd(NATIONAL BRAND)-:
It is world second largest and Asia’s largest Luggage maker based in Mumbai Maharashtra, India. The
company manufactures plastic moulded suitcases, handbags, briefcases, vanity cases and luggage. It has
acquired UK luggage brand Carlton in 2004.It provides travel products, hard and soft-sided luggage, bags,
backpacks, duffels, shoulder bags, waist pouches, sling bags, duffel trolleys, vanity cases, office bags and
satchels, suitcases, and briefcases. The company offers its products primarily under the VIP, Carlton,
Footloose, Alfa, Aristocrat, Sky bags, and Buddy brands.
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EXERCISES-:
1. Design 3 bags of different occasion and show the side, front and top view and
render it and mention its different parts with appropriate trimmings.
2. Collect 5 national and international brand pictures of bags and luggage’s and
study and note the design and interesting features of those bags and discuss it in class.
3. Design your own logo and give an imaginary brand name with one bag design for
the following wear-:
A.	
  executive	
  wear	
  
B.	
  cruise/resort	
  wear	
  
C.	
  Party	
  wear.	
  
	
  
4. Draw the outline of the of a female human form based on 5 different occasional wear and
sketch and identify the various bags of that may be worn in this figure.
5. Collect different newspaper and magazines and identify the bags and paste and label it.
Next, try to draw and render the exact image by doing a photo analysis.
Review Questions
Q1. Describe the history of bags? Explain 5 different types of bags along with correct diagram.
Q2. Explain 5 components of Handbags.
Q3. Describe one international brand for bags in details.
Q4. Explain two types of luggage’s with the help of a neat diagram.
Q5. Write short notes on the following-:	
  
	
  
1.	
  Straps	
  
2.	
  Laptop	
  bag
3.	
  Bougette	
  Bags	
  
4.	
  Athletic	
  Bags	
  
5.	
  Lining	
  
6.	
  Hobo	
  bags	
  
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  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
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private	
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  students	
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UNIT	
  3	
   SHOES	
  
	
  
SHOES-: DEFINITE FASHION FOOTWEAR!
Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment,
and adornment. Some cultures choose not to wear footwear, at least in some situations.
Socks and other hosiery are typically worn between the feet and other footwear, less often with
sandals or flip flops (thongs). Footwear is sometimes the subject of sexual fetishism, such as
shoe fetishism or boot fetishism.
Durable shoes are a relatively recent invention, though many ancient civilizations wore
ornamental footwear. Many ancient civilizations saw no need for footwear. The Romans saw
clothing and footwear as signs of power and status in society, and most Romans wore footwear,
while slaves and peasants remained barefoot. The Middle Ages saw the rise of high-heeled
shoes, also associated with power, and the desire to look larger than life, and artwork from that
period often depicts bare feet as a symbol of poverty. Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility
and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot, or remove their
shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing.
In some cultures, people remove their shoes before entering a home. Some religious
communities require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples.
Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers.
Materials	
  
• Leather
• Plastic
• Rubber
• Textiles
• Wood
• Jute
• Metal
Components
• Adhesives
• Buckle
• Counter
• Eyelet
• Heel
• Hook
• Insole
• Laces	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
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• Shank
• Sole
• Tack
• Tread
• Welt
• Outsole
	
  
	
  Fig-­‐1.1	
  
Fig	
  1.1	
  shows	
  Shoes	
  made	
  from	
  crocodile	
  skin,	
  in	
  a	
  conservation	
  exhibit	
  at	
  Bristol	
  Zoo,	
  England	
  
Types	
  
• Shoe Styles-:Boots
o Chukka boots
o Combat boots
o Cowboy boots
o Go-go boots
o Hiking boots
o Kinky boots
o Motorcycle boots
o Mukluk
o Platform boots
o Riding boots
o Russian boots
o Derby boots
o Thigh-length boots
• Shoes	
  	
  
o Athletic shoes (also known as trainers or sneakers)
o Brothel creepers
o Court shoes (known in the US as pumps)
o Diabetic shoes
o Espadrilles
o Galoshes
o Kitten heels
o Lace-up shoes
§ Derby shoes
§ Oxford shoes
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
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§ Brogues
o High-tops
o Loafers
o Mary Jane
o Moccasins
o Monks
o Mules
o Platform shoes
o School shoes
o Skate shoes
o Tap shoes
• Sandals
o Flip-flops (thongs)
o Slide
o Slippers
• Foot wraps
• Specific footwear
o Ballet shoes
o High-heeled footwear
o Climbing shoes
o Clogs
o Football boots
o Sabaton
o Safety footwear
o Ski boots
o Snowshoes
o Surgical shoe
o Pointe shoes
o Swim fins (flippers)
• Traditional footwear
Footwear	
  industry	
  
In Europe, the footwear industry has declined in the last years. Whereas in 2005, there were
about 27,000 firms, in 2008 there were only 24,000. As well as the number of firms, the direct
employment has decreased. The only factors that remained almost steady were the value added at
factor cost and production value.
In the U.S., the annual footwear industry revenue was $48 billion in 2012. There are about
29,000 shoe stores in the U.S. and the shoe industry employs about 189,000 people. Due to rising
imports, these numbers are also declining. The only way of staying afloat in the shoe market is to
establish a presence in niche market
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Fig	
  1.2	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Fig	
  1.3	
  
Fig	
  1.2	
  and1.3	
  showing	
  the	
  features	
  for	
  the	
  parts	
  of	
  shoe.	
  Note	
  the	
  shoe	
  type	
  show	
  in	
  both	
  the	
  
pictures	
  is	
  of	
  Sneaker.	
  
	
  
Fig	
  1.4	
  showing	
  the	
  anatomy	
  of	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  Female	
  shoe.	
  Note	
  that	
  some	
  parts	
  of	
  female	
  shoe	
  don’t	
  exist	
  
in	
  male	
  show.	
  Can	
  you	
  jot	
  down	
  the	
  difference	
  of	
  those	
  few	
  parts?	
  
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
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Fig	
  1.5	
  Showing	
  full	
  features	
  of	
  a	
  athletic	
  Sneaker	
  ideal	
  for	
  sports	
  wear.	
  
___________________________________________________________________________________	
  
Fig 1.6 Showing parts of male shoe.
______________________________________________________________________________
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Terminology
The following is a list of terms used to describe parts of the shoe. Some terms refer to parts that
all shoes have such as the sole, while other terms may only apply to certain types or style of
shoe.
Breast: The forward facing part of the heel, under the arch of the sole
Counter: A stiff piece of material at the heel of a shoe positioned between the lining and upper
that helps maintain the shape of the shoe. The counter helps strengthen the rear of the soe.
Feather: The part of the shoe where the upper’s edge meets the sole
Heel: The heel is the part of the sole that raises the rear of the shoe in relation to the front. The
heal seat is the top of the heel that touches the upper; this is typically shaped to match the form
of the upper. The part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground is known as the top
piece.
Insole: A layer of material that sits inside the shoe that creates a layer between the sole and the
wearer’s foot. The insole adds comfort for the wearer, while hiding the join between the upper.
Linings: Most shoes include a lining on the inside of the shoe, around the vamp and quarter.
These linings improve comfort, and can help increase the lifespan of the shoe.
Outsole: The exposed part of the sole that is contact with the ground. As with all parts of the
shoe, outsoles are made from a variety of materials. The properties the outsole need are: grip,
durability, and water resistance
Puff: a reinforcing inside the upper which gives the toe its shape and support. Similar function to
a toe cap.
Quarter: The rear and sides of the upper that covers the heel that is behind the vamp. The heel
section of the quarter is often strengthened with a stiffener, which helps support the rear of the
foot. Some shoe designs use a continuous piece of leather for the vamp and quarter.
Seat: Where the heel of the fit sits in the shoe. It normally matches the shape of the heel for
comfort and support.
‘Shank: A piece of metal inserted between the sole and the insole lying against the arch of the
foot.
Sole: The entire part of the shoe that sites below the wearers foot. As opposite to the upper. The
upper and sole make up the whole of the shoe.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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Throat: The front of the vamp next to the toe cap. For shoes were the vamp and quarter panels
are one piece the throat is at the eye-stay.
Toe cap: Shoes may have a toe cap in the front upper of the shoe. Toe caps can take various
forms, but the distinct types are: complete replacements for the front upper of the shoe; stitched
over toecaps that add an extra layer to the upper; solid toe caps for protection, such as steel toe
caps. Stitch over toe caps may be decorative in nature. Toe caps help add strength to the upper
front of the shoe, an area that receives a lot of stress and wear from use.
Top Piece: The part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. Made of a durable
material that helps maintain friction with the ground.
Top line: The top edge of the upper
Upper: The entire part of the shoe that covers the foot.
Vamp: The section of upper that covers the front of the foot as far as the back as the join of the
quarter.
Waist: The arch and in-step of the foot.
Welt: A strip of material that joins the upper to the sole.
Understanding	
  the	
  Basic	
  Manufacturing	
  Process	
  
People have been wearing shoes for over 5,000 years, but shoe sizing systems are a fairly recent
development. Many years ago, shoes were made or acquired in one of three ways:
1) Custom-made by a shoemaker;
2) The individual made his own for himself or his family; and
3) Buying second-hand shoes from a more prosperous individual (or receiving hand-me-downs within
the family).
FIG	
  1.7	
  
Fig	
  1.1	
  showing	
  an	
  artist's	
  impression	
  of	
  Ötzi's	
  right	
  shoe.	
  Ötzi	
  is	
  a	
  male	
  mummy	
  found	
  in	
  the	
  Austrian	
  
Alps	
  in	
  September	
  1991	
  in	
  remarkably	
  well-­‐preserved	
  condition.	
  
As seen with the discovery of a 5,000 year old Iceman, in Fig 1.7 his shoes were self-made.
Each shoe consisted of an oval piece of leather; the edges turned up and bound with strong
leather straps. Microscopic examination illustrated that the material used, was in fact, leather and
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
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  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
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not fur. The soles were presumably made of cowhide. Attached to the straps was a net knotted
from grass cords; this covered the instep and the heel. This device was intended to hold in place
the grass stuffed into the shoes for warmth. The cord-net also covered the loop hanging down
from the leggings. Attached to the sole leather were the uppers, presumably of fur, which then
continued up the leg roughly in the form of a boot. This was tied around the ankle with grass
cords.
The oldest shoe found in Western Europe before the Iceman was unearthed in 1874. It came
from the Buiner bog in the Dutch province of Drente. On the basis of pollen analysis, this shoe
was dated back to the end of the Neolithic period, or generally about 2500 BC. Unlike the shoes
of the iceman, it’s sole and upper were made from a single, oval piece of leather. In later
specimens, a seam in the front of an inverted T would be placed at the heel, ensuring a better fit.
This would be tied around the foot with a leather strap, which passed through slits about 2
centimeters long (3/4 inch) placed some 3 millimeters (¼ inch) in front the edge. Even though
there was nothing else remaining of this shoe, such as an inner lining, it was clearly constructed
on a different principle from that of the Iceman’s footwear, which consisted of separate pieces of
material sewn together.
The homemade process was relatively simple. The foot was placed on a slab of leather or other
material and a sole was cut from it. A piece of leather or some type of cloth was laid over the top
of the foot, cut to fit, then nailed or tacked to the sole. Nobody thought in terms of size or width;
the shoes were basically made to protect the feet. It was simply a method of fitting the foot with
a cover. Shoemakers would generally follow the same basic method except for much more skill
and sophistication. The shoemaker would start with a foot tracing, sometimes making an
impression of the foot in clay or plaster. He would measure the foot "mass" by using the hand-
span methods; elsewhere with various spans of his hand he created a "last" (a form shaped like a
foot). With this process, there was no sizing of shoes; just the taking of measurements. Each
shoemaker measured in his own individual way, which he protected and guarded. These trade
secrets, of course, precluded any possibility of a general shoe measuring or sizing system
applicable to everyone. Once the last was made, the shoemaker kept it in his possession, assuring
repeat business from the same customer. Also, the shoemaker would be able to continue making
shoes of a finer quality than the homemade kind because of his shoemaking skills as well as
individual artistry in styling.
Early shoes, more than likely, fit much better than today’s shoes, as they were custom made to
each foot. But nevertheless, many points of modern fitting refinement were absent, such as tread
design, collar fit, heel and arch fittings, vamp fit, etc.
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
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  as	
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List of shoe styles
	
  
Fig	
  1.8	
  Sneakers	
  in	
  a	
  footwear	
  shopping	
  mall	
  at	
  display.
This is a list of shoe styles and designs. A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and
comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of
decoration. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture,
with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many
design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary
footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Shoemaking is the process of making
footwear. Originally, shoes were made one at a time by hand. Traditional handicraft shoemaking
has now been largely superseded in volume of shoes produced by industrial mass production of
footwear, but not necessarily in quality, attention to detail, or craftsmanship.
Fig 1.9 Ballet shoes Fig 1.10 Derby shoes
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  booklet	
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  commercial	
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  nor	
  for	
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  it	
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  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
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private	
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Fig	
  1.11	
  Traditional	
  Shoe	
  (Galesh)	
  	
  	
  Fig	
  1.12	
  High	
  heel	
  shoes	
  with	
  stilettos	
  	
  	
  Fig	
  1.13	
  Jelly	
  shoes.	
  
How to Find Your True Shoe Size
Is it better to buy shoes that are too big or too small? How many times do you ask yourself that
question? Or think to yourself "now that I bought these hot shoes, how can I make them fit and
feel better?" These are questions that cross the minds of many women when purchasing the latest
and hottest shoe styles.
In order to find your true shoe size when you are buying shoes use the Brannock shoe
measuring device at the shoe store. That will give you both the width and length of your foot.
There are many people who find, after measuring their feet, that they have one foot longer or
wider than the other. This is a normal variant and there is nothing to worry about. One of the
reasons why it happens can be genetic and you can blame it on mom or dad. The formation of
bunions and tailor bunions are boney abnormalities that have a genetic predisposition and will
change the anatomical boney alignment of the foot making it wider. Another reason could be
because of a splay foot where the ligaments weaken and the foot can elongate and widen.
Women during pregnancy may experience this type of phenomena because of the hormone
Relaxin that is released to allow the ligaments in the pelvis to stretch during the time of delivery.
The ligaments in the foot can also become affected and the foot can get wider and longer.
However, once the foot gets longer or wider it does not go back to its original size.
The rule of thumb to live by when buying a pair of shoes is that there should be a thumb's width
between the tip of the longest toe in your foot and the end of the shoe. The first, second or third
toes are often the landmarks because they are usually the longest toes in your foot.
Always buy a pair of shoes that fit the bigger foot. The reason for this is that you can place an
over the counter insole in the larger one to either take up some of the room or prevent foot
slippage. Never force your foot into a shoe that is too small or too tight. Wearing ill-fitting shoes
can cause foot, ankle, knee and low back problems. Shoes that do not fit properly can throw your
balance off and make you walk funny. If the shoe is too narrow you can develop ingrown toe
nails, corns on the top and side of your toes and irritate the skin resulting in blister formation.
The solution to these problems is to take your time when selecting a new pair of shoes. Try not to
buy shoes on emotion only. Hint: Buy shoes during the time of the day that you would be
probably wearing them because feet can often swell during the day. If your feet are swimming
around inside the shoe and slipping forward, place an insole or an arch support in the shoe to
This	
  booklet	
  is	
  not	
  for	
  any	
  commercial	
  purpose	
  nor	
  for	
  sale,	
  it	
  is	
  prepared	
  solely	
  for	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  
private	
  and	
  internal	
  circulation	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  of	
  this	
  college	
  as	
  study	
  material.	
  
	
  
	
  
FDDI/ACCESSORY	
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take up some of the extra room as well as prevent the slipping. If the arch in your foot is
cramping when wearing shoes that are a little too big and going into spasm because the toes are
curling up inside the shoes, my company makes an over the counter shoe product available to
prevent that problem. The product is called Instant Arches. This oval shaped arch support
product, one size fits all, will stop the foot from moving forward in the shoe and prevent skin
irritation. They will also support the arch and eliminate arch cramps
How to take care of Footwear?
“The rains can play havoc on your footwear. While gum boots and rubber shoes are preferred
during the season, an occasion might require you to wear leather shoes, ballet flats or even
wedges. “
Moreover, the humidity in the weather could make you sweat more, leaving a foul smell in your
shoes and socks. Here are ways to take care of your footwear during this season.
- As soon as you return home, wipe the muck off your footwear using a clean and moist cloth.
- If you wear sports shoes in the rains, dry them by loosening the laces.
- Do not keep footwear in closed cabinets without completely drying them.
- Drying shoes under direct sunlight can do more harm to your shoes. Leave them to dry under
the fan instead.
- Always wear clean socks.
- Try sticking to rubber footwear and avoid wearing expensive shoes.
- Avoid wearing leather shoes in this weather. However, if an occasion demands you to wear
them, apply a wax-based polish. This will create a thin protective layer that provides light
resistance to water and salt.
1.	
  Leather	
  and	
  Patent	
  Leather	
  Shoes	
  
For leather shoes to maintain their condition, a rigorous cleaning regimen is required. Properly
maintained leather shoes will have a long life and be wearable for years. The table below lists
some of the essential shoe care tools required to care for a pair of leather shoes.
Tool	
   Proper	
  Usage	
  
Leather
Brush
Used to brush dust and debris from leather shoes. This is the first step in routine
maintenance for shoes.
Leather
Cleaner
Saddle soap, ivory soap, or specialty leather cleaners can be used to clean a
leather shoe. This should be applied with a damp cloth and then wiped off.
Allow the shoe to dry on a cedar shoe tree before polishing or conditioning.
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Accessory design studymaterial

  • 1.
  • 2. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  1                                              COURSE-­‐B.DES  (FASHION  DESIGN)      COURSE  CODE-­‐  B.DES  (FD)   SUBJECT  HEAD   ACCESSORY  DESIGN   MODE  OF  STUDY   SUBJECT  CODE   BFD(504)   PRACTICAL           ACCESSORY  DESIGN   B.Design  in  Fashion-­‐  3rd  year   Students  Course  compiled  by  Mr.  Tamoghna  Mandal   Senior,  Faculty  Fashion  Design  Department   STUDENT’S  LEARNING  BOOKLET         FDDI   MINISTRY  OF  COMMERCE  &  INDUSTRY   GOVERNMENT  OF  INDIA      A-­‐10/A,  SECTOR-­‐24,  NOIDA-­‐201301   Copy  Right  Reserved      (For  private  circulation  only)        Free  Student’s  Course  Material  (Not  for  Sale)    
  • 3. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  2       CONTENTS-­‐   _________________________________________   UNIT1.    JEWELLERY………………………………………………………………….1-­‐20   UNIT2.    BAGS…………………………………………………………………………21-­‐39   UNIT3.  SHOES………………………………………………………………………..40-­‐52   UNIT4.    BELTS…………………………………………………………………………53-­‐  74   UNIT5.  SCARVES…………………………………………………………………….  75-­‐82   UNIT6.  DESIGN  RESEARCH  AND  MARKET  SURVEY……………………83-­‐84   UNIT7.  EXPERIMENT  WITH  MATERIAL  AND  FINAL  CONCEPT……85-­‐87   UNIT8.  SAMPLE  RESEARCH  AND  SURFACE  ORNAMENTATION….88   UNIT9.  MERCHANDISE  INFORMATION  TERMINOLOGY…………..89   ______________________________________
  • 4. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  3     UNIT  1   JEWELERY   Jewelery Amber pendants wheat grain shaped jewelry burnt clay Indian jewelry( terracotta) FIG1.1 – Pictures showing different forms of 19th century jewelry. Jewelery consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewelery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewelry, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest types of archaeological artifact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewelry The basic forms of jewelry vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewelry listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewelry in terms of design and style has come from Asia. Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European
  • 5. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  4     culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture. The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French "jouel" and beyond that, to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. However, in North America, the more common spelling is "jewelry," and although both spellings appear in Canadian English, jewelry prevails by a two to one margin. In addition, "jewel," not "Jewell," is the standard spelling in all forms of English.   Materials  and  methods   In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7% pure gold), (though in the UK the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to 18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.   FIG  1.2  Showing  Bead  embroidery  design.   Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office (the building which gives English jewellery its stamp of approval, the Hallmark) the right to destroy the piece; however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.
  • 6. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  5     Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used is known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures. Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts). Diamonds     Fig  1.3:  Picture  showing  uncut  single  piece  diamonds.  The  shine  and  clarity  is  to  be  noted.    Diamond   Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.            
  • 7. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  6       Other  gemstones   Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are: Amber   Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old. Amethyst Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark. Fig 1.3 showing Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum. Emerald Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC. Jade Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colors as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven. Jasper Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colors. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the colored stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern.
  • 8. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  7     Quartz Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well- known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions. Ruby Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones. Sapphire The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire). Turquoise Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour. Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals. Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconium, which can be used in place of diamond.[13]
  • 9. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  8         Metal  finishes     Fig  1.4  showing  an  example  of  gold  plated  jewellery   For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving "brush strokes." Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture. Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (a process known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or Jewelry  Manufacturing   Today jewelry is crafted using the traditional method of simple tools and skilled fingers to modern tools and hi tech means. The flow of ideas and the wide range of designs offer this choice. Mass production or made to order is the other factor in choosing a particular method of production. Here is an attempt to bring to the reader a comprehensive idea about jewelry manufacturing. I am sure many of you wonder at the marvels, beauty and workmanship of their favorite piece of jewellery. Many questions might spring to mind, wondering how the delicate design was created or the gem set? What makes the jewellery strong? Who are these artisans who wield their art with such aplomb creating intricate piece de resistance' with impudence? Making jewellery is definitely not a cake walk. Time, technology and experience have contributed to strengthening the art of jewellery manufacturing. When early man began wearing jewellery fashioned out of stones, bones or any attractive material that caught the eye he hammered, pounded, chiseled and rubbed to get the required shape and size. As man matured and ideas grew, new techniques
  • 10. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  9     developed to capture his imagination in a world of gold, gems and glitter. From simple discs to 3D designs were woven with the help of tools and technology. Today jewellery is crafted using the traditional method of simple tools and skilled fingers to modern tools and hi tech means. The flow of ideas and the wide range of designs offer this choice. Mass production or made to order is the other factor in choosing a particular method of production. Here is an attempt to bring to the reader a comprehensive idea about jewellery manufacturing. REASONS FOR WEARING JEWELLRY • It is functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place, or to tell the time (in the case of watches) • It works as a mark of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring • It also signifies some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social • It sometimes helps us to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets) • It portrays a form of artistic display • It acts as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning - such as love, mourning or luck. TYPES OF JEWELLRY Jewelry  can  be  classified  in  a  number  of  ways.   On  the  basis  of  the  material  used   Diamond Jewelry  -­‐  Diamonds  may  be  worn  in  all  sorts  of  jewelry,  including  rings,  bracelets,  necklaces   and  earrings.    Pearl Jewellry  -­‐  Pearls  from  freshwater,  the  sea  or  cultured  can  be  made  into  earrings,  necklaces,   bracelets  and  more.               Fig  1.5  to  1.1.10  showing  all  types  of  jewelry  as  a  fashion  accessories.    
  • 11. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  10     Gold Jewelry  -­‐  In  natural  State  its  bright  yellow  metal  and  is  extremely  soft.  So  it  is  always  mixed  with   other  metals  for  commercial  purposes.  Four  types  of  Gold  Jewelry-­‐:   Karat  Gold-­‐  To  consider  a  karat  gold  at  least  10  k  of  gold  in  an  alloy.  The  most  costly.24  karat  is  pure   gold.14  karat  means  14  parts  of  gold  and  10  parts  of  other  metal.   Gold  filled-­‐  A  thin  sheet  of  gold  is  rolled  and  then  adhered  to  the  base  metal.  The  amount  of  gold  has  to   be  1/20  of  the  total  weight  of  the  item.   Rolled  gold  plate-­‐  Similar  to  gold  filled  but  the  amount  of  gold  in  an  alloy  is  much  less;  almost  /40  of  the   total  metal’s  weight.   Electroplated  gold-­‐  Any  inexpensive  jewelry  if  requires  a  shiny  look  then  a  fine  gold  surface  very  thin  in   context  is  electroplated  and  passed  over  in  the  surface  of  the  metal  to  give  a  gold  like  golden  yellowish   look  which  might  wear  away  within  few  months.    Silver Jewelry  –  It  is  white  and  relatively  low  cost  than  gold  but  very  valuable  and  precious.  It’s   alloyed  with  copper  and  gets  the  name  sterling  silver.  For  less  costly  designs,  silver  also  gets   electroplated.  For  sterling  silver  the  alloy  must  contain  925  parts  of  silver  and  75  parts  of  copper.    Gemstone Jewelry -­‐  Jewelry  with  colored  stones  that  are  not  diamonds.  This  may  include  precious   and  semi-­‐precious   Bead  Jewelry-­‐Bead  art  in  India  is  five  thousand  year  old  and  dates  back  to  the  time  of  Indus  Valley   Civilization.  People  of  that  civilization  used  to  make  beads  out  of  gold,  silver,  copper,  clay,  ivory  and   even  wood.  The  excavated  carried  out  there  came  out  with  finished  and  unfinished  beads  from  the  site.   Filigree  Jewelry:  Filigree  work  is  done  on  silver  and  involves  lots  of  precision  and  technicality,  added   with  great  amount  of  patience  and  an  eye  for  minute  details.  Historically,  filigree  work  was  quite   popular  in  countries  like  Egypt,  Italy,  and  Spain.  India's  history  of  filigree  work  goes  back  to  early   centuries.   Ivory  Jewelry:  Jewelry  that  is  made  from  the  tusk  of  an  elephant  is  called  ivory  jewelry.  Importance  of   ivory  jewelry  can  be  guessed  from  the  fact  that  in  Gujarat,  the  bride  receives  an  ivory  bangle  from  her   family  just  before  marriage  as  jewelry.  During  marriage  ceremony  wearing  of  ivory  bangles  is  must  for   bride.   Jadau  Jewelry:  Jadau  Jewelry  forms  one  of  the  major  examples  of  high  skilled  craftsmanship  that  was   brought  into  India  by  Mughals.  Historically  speaking,  the  tradition  of  Jadau  work  has  been  in  practice  in   the  states  of  Rajasthan  and  Gujarat  since  the  Mughal  era.  Jadau  jewellery  is  also  called  engraved   jewelry.  
  • 12. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  11     Kundan  Jewelry:  During  Mughal  period,  the  art  of  kundan  work  reached  Rajasthan  from  Delhi.  Later  on,   craftsmen  from  the  different  part  of  the  country  migrated  to  the  place  and  made  Rajasthan  a  hub  of   Kundankari.  Rulers  and  feudal  lords  gave  patronage  to  the  art  and  it  developed  into  perfection.   Lac Jewelry:  Lac  jewelry,  also  known  as  lacquer  jewelry,  originated  in  Rajasthan  and  has  gained   considerable  popularity  in  India  today.  Lac  jewelry  is  available  in  versatile  designs,  which  add  to  its   beauty.  Among  the  various  items  in  lac  jewelry,  the  bangles  need  a  special  mention.   Meenakari Jewelry:  In  Meenakari  jewelry,  precious  stones  are  set  and  then  enameled  with  gold.   Historically  speaking,  the  art  was  introduced  to  Rajasthan  artisans  by  Raja  Mansingh  of  Amer.  He  invited   Lahore-­‐based  skilled  artisans  to  his  kingdom,  and  their  intermingling  with  the  locals  craftsmen  resulted   in  an  amalgam.   Navratna  Jewelry:  In  Navratna  jewelry,  nine  auspicious  stones  are  used  in  a  single  ornament.  The  belief   behind  this  is  that  the  nine  stones  together  ensure  well  being  of  the  person  who  wears  it.  In  India,   Navratna  jewelry  has  been  given  major  importance,  because  of  its  astrological  significance  as  well  as  its   innate  charm.               Fig  1.15  to  Fig  1.20  showing  all  fashion  jewelry  of  kundan,  lac,  glass  and  jadau.     On  the  basis  of  the  usage     Fashion Jewelry  –  It  is  not  always  the  highest  of  quality;  fashion  jewellry  makes  a  statement  and  is   typically  lower  cost.   Costume Jewelry  -­‐  This  type  of  jewelry  is  worn  to  be  fancy  at  grander  events  and  occasions.  Usually   more  gaudy  or  ornate.   Traditional jewelry
  • 13. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  12     Bridal Jewelry  –  This  jewelry  type  just  for  the  wedding,  specifically.  Usually,  this  is  a  matching   necklace  and  earring  set.   Vintage Jewelry  –  This  vintage  jewelry  could  include  costume  or  any  type  of  heirloom  or  antique   pieces.   Methods  used  in  Jewelry  manufacturing     Methods that are typically used to make jewellery from gold and silver and its alloys are Investment Casting, Die casting, cattle fish casting and hand fabrication. Many jewelers use CAD/CAM to make jewellery. CAD computer aided designs and CAM i.e. computer aided manufacturing to reproduce a model piece of jewellery that can be mass produced. Making jewellery requires knowledge and expertise in gold smiting, stonecutting, engraving, mold making, fabrication, wax carving, lost wax casting, electroplating, forging, and polishing. These are the various steps needed to make jewellery. The first step in making a detailed piece is making of a mold. Mould   Jewellery making begins with a mould. A mould is the exact and perfect replica of the piece to be made, copied either from a design or a piece/object. A mould is shaped around the shape/figure with the help of casting process. The casting process involves a number of steps. There are two methods of casting, investment casting or die casting each with its own advantages. Investment  Casting   Investment Casting is also called 'lost wax casting' since the wax is removed by heating in a kiln or in an autoclave. It is the earliest metal technique evolved by mankind and has a history of 4,000 years. Believed to have been developed by the Mesopotamians, it remains the most popular process of making gold (metal) jewellery and forms the basis of modern investment casting process. This process involves dipping a mold into a ceramic mix. Sometimes new materials like plastic or polystyrene foam is used instead of wax. This process has a number of steps involved. • A primary model is made in hard alloy like nickel silver or just silver. • A rubber model is made by surrounding this primary model, using sheet rubber in a mold frame. It is then vulcanized by placing it in a heated press. On cooling, it is cut with a scalpel into halves or more and removing the primary model. • This rubber mold is used to make many copies of the primary model on wax. • Molten wax is then introduced into the mold cavity by using a wax injector. On cooling the wax is removed to get an exact copy of the primary model in wax. • After the desired number of models has been made the waxes are arranged in a tree all around a central feeder in the casting machine. The central feeder is also called sprue. The tree placed in a metal cylinder called flask.
  • 14. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  13     • A special mixture called investment plaster is mixed with water to form a thick liquid and poured over the tree covering the wax models. Low vacuum removes air bubbles and then this is allowed to cool and harden to form stiff and sturdy molds. • Then the flask is inverted and placed in a kiln/furnace. The wax is melted by steam or air to remove all the wax. The furnace is set in stages and the maximum temperature reached is 750 degrees centigrade. The melting process takes about 12 to 16 hours. This melting down of the wax is called the 'lost wax process'. • The wax is slowly melted and drained out completely and all that is left behind is the investment plaster mold and this will now be used to pour the required molten metal (to be cased) into.   • The casting process begins by putting the flask in a casting machine. The gold metal or its alloy is melted and then cast into the investment mold. Then it is allowed to cool and solidify. • After it has cooled down completely it is immersed into cold water which breaks off the investment mold, leaving the casts in the tree. The casting are cut off and then made into jewellery pieces which will then be polished into completion. Two types of casting machines are used the centrifugal casting machine which is the older technique or the modern technique of static vacuum assist machines. Advantages  of  investment  casting     It is an age old proven method. It allows the jeweler flexibility to create complex designs. The details can be copied perfectly. The control of color is better. The finished product can be highly polished. It results in very fine surface finish. The metallurgical properties are also excellent. Disadvantages  of  investment  casting     This process can result in porosity. Also the dimensions may not be as accurate as the die struck method. This process can and is used for almost all gold jewellery and remains a favorite with jewelers even after 6,000 years later! Die  struck  method   Die struck method is a casting method where the metal to be cast is forced under pressure into a mold which is usually made out of metal. This is a bona fide method of producing complex shapes. The earliest recorded history of die casting by pressure occurred in 1800's. Using a plunger or compressed air, molten metal is forced into a metallic die and the pressure is maintained until the metal settles and solidifies. The pressure reaches 25 tons per square inch. The intense pressure causes the atoms in the metal to move closer together and solidify to form dies or molds. Using compressed sheet metal and steel dies mountings are formed with metal parts mechanically stamped out. Each part is matched and fitted into the correct portion of halved die and stamped and shaped. A hydraulic press is used.
  • 15. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  14       Various  methods  of  cuttings  tools  of  stones  and  process  of  carvings  of  floral  design  being  displayed  in   the  pictures  above.         In  the  above  picture,  cutting  into  desired  shape  has  been  shown  .In  the  adjacent  picture  a  lady   inspecting  and  sorting  stones  for  the  correct  choice  of  stone  setting.       In  the  above  picture  the  men  are  preparing  themselves  for  casting,  a  method  where  a  cast  and  mold  is   made  in  which  molten  metals  are  forced  in.  The  adjacent  picture  is  showing  a  lady  giving  shape  to  a   stones  to  enhance  beauty  and  sometimes  hide  imperfections  and  inclusions.  
  • 16. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  15     Types  of  stone  setting   There are thousands of variations of setting styles, but there are several fundamental types: Bezel  setting     A  bezel  set  sapphire   The earliest known technique of attaching stones to jewelry was bezel setting. A bezel is a strip of metal bent into the shape and size of the stone and then soldered to the piece of jewelry. Then the stone is inserted into the bezel and the metal rubbed over the stone, holding it in place. This method works well for either cabochon or faceted stones. Prong  setting     Prong  set  diamonds   Prong setting is the simplest and most common type of setting, largely because it uses the least amount of metal to hold the stone, thus showing it off to its best advantage. Generally it is simply some number of wires, called prongs, which are of a certain size and shape, arranged in a shape and size to hold the given stone, and fixed at the base. Then a burr of the proper size, is used to cut what is known as a "bearing", which is a notch that corresponds to the angles of the stone. The burr most often used is called a "hart bur" that is angled and sized for the job of setting diamonds. That bearing is cut equally into all of the prongs and at the same height above the base. Then the stone is inserted so that it goes into all of the bearings, pliers or a pusher are used to bend the prongs gently over the crown of the stone, and the tops of the prongs are clipped off with snips, filed to an even height above the stone, and finished. Usually a "cup burr" is used to give the prong a nice round tip. A cup burr is in the shape of a hemisphere with teeth on the inside, for making rounded tips on wires and prongs. There are many variations of prong settings including just two prongs, the common 4 prongs or up to 24 or more with many variations involving decoration, size and shapes of the prongs themselves, and how they are fixed or used in jewelry. But the method of setting is generally the same for all of them no matter how many prongs are present.
  • 17. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  16     Channel  setting     Channel  set  diamonds   Channel setting is a method whereby stones are suspended between two bars or strips of metal, called channels. Often when setting small stones and the bars go in a linear line with the design it is called channel setting, and when the bars cross the lines of the design, it is called bar set. The idea is the same, though. The channel is some variation of a "U" shape, with two sides and a bottom. The sides are made just a bit narrower than the width of the stone or stones to be set, and then, using the same burs as in prong setting, a small notch, which is again called a bearing, is cut into each wall. The stone is put in place in those notches, and the metal on top is pushed down, tightening the stone in place. The proper way to set a channel is to cut a notch for each stone, but for cheaper production work sometimes a groove is cut along each channel. Also, since the metal can be very stiff and strong, this is a situation where a reciprocating hammer, which is like a jackhammer but jewelry sized, might be used to hammer down the metal, as it can be difficult to do by hand. Then, as always, the metal is filed down and finished, and the inner edge near the stones cleaned up and straightened as necessary. As with all jewelry, there can be many variations of channel work. At times the walls will be raised—sometimes a center stone will be set between two bars that rise high from the base ring—or the channel might just be cut directly into some surface, making the stones flush with the metal. It is still channel setting, though. Bead  setting     Example  of  bead  set  diamonds     Example  of  pave  set  diamonds  
  • 18. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  17     Bead setting is a generic term for setting a stone directly into metal using gravers, also called burins, which are essentially tiny chisels. A hole is drilled directly into the metal surface, and then a ball burr is used to make a concave depression just the size of the stone. Some setters will set the stone into that concave depression, and some will use a hart burr to cut a bearing around the edge. Then the stone is inserted into that space, and the gravers or burins are used to lift and push a tiny bit of the metal into and over the edge of the stone. Then a beading tool, which is simply a steel shaft with a concave dimple cut into the tip, is pushed onto the bit of metal, rounding and smoothing it, pushing it firmly onto the stone, and creating a "bead". That is the essential method, but there are many types of setting that use the technique. When many stones are set in this fashion very closely together, about 1 millimeter apart covering a surface that is called “pave”— from the French for paved or cobblestoned. When a long line is engraved into the metal going up to each of the beads that is "star set", because of the look. The other common usage is called "bead and bright", "grain setting" or "threading" in Europe, and other names at times. This is when; after the stone is set as described above, the background metal around the stone is cut away, usually in geometric shapes. In the end what is left is the stone with four beads in a lowered box shape with an edge around it. Often it is a row of stones, so it will be in a long shape with a raised edge and a row of stones and beads down the center. This type of setting is still used often, but it was very common in the early to middle 20th century. Burnish  setting     Fig  showing  Burnish  set  diamonds   Burnish setting, also sometimes referred to as flush setting, shot setting, or gypsy setting (The term gypsy setting is used less often today because the word gypsy is seen as derogatory) is similar to bead setting, but after the stone is inserted into the space, instead of using a graver to lift beads, a burnishing tool is used to push the metal all around the stone. The stone will be roughly flush with the surface, with a burnished or rubbed edge around it. This type of setting has a long history but is gaining resurgence in contemporary jewelry. Sometimes the metal is finished using sandblasting, as it shows off the work very well.
  • 19. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  18           This  hand  sketch  illustration  is  showing  the  details  effect  of  polished  diamond  inculcated  in  a  ring.       This  above  illustration  is  showing  6  different  types  of  Prong  settings.  
  • 20. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  19         This  illustration  is  showing  diamond  setting  with  ring  attachment  and  different  stone  viability.       The  diagram  features  different  names  suggestion  for  different  settings  of  diamond  in  a  ring  of  gold  or   silver.                  
  • 21. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  20                     EXERCISES   1. Design  5  jewellery  of  different  materials  and  color  it  appropriately.   2. List  10  best  national  and  International  jewellery  brands  and  write  a  brief  of  each  about   the  brand,  foundation,  turnover  and  sales  profit  with  its  tie  ups  and  branding   promotional  activities.     Review  questions   Q1.  What  are  Jewelries?  What  are  the  materials  and  methods  used  in  jewelry  making?   Q2.  Describe  5  gemstones  and  their  usage  for  jewelry  designing?   Q3.  Explain  5  different  types  of  Jewelry?   Q4.  What  is  Investment  jewelry?  What  are  the  advantage  and  disadvantage  of  investment  jewelry?   Q5.  What  are  the  different  types  of  Stone  cutting?   Q6  Explain  the  following  in  short  answers-­‐:   1. Jadau  Jewelry   2. Prong  Setting   3. Burnish  setting   4. Die  –struck  method   5. Traditional  jewelry   6. Navaratna  jewelry   7. Diamonds    
  • 22. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  21         UNIT  2   BAGS     A   handbag,   or   purse   in   American   English,   is   a   handled   medium-­‐to-­‐large   bag   that   is   often   fashionably  designed,  typically  used  by  women,  to  hold  personal  items  such  as  wallet/coins,   keys,  cosmetics,  a  hairbrush,  mobile  phone  etc.   Handbags  have  been  known  for  their  special  relation  to  women.  They  have  been  one  of  the  most   popular  and  are  often  used  accessories  of  women  even  before  old  times.  Handbags  are  not  only   considered  as  a  functional  item  that  help  them  carry  their  important  belongings,  but  women  consider   them  as  one  of  the  most  significant  preferences  in  succeeding  the  best  fashion  style  they  dreaming  of,   as  well.  The  purpose  of  Bags  has  exceeded  its  prime  purpose  of  convenience  and  fashion.  Bags  come  in   different  sizes,  giving  us  the  opportunity  to  bring  things  all  the  time.     As  an  accessory,  bags  can  totally  change  the  way  we  look  or  dress  for  a  certain  occasion.  Nowadays,   handbags  are  coming  out  with  plenty  varieties  of  styles  and  designs  to  choose  from.  Designers  are   making  various  creations  with  different  styles  and  designs  that  can  match  with  the  lifestyle  of  today's   savvy  women.  We  have  travel  bags,  baby  bags,  pet  bags,  school  bags,  formal  bags,  designer  bags,  school   bags,  and  many  more.  Not  all  handbags  are  created  equal  –  some  are  classics,  some  are  trendy,  some   are  practical,  some  are  simply  arm  candy.    You  can  flaunt  a  bag  to  manifest  your  cool  personality,  to   show  your  strong  attitude  or  even  to  complement  your  jovial  nature.  There  is  something  for  every   personality,  and  also  for  every  occasion.   Bags  are  one  of  the  most  essential  fashion  accessories  carried  by  a  woman,  every  woman  has  a  dream  to   carry  a  matching  hand  bag  with  her  dress  and  so,  hand  bags  are  found  in  various  styles  and  patterns  that   can  go  matching  with  any  kind  of  dress.  Bags  for  women  are  basically  to  carry  their  stuffs  in  a  more   convenient  way  while  some  of  them  carry  for  show.  Aside,  from  its  main  purpose  of  storage  and   portability,  bags  also  add  to  aesthetics.   A  number  of  European  manufacturers  have  long  histories  of  producing  leather  goods.  Some  were  made   by  famous  jewelry  companies  such  as  Tiffany  &  Co.  For  some  companies,  Gucci  and  Louis  Vuitton,   handbags  were  introduced  to  their  product  range  relatively  recently  in  their  history  but  for  others  like   H.J.  Cave  &  Sons,  they  have  been  around  almost  as  long  as  the  company.  Nonetheless,  handbags  are   among  their  best-­‐known  products,  and  their  logos  are  recognized  in  many  countries  today.     The  most  expensive  of  the  luxury  handbags  are  made  by  Hermès.  Prices  start  at  $6000;  handbags  are   made  to  order,  and  the  waiting  lists  are  years  long.  Hermès  handbag  designs  carry  the  names  of   actresses,  socialites,  and  other  celebrities  who  were  frequently  photographed  with  a  particular  handbag,  
  • 23. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  22     most  notably  the  "Birkin"  bag  named  after  Jane  Birkin,  and  the  "Kelly"  bag  named  after  Grace  Kelly.   Other  designers  have  adopted  the  practice  of  naming  their  handbag  designs  after  celebrities,  for   example  Marc  Jacobs,  who  created  the  "Stam"  purse,  named  after  model  Jessica  Stam.     HISTORY  OF  HANDBAGS   Handbags have been essential to fashion history ever since people have had something precious to carry around with them and only the items have changed over time. Early handbags ware more functional rather than being a fashion statement. They were typically small circular cut pieces of material that normally had a leather strap. The leather strap was sewn around the circumference of the handbag to maintain its' strength and security. The very first mention in written literature comes from the 14th century, even though Egyptian hieroglyphs show pouches carried around the waist. Bags were attached to what were called "girdles" which were fastened to the waist. Embroidery and jewels adorned these articles and were used to show status - the richer the person, the more elaborate the bag. In the 16th century, handbags took on more of an air of practicality with the use of everyday materials such as leather with a drawstring fastener on top. During this period, cloth bags were used that were made larger and used by travelers and carried diagonally across the body. The 17th century saw more variety and both fashionable men and women carried small purses with more complex shapes. Young girls were taught embroidery as a very necessary skill to make them marriageable and we see the rise of beautiful and unique stitched artwork in handbags. Neo-classical clothing became popular in the 18th century with a reduction in the amount of underclothing worn by women. Wearing a purse would ruin the look of this clothing so fashionable ladies started carrying their handbags which were called reticules. Reticules became a fashion statement. The functional element of handbags although remaining important started to give way to the design of the handbag in reasons why people chose a particular handbag for their wardrobe. Fashion magazines were primarily responsible for making handbags a fashion statement as they began to comment on the best handbags to use for specific events, occasions and locations. This led to the need to have different handbags for different conditions. Handbags remained functional but not just as travelers carry bag but to carry other personal items including a fan, perfume, smelling salts and make-up. The term "handbag" first came into use in the early 1900's and generally referred to hand-held luggage bags usually carried by men. These were an inspiration for new bags that became popularized for women, including handbags with complicated fasteners, internal compartments, and locks. With this new fashion, jewelers got into the act with special compartments for opera glasses, cosmetics, and fans. The 1920's saw a revolution in fashion with varying hemlines and lighter clothing. Bags no longer needed to match the outfit perfectly and the rage was for the stylish lady to carry a doll dressed exactly like herself, complete with matching bag for her miniature companion! The 1940's saw new austerity in clothing, including handbags with the war effort in mind. Metal frames, zips, leather, and mirrors were in short supply so manufactures used plastic and wood. The 50's saw the
  • 24. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  23     rise of important designer houses including Chanel, Louis Vuitton, and Hermes and the 60's saw the breakdown of old notions of the classical and the rise of youth culture. Copy is the most sincere form of flattery and, if so, Kate Spade, Gucci, Hermes, Coach and Dior must be very flattered! There are many replica handbags flooding the market. Some of these "designer fakes" even carry the label of the Company they are imitating while others just have the signature "C" or "G" without the label. TYPES OF BAGS Athletic bag: a soft, roomy bag used to carry sporting equipment and apparel to the gym Backpack: a bag that is supported by the shoulders with double handles and lies across the back. Lightweight types of backpacks are sometimes worn on only one shoulder strap. Backpacks are often preferred to handbags for carrying heavy loads or carrying any sort of equipment, because of the limited capacity to carry heavy weights for long periods of time in the hands. Backpacks are supported on either one or both shoulders. Perfect for students who need to carry laptops, books, water bottle and snacks among other things, they are the traditional school bags with a twist. A backpack ought to have two padded straps – wider the straps, better the support. Baguette Bag: A purse that is relatively long from side to side and small from top to bottom basically a little like a baguette with a handle. It is long and narrow in shape similar to a French bread loaf.
  • 25. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  24     Bowling Bag: A bag originally made to hold a bowling ball, this has become a fashion item. Bucket bag: roomy bag shaped like a bucket, usually has an open top and shoulder strap. Clutch Bag: Small but long bag (rectangular), evening bag without a handle. You have to clutch it hence the name. Cosmetic case: bags of varying sizes and shapes with a zip closure lined to hold cosmetics Coin Purse: Sometimes called change purses. A coin purse is a small bag designed to hold coins and other small items. Cross-Body Bag: Typically smaller in size, these bags are meant to be worn across the body to allow you be hands-free while on the go
  • 26. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  25     Drawstring Handbag: A bag with a string or cord cinch closure Envelope bag: a flat, square or rectangular bag with a triangle- shaped top flaps that fold over like an envelope. Fold over clutch: a clutch with or without a handle that can be tucked or folded. Hobo Bag: a large crescent-shaped shoulder bag or any large bag that hangs from your shoulder and has a main compartment closure. Jhola :A cousin of satchel bag is our good old mirror worked “jhola” bags that we get off the streets. While the satchel can be teamed with western wear, the mirror worked versions can be carried with Indian casual wear. These Jholas come in varied designs and colors, thus suited for every personality. It’s now safe to say that that perception has changed. They are now considered to be a major fashion draw for students throughout the country.
  • 27. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  26     Messenger Bag: A bag with a long strap to be worn across the body that winds around the chest resting the bag on the lower back.. Messenger bags are often used by bicycle messengers, though they are increasingly becoming an urban fashion icon. Messenger bags ensure comfort to people carrying heavy and/or bulky items, while allowing easy access to the contents. While they can be found in the possession of either gender, they are often commonly employed by men in a function analogous to a woman's purse. These have also become fashionable in urban environments, among cyclists and commuters. Materials used in messenger bags are often more durable and water-resistant than traditional bags. Typically, a messenger bag has a rectangular shape with a fold over flap that is held closed by a buckle, clasp, zipper or magnetic catch. Muff: a winter bag made of real or faux fur, wool or velvet that has zippered compartments and a slip opening for your hands. Saddle Bag: a large bag (or pair of bags) hung over a saddle. Many designers use saddle bag as an inspiration for their designs. Therefore, their bags are called saddle bags, even though they are not actually saddle bag
  • 28. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  27     Satchel: A structured handbag with double handles, locking hardware and a wide, flat bottom. May be large or small. A satchel is a bag, often one or sometimes two large straps. The strap is often worn so that it diagonally crosses the body, with the bag hanging on the opposite hip, rather than hanging directly down from the shoulder. Handle is generally rigid and curved. The main difference between a satchel and a briefcase is that a satchel is soft-sided usually of leather. Also, satchels often have straps while briefcases usually don't. Most students are also using these bags to help them carry their books, notebooks and other school supplies. Sling Bag: A bag with a long strap (similar to a messenger bag), yet smaller. This stylish design is quite similar to the messenger counterparts, but slings are definitely way ahead considering style and looks. When used by men, the bags are often called man purses or man bags. This bag goes well with western casuals. These bags are more famous amongst the men folk. Tote Bag: A medium to large bag with two straps. Sometimes sold as a reusable shopping bag, this bag can carry anything that is too large for a common handbag – also called a ‘Shopper’ Weekend Bag: A bag of a size to carry clothing and personal articles for a weekend trip
  • 29. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  28     Wristlet - a clutch shaped bag that comes with an attached leather or bracelet-looking strap allowing you to hold your bag and dance freely. Duffel Bag: A large bag usually used for travel or sports. The name comes from Duffel, a town in Belgium where the thick cloth used to make the bag originated. Duffel bags are often used by sailors, and are sometimes called sea bags in this capacity. More recently, a duffel bag typically refers to the specific style of bag, though the phrase may also be used to refer to any large bag made of thick fabric. It is often used to carry luggage or sports equipment by people who travel in the outdoors. Duffel bags have large compartments to place numerous valuables such as clothes, shoes, and other things when away from home. Laptop Bags: A bag used to carry laptops, ipads or other portable electronic devices. Typically has a single handle and is carried like a briefcase. Most come with a removable shoulder strap. Organizer Bags: Handbags with compartments and pockets for organized storage of makeup, wallets, coin purses, appointment books, and other personal items.
  • 30. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  29     COMPONENT PARTS OF HANDBAGS: Term Definition Examples Closure Mechanism used to close the purse Drawstring, snap, zipper, toggle button, magnet, Velcro, kiss-lock, clasp Handle Refers to relatively short, usually rigid hand grips Leather, synthetic leather, chain, metal, bamboo, wood, bone, plastic Strap Commonly long, flexible loops Leather, synthetic leather, fabric Lining Fabric used to line the interior of the purse Natural fabric, synthetic fabric, vinyl Frame A rigid top structure from which a soft bag is suspended; the closure is often a kiss-lock type which snaps shut Usually metal but may be plastic or another hard material Hardware (Usually) metal pieces Zippers, snaps, buckles, clasp closures, spring clasps and loops used to attach removable straps, strap adjustments, rings connecting straps to bags, feet Feet Small nubs, typically four, found on the bottom of a flat-bottomed bag to keep it off of dirty surfaces Metal, rubber, plastic
  • 31. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  30     LUGGAGE BAGS-: Luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a traveler’s articles during transit. The modern traveler can be expected to have packages containing clothing, toiletries, small possessions, trip necessities, and on the return-trip, souvenirs. For some people, luggage and the style thereof is representative of the owner's wealth. Luggage has changed over time. Historically the most common types of luggage were chests or trunks made of wood or other heavy materials. These would be shipped by professional movers. Since the Second World War smaller and more lightweight suitcases and bags that can be carried by an individual have become the main form of luggage. TYPES OF LUGGAGE No single piece of luggage is perfect for all kinds of travel. That's why there are so many types of luggage, bags and packs to choose from. Trunk - A wooden box, generally much larger than other kinds of luggage. Trunks come in smaller sizes as in the case of footlockers and larger ones called steamers. These days trunks are more commonly used for storage than transportation. Items large enough to require a trunk are now usually shipped in transport cases. Suitcase - A general term that may refer to wheeled or non-wheeled luggage, as well as soft or hard side luggage. There are three types of suitcase. Each can be anywhere from 24 inches to 36 inches in size.
  • 32. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  31     Hard-sided suitcases: Hard-sided suitcases feature wheels, locks, and pull straps and are especially durable against wear and tear. Many are constructed of plastic, metal, or other molded materials; others feature wood or metal interior frames and a soft covering like fabric or leather. Semi-soft suitcases: Lightweight semi-soft suitcases offer more room for expansion than other types of suitcases and most have wheels and straps for easy transport. Soft-sided suitcases: Light and expandable soft-sided suitcases have zipper closures and stiffeners instead of an interior framework. Garment bag - A style of luggage that folds over on itself to allow long garments such as suits or dresses to be packed flat to avoid creasing. Garment bags come in both wheeled and non-wheeled models, and are usually one of the largest pieces in any set of luggage. 4. Tote - A small bag, usually worn on the shoulder 5. Duffel bag - A barrel-shaped bag, almost exclusively soft side, is well suited to casual travel, with very little organization inside. The spelling "duffle" is also valid.
  • 33. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  32     Wheeled Duffels Nothing swallows up gear like a duffel bag, and one with wheels is a good choice for multisport gear junkies. If your adventures frequently require gear of widely varying sizes and shapes, rolling duffel is a smart way to corral it all. For light packers, a carry-on wheeled duffel (22") offers less space but allows you to forego the time and expense of checking a bag. Wheeled Backpacks Popular with adventure travelers, these combine the convenience of wheeled luggage with the mobility of a backpack. You can transport lots of gear with a simple pull of the extendable handle. Laptop Bags, Sleeves and Day Packs These urban bags have a padded compartment to protect your 10"–17" laptop, plus a bevy of organizing pockets to hold cables, peripherals and paperwork. Laptop sleeves can also be used with e-readers and tablets.
  • 34. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  33     FEATURES OF LUGGAGE Locks - locks serve multiple purposes; a deterrent to dishonest airport workers and locks also help keep baggage closed during handling. Expandable Luggage - suitcases that can be unzipped to expand for more packing space. Wheels: The "Dawn-Mobile", the first suitcase on wheels, was invented in 1908 by James Cole, a preacher for the Bible Students, to carry copies of the Bible commentary. Rolling suitcases were reinvented in 1970, when Bernard D. Sadow applied for a patent that was granted in 1972 as United States patent 3,653,474 for "Rolling Luggage". Sadow's four-wheeled suitcases, pulled using a loose strap, were later surpassed in popularity by roll boards, suitcases that feature two wheels and are pulled in an upright position using a long handle, and were invented in 1987 by US pilot Robert Plath. Large suitcases and Pullmans
  • 35. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  34     PROMINENT BRANDS (INTERNATIONAL)-: There is now an array of luxury luggage brands to pick from and all offer style and practicality in their collections. Companies range from fashion heavyweights Louis Vuitton and Ralph Lauren to travel specialists Tumi and Samsonite. Even sports car maker Porsche is getting involved with its Driver’s Selection suitcases. And many of today’s luggage lines have to satisfy the jetsetter’s requirements. Most offer two-wheel mobility while some go further with four-wheel 360° freedom of movement. Victorinox, which made the original Swiss army knife before turning to luggage, has in-built hangar clamps in its Deluxe Garment Mobilizer to keep clothes wrinkle-free. Luggage doesn’t always mean suitcases – Alfred Dunhill’s and Ralph Lauren’s weekender bags provide an alternative for shorter stays. They are stylish without sacrificing function and are spacious enough to allow you to bring what you need. Italian luxury goods brand Bottega Veneta started in 1966. It is a lot younger than the other featured labels but it offers something different to hard-shell suitcases. The fashion house uses its signature intrecciato VN leather for its luggage line. The material is durable and stands up to the wear and tear of frequent travel. All of our luxury luggage lines feature because they strike the balance between style, function and endurance. Traveling can be that much sweeter with a reliable companion in your hand. Louis Vuitton With roots in trunk making dating back as far as 1871, Louis Vuitton combines luxury with expert craftsmanship to provide the ultimate in sophisticated luggage. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewellery, accessories, sunglasses, and books. Whether you’re seeking the signature Monogram canvas, personalized details or colorful designs, globetrotters can’t go wrong with one of Louis Vuitton’s travel creations.
  • 36. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  35     Samsonite International luggage specialist Samsonite has been leading the field for more than 100 years. Samsonite International S.A. is an American multinational luggage manufacturer and retailer, with products ranging from large suitcases to small toiletries bags and briefcases. It was founded in Denver, Colorado in 1910 by Jesse Shwayder. Shwayder named one of his initial cases Samson, after the Biblical strongman, and began using the trademark Samsonite in 1941. The company changed its name to Samsonite in 1966. VIP Industries Ltd(NATIONAL BRAND)-: It is world second largest and Asia’s largest Luggage maker based in Mumbai Maharashtra, India. The company manufactures plastic moulded suitcases, handbags, briefcases, vanity cases and luggage. It has acquired UK luggage brand Carlton in 2004.It provides travel products, hard and soft-sided luggage, bags, backpacks, duffels, shoulder bags, waist pouches, sling bags, duffel trolleys, vanity cases, office bags and satchels, suitcases, and briefcases. The company offers its products primarily under the VIP, Carlton, Footloose, Alfa, Aristocrat, Sky bags, and Buddy brands.
  • 37. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  36     EXERCISES-: 1. Design 3 bags of different occasion and show the side, front and top view and render it and mention its different parts with appropriate trimmings. 2. Collect 5 national and international brand pictures of bags and luggage’s and study and note the design and interesting features of those bags and discuss it in class. 3. Design your own logo and give an imaginary brand name with one bag design for the following wear-: A.  executive  wear   B.  cruise/resort  wear   C.  Party  wear.     4. Draw the outline of the of a female human form based on 5 different occasional wear and sketch and identify the various bags of that may be worn in this figure. 5. Collect different newspaper and magazines and identify the bags and paste and label it. Next, try to draw and render the exact image by doing a photo analysis. Review Questions Q1. Describe the history of bags? Explain 5 different types of bags along with correct diagram. Q2. Explain 5 components of Handbags. Q3. Describe one international brand for bags in details. Q4. Explain two types of luggage’s with the help of a neat diagram. Q5. Write short notes on the following-:     1.  Straps   2.  Laptop  bag 3.  Bougette  Bags   4.  Athletic  Bags   5.  Lining   6.  Hobo  bags  
  • 38. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  37     UNIT  3   SHOES     SHOES-: DEFINITE FASHION FOOTWEAR! Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment. Some cultures choose not to wear footwear, at least in some situations. Socks and other hosiery are typically worn between the feet and other footwear, less often with sandals or flip flops (thongs). Footwear is sometimes the subject of sexual fetishism, such as shoe fetishism or boot fetishism. Durable shoes are a relatively recent invention, though many ancient civilizations wore ornamental footwear. Many ancient civilizations saw no need for footwear. The Romans saw clothing and footwear as signs of power and status in society, and most Romans wore footwear, while slaves and peasants remained barefoot. The Middle Ages saw the rise of high-heeled shoes, also associated with power, and the desire to look larger than life, and artwork from that period often depicts bare feet as a symbol of poverty. Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot, or remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing. In some cultures, people remove their shoes before entering a home. Some religious communities require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples. Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers. Materials   • Leather • Plastic • Rubber • Textiles • Wood • Jute • Metal Components • Adhesives • Buckle • Counter • Eyelet • Heel • Hook • Insole • Laces  
  • 39. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  38     • Shank • Sole • Tack • Tread • Welt • Outsole    Fig-­‐1.1   Fig  1.1  shows  Shoes  made  from  crocodile  skin,  in  a  conservation  exhibit  at  Bristol  Zoo,  England   Types   • Shoe Styles-:Boots o Chukka boots o Combat boots o Cowboy boots o Go-go boots o Hiking boots o Kinky boots o Motorcycle boots o Mukluk o Platform boots o Riding boots o Russian boots o Derby boots o Thigh-length boots • Shoes     o Athletic shoes (also known as trainers or sneakers) o Brothel creepers o Court shoes (known in the US as pumps) o Diabetic shoes o Espadrilles o Galoshes o Kitten heels o Lace-up shoes § Derby shoes § Oxford shoes
  • 40. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  39     § Brogues o High-tops o Loafers o Mary Jane o Moccasins o Monks o Mules o Platform shoes o School shoes o Skate shoes o Tap shoes • Sandals o Flip-flops (thongs) o Slide o Slippers • Foot wraps • Specific footwear o Ballet shoes o High-heeled footwear o Climbing shoes o Clogs o Football boots o Sabaton o Safety footwear o Ski boots o Snowshoes o Surgical shoe o Pointe shoes o Swim fins (flippers) • Traditional footwear Footwear  industry   In Europe, the footwear industry has declined in the last years. Whereas in 2005, there were about 27,000 firms, in 2008 there were only 24,000. As well as the number of firms, the direct employment has decreased. The only factors that remained almost steady were the value added at factor cost and production value. In the U.S., the annual footwear industry revenue was $48 billion in 2012. There are about 29,000 shoe stores in the U.S. and the shoe industry employs about 189,000 people. Due to rising imports, these numbers are also declining. The only way of staying afloat in the shoe market is to establish a presence in niche market
  • 41. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  40       Fig  1.2                                    Fig  1.3   Fig  1.2  and1.3  showing  the  features  for  the  parts  of  shoe.  Note  the  shoe  type  show  in  both  the   pictures  is  of  Sneaker.     Fig  1.4  showing  the  anatomy  of  part  of  a  Female  shoe.  Note  that  some  parts  of  female  shoe  don’t  exist   in  male  show.  Can  you  jot  down  the  difference  of  those  few  parts?  
  • 42. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  41       Fig  1.5  Showing  full  features  of  a  athletic  Sneaker  ideal  for  sports  wear.   ___________________________________________________________________________________   Fig 1.6 Showing parts of male shoe. ______________________________________________________________________________
  • 43. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  42     Terminology The following is a list of terms used to describe parts of the shoe. Some terms refer to parts that all shoes have such as the sole, while other terms may only apply to certain types or style of shoe. Breast: The forward facing part of the heel, under the arch of the sole Counter: A stiff piece of material at the heel of a shoe positioned between the lining and upper that helps maintain the shape of the shoe. The counter helps strengthen the rear of the soe. Feather: The part of the shoe where the upper’s edge meets the sole Heel: The heel is the part of the sole that raises the rear of the shoe in relation to the front. The heal seat is the top of the heel that touches the upper; this is typically shaped to match the form of the upper. The part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground is known as the top piece. Insole: A layer of material that sits inside the shoe that creates a layer between the sole and the wearer’s foot. The insole adds comfort for the wearer, while hiding the join between the upper. Linings: Most shoes include a lining on the inside of the shoe, around the vamp and quarter. These linings improve comfort, and can help increase the lifespan of the shoe. Outsole: The exposed part of the sole that is contact with the ground. As with all parts of the shoe, outsoles are made from a variety of materials. The properties the outsole need are: grip, durability, and water resistance Puff: a reinforcing inside the upper which gives the toe its shape and support. Similar function to a toe cap. Quarter: The rear and sides of the upper that covers the heel that is behind the vamp. The heel section of the quarter is often strengthened with a stiffener, which helps support the rear of the foot. Some shoe designs use a continuous piece of leather for the vamp and quarter. Seat: Where the heel of the fit sits in the shoe. It normally matches the shape of the heel for comfort and support. ‘Shank: A piece of metal inserted between the sole and the insole lying against the arch of the foot. Sole: The entire part of the shoe that sites below the wearers foot. As opposite to the upper. The upper and sole make up the whole of the shoe.
  • 44. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  43     Throat: The front of the vamp next to the toe cap. For shoes were the vamp and quarter panels are one piece the throat is at the eye-stay. Toe cap: Shoes may have a toe cap in the front upper of the shoe. Toe caps can take various forms, but the distinct types are: complete replacements for the front upper of the shoe; stitched over toecaps that add an extra layer to the upper; solid toe caps for protection, such as steel toe caps. Stitch over toe caps may be decorative in nature. Toe caps help add strength to the upper front of the shoe, an area that receives a lot of stress and wear from use. Top Piece: The part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. Made of a durable material that helps maintain friction with the ground. Top line: The top edge of the upper Upper: The entire part of the shoe that covers the foot. Vamp: The section of upper that covers the front of the foot as far as the back as the join of the quarter. Waist: The arch and in-step of the foot. Welt: A strip of material that joins the upper to the sole. Understanding  the  Basic  Manufacturing  Process   People have been wearing shoes for over 5,000 years, but shoe sizing systems are a fairly recent development. Many years ago, shoes were made or acquired in one of three ways: 1) Custom-made by a shoemaker; 2) The individual made his own for himself or his family; and 3) Buying second-hand shoes from a more prosperous individual (or receiving hand-me-downs within the family). FIG  1.7   Fig  1.1  showing  an  artist's  impression  of  Ötzi's  right  shoe.  Ötzi  is  a  male  mummy  found  in  the  Austrian   Alps  in  September  1991  in  remarkably  well-­‐preserved  condition.   As seen with the discovery of a 5,000 year old Iceman, in Fig 1.7 his shoes were self-made. Each shoe consisted of an oval piece of leather; the edges turned up and bound with strong leather straps. Microscopic examination illustrated that the material used, was in fact, leather and
  • 45. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  44     not fur. The soles were presumably made of cowhide. Attached to the straps was a net knotted from grass cords; this covered the instep and the heel. This device was intended to hold in place the grass stuffed into the shoes for warmth. The cord-net also covered the loop hanging down from the leggings. Attached to the sole leather were the uppers, presumably of fur, which then continued up the leg roughly in the form of a boot. This was tied around the ankle with grass cords. The oldest shoe found in Western Europe before the Iceman was unearthed in 1874. It came from the Buiner bog in the Dutch province of Drente. On the basis of pollen analysis, this shoe was dated back to the end of the Neolithic period, or generally about 2500 BC. Unlike the shoes of the iceman, it’s sole and upper were made from a single, oval piece of leather. In later specimens, a seam in the front of an inverted T would be placed at the heel, ensuring a better fit. This would be tied around the foot with a leather strap, which passed through slits about 2 centimeters long (3/4 inch) placed some 3 millimeters (¼ inch) in front the edge. Even though there was nothing else remaining of this shoe, such as an inner lining, it was clearly constructed on a different principle from that of the Iceman’s footwear, which consisted of separate pieces of material sewn together. The homemade process was relatively simple. The foot was placed on a slab of leather or other material and a sole was cut from it. A piece of leather or some type of cloth was laid over the top of the foot, cut to fit, then nailed or tacked to the sole. Nobody thought in terms of size or width; the shoes were basically made to protect the feet. It was simply a method of fitting the foot with a cover. Shoemakers would generally follow the same basic method except for much more skill and sophistication. The shoemaker would start with a foot tracing, sometimes making an impression of the foot in clay or plaster. He would measure the foot "mass" by using the hand- span methods; elsewhere with various spans of his hand he created a "last" (a form shaped like a foot). With this process, there was no sizing of shoes; just the taking of measurements. Each shoemaker measured in his own individual way, which he protected and guarded. These trade secrets, of course, precluded any possibility of a general shoe measuring or sizing system applicable to everyone. Once the last was made, the shoemaker kept it in his possession, assuring repeat business from the same customer. Also, the shoemaker would be able to continue making shoes of a finer quality than the homemade kind because of his shoemaking skills as well as individual artistry in styling. Early shoes, more than likely, fit much better than today’s shoes, as they were custom made to each foot. But nevertheless, many points of modern fitting refinement were absent, such as tread design, collar fit, heel and arch fittings, vamp fit, etc.
  • 46. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  45     List of shoe styles   Fig  1.8  Sneakers  in  a  footwear  shopping  mall  at  display. This is a list of shoe styles and designs. A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Shoemaking is the process of making footwear. Originally, shoes were made one at a time by hand. Traditional handicraft shoemaking has now been largely superseded in volume of shoes produced by industrial mass production of footwear, but not necessarily in quality, attention to detail, or craftsmanship. Fig 1.9 Ballet shoes Fig 1.10 Derby shoes
  • 47. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  46       Fig  1.11  Traditional  Shoe  (Galesh)      Fig  1.12  High  heel  shoes  with  stilettos      Fig  1.13  Jelly  shoes.   How to Find Your True Shoe Size Is it better to buy shoes that are too big or too small? How many times do you ask yourself that question? Or think to yourself "now that I bought these hot shoes, how can I make them fit and feel better?" These are questions that cross the minds of many women when purchasing the latest and hottest shoe styles. In order to find your true shoe size when you are buying shoes use the Brannock shoe measuring device at the shoe store. That will give you both the width and length of your foot. There are many people who find, after measuring their feet, that they have one foot longer or wider than the other. This is a normal variant and there is nothing to worry about. One of the reasons why it happens can be genetic and you can blame it on mom or dad. The formation of bunions and tailor bunions are boney abnormalities that have a genetic predisposition and will change the anatomical boney alignment of the foot making it wider. Another reason could be because of a splay foot where the ligaments weaken and the foot can elongate and widen. Women during pregnancy may experience this type of phenomena because of the hormone Relaxin that is released to allow the ligaments in the pelvis to stretch during the time of delivery. The ligaments in the foot can also become affected and the foot can get wider and longer. However, once the foot gets longer or wider it does not go back to its original size. The rule of thumb to live by when buying a pair of shoes is that there should be a thumb's width between the tip of the longest toe in your foot and the end of the shoe. The first, second or third toes are often the landmarks because they are usually the longest toes in your foot. Always buy a pair of shoes that fit the bigger foot. The reason for this is that you can place an over the counter insole in the larger one to either take up some of the room or prevent foot slippage. Never force your foot into a shoe that is too small or too tight. Wearing ill-fitting shoes can cause foot, ankle, knee and low back problems. Shoes that do not fit properly can throw your balance off and make you walk funny. If the shoe is too narrow you can develop ingrown toe nails, corns on the top and side of your toes and irritate the skin resulting in blister formation. The solution to these problems is to take your time when selecting a new pair of shoes. Try not to buy shoes on emotion only. Hint: Buy shoes during the time of the day that you would be probably wearing them because feet can often swell during the day. If your feet are swimming around inside the shoe and slipping forward, place an insole or an arch support in the shoe to
  • 48. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  47     take up some of the extra room as well as prevent the slipping. If the arch in your foot is cramping when wearing shoes that are a little too big and going into spasm because the toes are curling up inside the shoes, my company makes an over the counter shoe product available to prevent that problem. The product is called Instant Arches. This oval shaped arch support product, one size fits all, will stop the foot from moving forward in the shoe and prevent skin irritation. They will also support the arch and eliminate arch cramps How to take care of Footwear? “The rains can play havoc on your footwear. While gum boots and rubber shoes are preferred during the season, an occasion might require you to wear leather shoes, ballet flats or even wedges. “ Moreover, the humidity in the weather could make you sweat more, leaving a foul smell in your shoes and socks. Here are ways to take care of your footwear during this season. - As soon as you return home, wipe the muck off your footwear using a clean and moist cloth. - If you wear sports shoes in the rains, dry them by loosening the laces. - Do not keep footwear in closed cabinets without completely drying them. - Drying shoes under direct sunlight can do more harm to your shoes. Leave them to dry under the fan instead. - Always wear clean socks. - Try sticking to rubber footwear and avoid wearing expensive shoes. - Avoid wearing leather shoes in this weather. However, if an occasion demands you to wear them, apply a wax-based polish. This will create a thin protective layer that provides light resistance to water and salt. 1.  Leather  and  Patent  Leather  Shoes   For leather shoes to maintain their condition, a rigorous cleaning regimen is required. Properly maintained leather shoes will have a long life and be wearable for years. The table below lists some of the essential shoe care tools required to care for a pair of leather shoes. Tool   Proper  Usage   Leather Brush Used to brush dust and debris from leather shoes. This is the first step in routine maintenance for shoes. Leather Cleaner Saddle soap, ivory soap, or specialty leather cleaners can be used to clean a leather shoe. This should be applied with a damp cloth and then wiped off. Allow the shoe to dry on a cedar shoe tree before polishing or conditioning.