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Industrial Pollution and Environmental Policy
Prepared by:
Hamdoon Hussain
B.Sc (Economics), MBA HRM.
Karachi University Business School
(K.U.B.S)
Definition of Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into
the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Pollution can take the form of chemical substances
or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants,
the components of pollution, can be either foreign
substances/energies or naturally occurring
contaminants.
1
Types of Sources
There are four main types of air pollution sources:
1) Mobile sources: such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, & trains.
2) Stationary sources: such as power plants, oil refineries, industrial
facilities, and factories.
3) Area sources: such as agricultural areas, cities, & wood burning
fireplaces
4) Natural sources: such as wind-blown dust, wildfires, & volcanoes
3
Forms of pollution
* Air pollution
* Electromagnetic pollution
* Light pollution
* Littering
* Noise pollution
* Plastic pollution
* Soil contamination
* Radioactive contamination
* Thermal pollution
* Visual pollution
* Water pollution
3
The release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere.
Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur
dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides
produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone
and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react
to sunlight.
Causes
Effects
• Discomfort, disease, or
death to humans, animals,
• Damage other living
organisms such as food
crops,
• Damage the natural
environment and
Ecosystems
Causes & Effects
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automobiles and Domestic fuels
Smoke from Industry chimneys
Automobile exhaust
Burning of fossil fuels
Forest fires
Household combustion devices
Controlling Air Pollution
Maintaining healthy distance between industrial and residential areas
Constructing chimneys tall in size
Removing and recycling wastes in the industrial plants and refineries
Planting plants that metabolize nitrogen oxides and other pollutants
Designing automobiles with emission control system
Timely servicing of the car and minimizing fuel exhaustion
Using public transportation
Using alternative energy sources (solar, hydroelectric, and wind)
Electromagnetic pollution:
• the overabundance of electromagnetic
radiation in their non-ionizing form, like radio
waves, etc, that people are constantly exposed
at, especially in large cities. It's still unknown
whether or not those types of radiation have
any effects on human health, though.
ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION
the overabundance of electromagnetic radiation in their non-
ionizing form, like radio waves, etc, that people are constantly
exposed at, especially in large cities. It's still unknown whether or
not those types of radiation have any effects on human health,
though.
What Creates EMF Pollution?
Here are some of the major contributors to EMF pollution :
• Cell or mobile phones, Computers & related equipment
• Electrical appliances ( including TV’s)
• Electronic equipment
• Information networks
• Cars, motorcycles, buses, train & planes
Cause & Health effects
• The most common health condition caused by EMF is
Electro-Hyper-Sensitivity or EHS which may already effect 3%
of our population.
• Each of the following diseases given below has been
associated with levels of EMF pollution in scientific studies:
• Allergies
• Autism
• Brain Cancer
• Heart Disease and Immune System Damage
• If you know which is the strongest source of EMF in your
environment can reduce EMF radiation exposure by:
• Moving further away from it
• Switching it off, whenever possible
• If it is a wireless device, replace it with a wired alternative
How to Avoid ?
LITTER
the criminal throwing of inappropriate
man-made objects, unremoved, onto
public and private properties
EFFECTS
Millions of dollars are being spent
because this problem.
Rain flow directly to beaches and
rivers.
Affect the animals and plants
habitats.
SOLUTIONS…
1. Cleanups:
Cleaning up the trash using paid and employees
volunteers.
2. Laws and Regulations: International, national,
and statewide laws that prohibit littering and the
dumping of trash.
3. Prevention:
Proper Disposal and Waste Reduction: employing
the three "Rs“ (Recycle, Reuse, Reduce).
PLASTICS POLLUTION
c
involves the accumulation of plastic
products and microplastics in the
environment that adversely affects
wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.
WHAT ARE THE REASONS RESPONSIBLE
FOR PLASTIC POLLUTION IN OUR
COMMUNITY.
Waste of the households, Shops,etc.
Improper garbage system of the area.
Irregularity of the Pvt. Garbage contractors.
Ignorance of the people about the causes and effects of the
plastic pollution.
Lack of proper knowledge about the plastic pollution and its
effects.
Lack of social responsibility and ownership.
SOLUTIONS TO CONTROL PLASTIC
POLLUTION.
 Awareness campaigns- Stop using plastic bags.
Educate people about the plastic pollution and its
effects on our environment.
 Road show in regards “No to plastic bags”, and display
of banners on the walls of slums, colonies and societies
areas.
 Hands with the Municipal Corporation to take the
corrective measures, to do timely inspections.
 Support NSS, NGOs, Volunteer agencies and others to
organize “Safai Abhiyan” in all Society slums,colonies
and rural areas.
 Social responsibility, commitment and ownership by
every individual may control the problem.
Noise Pollution..
which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise,
industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
NOISE POLLUTION
Specific Effects of Noise Pollution
• Noise pollution affects both health and behavior.
• Noise pollution can cause
– Annoyance
– Aggression .
– Hypertension .
– High stress levels .
– Hearing loss.
– High BP
– Sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
Controlling of Noise Pollution
• The Government should ensure the new machines
that should be noise proof.
• Industries should be setup outside residential area and
not near schools.
• Using SoundAbsorber
Light Pollution
Light pollution:
includes light trespass, over-illumination
and astronomical interference.
Light Pollution
Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or
luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive
artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself,
in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc.
Light pollution Causes
• Degradation of photic habitat by artificial light.
• Alteration of natural light levels in the outdoor environment.
• Due to indoor light pollution human health is compromised.
Controlling Light Pollution..
• Excessive lighting should be avoided.
an applicable design should• For Lighting
be followed.
• Light engineering should be applied for
streets.
RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION
Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century
activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation
and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment.
Causes & Effects
Causes
•
•
•
Nuclear Power Plants,
Weapons
Disposal of nuclear waste
Uranium Mining
E f f e c t s
•
•
•
Cancer
Swelling of Bone Joints
Eye Problems
Controlling of Radio Active Pollution
• Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants
• Avoid Using Nuclear Weapon
• Have Proper Treatment for Nuclear Waste
• Avoid mining for Uranium to a minimal
Soil Pollution
Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or
underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are
hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE,[22] herbicides, pesticides and
chlorinated hydrocarbons
It is typically caused by
a) Industrial activity
b) Agricultural chemicals
c c) Improper disposal of waste.
Causes
• Reduce Fertility of Soil
• Pollute ground water
• Foul odor
• Death on living things
Causes & Effects
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Corrosion of underground storage tanks
Application of pesticides and fertilizers
Mining, Oil and fuel dumping
Disposal of coal ash
Leaching from landfills
Discharge of industrial wastes to the soil
Drainage of contaminated surface water
into the soil
e f f e C t s
• Limiting use of fertilizers and pesticides
• Creating awareness about biological control methods
and their implementation
• Using Proper preventive methods like shields in areas
of wind erosion and wind breaks
• Treating industrial and nuclear waste.
garbage• Proper disposing of plastics and other
materials.
• Minimising, reusing and recycling wastes
Controlling of Soil Pollution
THERMAL POLLUTION: is a temperature change in
natural water bodies caused by human influence, such
as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
Thermal Pollution existence of extra high or extra low
(extra hot or cold) condition.
Thermal Pollution
Causes
• Nuclear Power Plants
• Volcanic eruption
• Industries and factories
• Forest Fires
Effects
• Discomfort
• Death on animals and
plants
Causes & Effects
Controlling of Thermal Pollution
•
•
Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants
Controlling and informing time of volcanic eruption
WATERPOLLUTION
Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and
industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters;
discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants,
such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants
into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and
agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides;
also including human feces from open defecation – still a major problem
Ca uses
Causes & Effects
•
•
•
•
Oil spills, garbage, sewage water
Effluent outfalls from factories, refineries,
waste treatment plants etc.. that emit
fluids of varying quality directly into
water bodies.
In villages people have baths in the river,
they wash their clothes and utensils there.
In cities, people throw food wrappers and
other wastes in the water bodies
e f f e C t s
• Disturbs ecosystems
• Loss of aquatic life
• Spread of Diseases
Controlling Water Pollution
Conserve water by turning off the tap.
Mind what you throw down your sink or toilet.
Don’t throw paints and oils in water channels.
Use environment friendly household products, such as
washing powder, household cleaning agents etc.
Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers.
Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up
any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure
it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin.
Minimising use of water by reusing and recycling
Harvesting of rain water to meet water requirements
Treating effluents before releasing
Th a n k Yo u

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11. industrial pollution and environmental policy

  • 1. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Policy Prepared by: Hamdoon Hussain B.Sc (Economics), MBA HRM. Karachi University Business School (K.U.B.S)
  • 2. Definition of Pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. 1
  • 3. Types of Sources There are four main types of air pollution sources: 1) Mobile sources: such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, & trains. 2) Stationary sources: such as power plants, oil refineries, industrial facilities, and factories. 3) Area sources: such as agricultural areas, cities, & wood burning fireplaces 4) Natural sources: such as wind-blown dust, wildfires, & volcanoes 3
  • 4. Forms of pollution * Air pollution * Electromagnetic pollution * Light pollution * Littering * Noise pollution * Plastic pollution * Soil contamination * Radioactive contamination * Thermal pollution * Visual pollution * Water pollution 3
  • 5. The release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight.
  • 6. Causes Effects • Discomfort, disease, or death to humans, animals, • Damage other living organisms such as food crops, • Damage the natural environment and Ecosystems Causes & Effects • • • • • • Automobiles and Domestic fuels Smoke from Industry chimneys Automobile exhaust Burning of fossil fuels Forest fires Household combustion devices
  • 7. Controlling Air Pollution Maintaining healthy distance between industrial and residential areas Constructing chimneys tall in size Removing and recycling wastes in the industrial plants and refineries Planting plants that metabolize nitrogen oxides and other pollutants Designing automobiles with emission control system Timely servicing of the car and minimizing fuel exhaustion Using public transportation Using alternative energy sources (solar, hydroelectric, and wind)
  • 8. Electromagnetic pollution: • the overabundance of electromagnetic radiation in their non-ionizing form, like radio waves, etc, that people are constantly exposed at, especially in large cities. It's still unknown whether or not those types of radiation have any effects on human health, though. ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION the overabundance of electromagnetic radiation in their non- ionizing form, like radio waves, etc, that people are constantly exposed at, especially in large cities. It's still unknown whether or not those types of radiation have any effects on human health, though. What Creates EMF Pollution? Here are some of the major contributors to EMF pollution : • Cell or mobile phones, Computers & related equipment • Electrical appliances ( including TV’s) • Electronic equipment • Information networks • Cars, motorcycles, buses, train & planes
  • 9. Cause & Health effects • The most common health condition caused by EMF is Electro-Hyper-Sensitivity or EHS which may already effect 3% of our population. • Each of the following diseases given below has been associated with levels of EMF pollution in scientific studies: • Allergies • Autism • Brain Cancer • Heart Disease and Immune System Damage • If you know which is the strongest source of EMF in your environment can reduce EMF radiation exposure by: • Moving further away from it • Switching it off, whenever possible • If it is a wireless device, replace it with a wired alternative How to Avoid ?
  • 10. LITTER the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties EFFECTS Millions of dollars are being spent because this problem. Rain flow directly to beaches and rivers. Affect the animals and plants habitats.
  • 11. SOLUTIONS… 1. Cleanups: Cleaning up the trash using paid and employees volunteers. 2. Laws and Regulations: International, national, and statewide laws that prohibit littering and the dumping of trash. 3. Prevention: Proper Disposal and Waste Reduction: employing the three "Rs“ (Recycle, Reuse, Reduce).
  • 12. PLASTICS POLLUTION c involves the accumulation of plastic products and microplastics in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.
  • 13. WHAT ARE THE REASONS RESPONSIBLE FOR PLASTIC POLLUTION IN OUR COMMUNITY. Waste of the households, Shops,etc. Improper garbage system of the area. Irregularity of the Pvt. Garbage contractors. Ignorance of the people about the causes and effects of the plastic pollution. Lack of proper knowledge about the plastic pollution and its effects. Lack of social responsibility and ownership.
  • 14. SOLUTIONS TO CONTROL PLASTIC POLLUTION.  Awareness campaigns- Stop using plastic bags. Educate people about the plastic pollution and its effects on our environment.  Road show in regards “No to plastic bags”, and display of banners on the walls of slums, colonies and societies areas.  Hands with the Municipal Corporation to take the corrective measures, to do timely inspections.  Support NSS, NGOs, Volunteer agencies and others to organize “Safai Abhiyan” in all Society slums,colonies and rural areas.  Social responsibility, commitment and ownership by every individual may control the problem.
  • 15. Noise Pollution.. which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. NOISE POLLUTION
  • 16. Specific Effects of Noise Pollution • Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. • Noise pollution can cause – Annoyance – Aggression . – Hypertension . – High stress levels . – Hearing loss. – High BP – Sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
  • 17. Controlling of Noise Pollution • The Government should ensure the new machines that should be noise proof. • Industries should be setup outside residential area and not near schools. • Using SoundAbsorber
  • 18. Light Pollution Light pollution: includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.
  • 19. Light Pollution Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Light pollution Causes • Degradation of photic habitat by artificial light. • Alteration of natural light levels in the outdoor environment. • Due to indoor light pollution human health is compromised.
  • 20. Controlling Light Pollution.. • Excessive lighting should be avoided. an applicable design should• For Lighting be followed. • Light engineering should be applied for streets.
  • 21. RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment.
  • 22. Causes & Effects Causes • • • Nuclear Power Plants, Weapons Disposal of nuclear waste Uranium Mining E f f e c t s • • • Cancer Swelling of Bone Joints Eye Problems
  • 23. Controlling of Radio Active Pollution • Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants • Avoid Using Nuclear Weapon • Have Proper Treatment for Nuclear Waste • Avoid mining for Uranium to a minimal
  • 24. Soil Pollution Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE,[22] herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons It is typically caused by a) Industrial activity b) Agricultural chemicals c c) Improper disposal of waste.
  • 25. Causes • Reduce Fertility of Soil • Pollute ground water • Foul odor • Death on living things Causes & Effects • • • • • • • Corrosion of underground storage tanks Application of pesticides and fertilizers Mining, Oil and fuel dumping Disposal of coal ash Leaching from landfills Discharge of industrial wastes to the soil Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil e f f e C t s
  • 26. • Limiting use of fertilizers and pesticides • Creating awareness about biological control methods and their implementation • Using Proper preventive methods like shields in areas of wind erosion and wind breaks • Treating industrial and nuclear waste. garbage• Proper disposing of plastics and other materials. • Minimising, reusing and recycling wastes Controlling of Soil Pollution
  • 27. THERMAL POLLUTION: is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
  • 28. Thermal Pollution existence of extra high or extra low (extra hot or cold) condition. Thermal Pollution Causes • Nuclear Power Plants • Volcanic eruption • Industries and factories • Forest Fires Effects • Discomfort • Death on animals and plants Causes & Effects Controlling of Thermal Pollution • • Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants Controlling and informing time of volcanic eruption
  • 29. WATERPOLLUTION Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides; also including human feces from open defecation – still a major problem
  • 30. Ca uses Causes & Effects • • • • Oil spills, garbage, sewage water Effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, waste treatment plants etc.. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into water bodies. In villages people have baths in the river, they wash their clothes and utensils there. In cities, people throw food wrappers and other wastes in the water bodies e f f e C t s • Disturbs ecosystems • Loss of aquatic life • Spread of Diseases
  • 31. Controlling Water Pollution Conserve water by turning off the tap. Mind what you throw down your sink or toilet. Don’t throw paints and oils in water channels. Use environment friendly household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents etc. Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers. Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin. Minimising use of water by reusing and recycling Harvesting of rain water to meet water requirements Treating effluents before releasing
  • 32. Th a n k Yo u