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A High-Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed
and Reconfigurable Applications
A Cellular Network Architecture With Polynomial
Weight Functions
Abstract:
Emulations of cellular nonlinear networks on digital reconfigurable hardware are renowned for
an efficient computation of massive data, exceeding the accuracy and flexibility of full-custom
designs. In this contribution, a digital implementation with polynomial coupling weight functions
is proposed for the first time, establishing novel fields of application, e.g., in the medical signal
processing and in the solution of partial differential equations. We present an architecture that is
capable of processing large-scale networks with a high degree of parallelism, implemented on
state-of-the-art field-programmable gate arrays. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis
the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2.
Enhancement of the project:
Existing System:
The precision of analog implementations is usually not sufficient for numerically sophisticated
applications. Moreover, the design of these application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) is
generally fixed and parameters like network size or data precision cannot be adjusted. Thus, the
emulation of CNNs on reconfigurable digital devices, especially on field-programmable gate
arrays (FPGAs), becomes attractive for prototyping and applications where flexibility and/or
higher precision is required.
We present an advancement of the recently introduced NERO architecture to the TITUS
architecture for the digital emulation of PTCNNs with an arbitrary polynomial order.
PTCNN MODEL
A CNN is a regular system of processing elements (PEs) (cells) that are coupled to its neighbors
in lateral and diagonal directions. In a common 1-neighborhood each cell is hence coupled to
eight neighbors and to itself (also called 3 × 3 neighborhood). In a PTCNN, the couplings
between the neighboring cells are represented by polynomial weight functions. Since a standard
model has not yet been defined, we exclusively refer to feedback and feed-forward terms of
polynomial order P ∈ N∗.
A High-Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed
and Reconfigurable Applications
Using the forward Euler integration method, we obtain the discretetime state equation of a
PTCNN
Disadvantages:
 System efficiency is less
Proposed System:
NERO Architecture
A direct mapping of the cellular network structure to digital hardware is feasible and efficient,
yet strongly limited by the available resources. For that reason, we designed the NERO
architecture by mapping large-scale networks to medium- or small-scale processor arrays, yet
retaining the local couplings of the CNN paradigm and minimizing the number and length of
interconnections between the PEs.
Fig. 1. Array architecture with a row of locally coupled PEs and additional PE dummies (D).
A High-Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed
and Reconfigurable Applications
In this architecture, the network is divided into vertical segments that are treated line-by-line and
segment-by-segment by a row of npe PEs. Each PE is connected to its left and right neighbors, or
to a dummy PE at either ends of the row, respectively. Fig. 1 shows the structure of the 1-D
processor array with the main control and data paths. For an optimal hardware utilization
(Section IV-A), two PEs share a common memory unit (mem) and a PE control unit. Both the
PEs and the mems are coupled only locally to moderate the routing complexity. The left and
right PE dummies (D) have no calculation core and are required only to provide data from the
borders to the neighboring segments, or to ensure the network boundary conditions, respectively
TITUS—Extension for PTCNN
The modifications to NERO to process the PTCNN state equation (1) comprise the calculation
core of the PE, the local controller unit, and the template FIFO. The novel architecture of the
calculation core will be explained subsequently.
The structure of the extended calculation core is shown in Fig. 2. It comprises three DSPs for the
left, central, and right column, each processing the contribution of three neighboring cells to the
state equation. Each DSP (shown in Fig. 3) calculates three elements of the Horner scheme with
m0 = 0.
mk+1 = x · (a + mk ) (2)
The number of iterations of (2) depends on the selected polynomial order. The results are
accumulated, added to wˆij , and finally constrained to the range [−1; 1] with the operator N .
Advantages:
 System efficiency is less
Software implementation:
 Modelsim
 Xilinx ISE

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A cellular network architecture with polynomial weight functions

  • 1. A High-Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed and Reconfigurable Applications A Cellular Network Architecture With Polynomial Weight Functions Abstract: Emulations of cellular nonlinear networks on digital reconfigurable hardware are renowned for an efficient computation of massive data, exceeding the accuracy and flexibility of full-custom designs. In this contribution, a digital implementation with polynomial coupling weight functions is proposed for the first time, establishing novel fields of application, e.g., in the medical signal processing and in the solution of partial differential equations. We present an architecture that is capable of processing large-scale networks with a high degree of parallelism, implemented on state-of-the-art field-programmable gate arrays. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. Enhancement of the project: Existing System: The precision of analog implementations is usually not sufficient for numerically sophisticated applications. Moreover, the design of these application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) is generally fixed and parameters like network size or data precision cannot be adjusted. Thus, the emulation of CNNs on reconfigurable digital devices, especially on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), becomes attractive for prototyping and applications where flexibility and/or higher precision is required. We present an advancement of the recently introduced NERO architecture to the TITUS architecture for the digital emulation of PTCNNs with an arbitrary polynomial order. PTCNN MODEL A CNN is a regular system of processing elements (PEs) (cells) that are coupled to its neighbors in lateral and diagonal directions. In a common 1-neighborhood each cell is hence coupled to eight neighbors and to itself (also called 3 × 3 neighborhood). In a PTCNN, the couplings between the neighboring cells are represented by polynomial weight functions. Since a standard model has not yet been defined, we exclusively refer to feedback and feed-forward terms of polynomial order P ∈ N∗.
  • 2. A High-Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed and Reconfigurable Applications Using the forward Euler integration method, we obtain the discretetime state equation of a PTCNN Disadvantages:  System efficiency is less Proposed System: NERO Architecture A direct mapping of the cellular network structure to digital hardware is feasible and efficient, yet strongly limited by the available resources. For that reason, we designed the NERO architecture by mapping large-scale networks to medium- or small-scale processor arrays, yet retaining the local couplings of the CNN paradigm and minimizing the number and length of interconnections between the PEs. Fig. 1. Array architecture with a row of locally coupled PEs and additional PE dummies (D).
  • 3. A High-Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed and Reconfigurable Applications In this architecture, the network is divided into vertical segments that are treated line-by-line and segment-by-segment by a row of npe PEs. Each PE is connected to its left and right neighbors, or to a dummy PE at either ends of the row, respectively. Fig. 1 shows the structure of the 1-D processor array with the main control and data paths. For an optimal hardware utilization (Section IV-A), two PEs share a common memory unit (mem) and a PE control unit. Both the PEs and the mems are coupled only locally to moderate the routing complexity. The left and right PE dummies (D) have no calculation core and are required only to provide data from the borders to the neighboring segments, or to ensure the network boundary conditions, respectively TITUS—Extension for PTCNN The modifications to NERO to process the PTCNN state equation (1) comprise the calculation core of the PE, the local controller unit, and the template FIFO. The novel architecture of the calculation core will be explained subsequently. The structure of the extended calculation core is shown in Fig. 2. It comprises three DSPs for the left, central, and right column, each processing the contribution of three neighboring cells to the state equation. Each DSP (shown in Fig. 3) calculates three elements of the Horner scheme with m0 = 0. mk+1 = x · (a + mk ) (2) The number of iterations of (2) depends on the selected polynomial order. The results are accumulated, added to wˆij , and finally constrained to the range [−1; 1] with the operator N . Advantages:  System efficiency is less Software implementation:  Modelsim  Xilinx ISE