World History Ch. 12 Section 2 Notes


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World History Ch. 12 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Kingdoms and Christianity The Rise of Russia Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Rus and Kiev • Map: The Growth of Russia • Christianity in Russia • Russia under Attack • Faces of History: Alexander Nevsky Section 2
  2. 2. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 The Rise of Russia Main Idea 1.Starting as a blend of Slavs and northern Europeans, the Russians organized as a state, became Christian, and fought invaders. Reading Focus • How did the Rus affect the early history of Kiev? • What factors helped establish Christianity in Russia? • What peoples attacked Russia?
  3. 3. Section 2 Kingdoms and Christianity The Rus and Kiev For thousands of years, hunter-gatherers managed to make a living in the sometimes harsh climate of what we now call Ukraine and Russia. The Rus of Kiev • Slavs among those who occupied plains • Entered historical record AD 800s, as written in The Russian Primary Chronicle • During mid-800s, Slavs along Dnieper River fighting among selves; asked for help from northern Europeans, called the Rus Order • Three brothers, Rus people migrated to Novgorod, trading center; oldest brother, Rurik, brought order to Slavs • 882, Rurik’s successor, Oleg, ventured further south to Kiev, united region • 907 Oleg wanted to extend Kiev south, successfully attacked Constantinople
  4. 4. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 The Growth of Kiev • Oleg’s victory produced advantageous trade agreement, beginning of close connection between Byzantine Empire, Russian people • Late 900s, Rus extended control far beyond Kiev • Defeated Khazars, freed several Slavic tribes Khazars had controlled Yaroslav the Wise • Kievan region became state called Kievan Rus • During height of Kievan Rus’ power, prestige, ruler was Yaroslav the Wise • 1019, Yaroslav became grand prince, ruled until 1054 • Made many cultural, administrative improvements to Kievan Rus
  5. 5. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 Cultural and Administrative Improvements • Collected religious books, hired scribes to translate from Greek into Slavic language • Began ambitious building program to beautify Kiev • Military record was mixed – Regained lost territory, defeated nomadic Pechenegs – Tried to attack Constantinople, but forces were crushed • More successful dealing with western Europe – Maintained good diplomatic, trade relationships – Arranged marriages between daughters, European princes
  6. 6. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2
  7. 7. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 Find the Main Idea Who were the Rus, and what was their connection to Kiev? Answer(s): a group of northern Europeans— perhaps Vikings—who came to rule the Slavs
  8. 8. Section 2 Kingdoms and Christianity Christianity in Russia Cyril and Methodius Slavonic Mass • The Byzantine Empire affected Russia not only with warfare, trade, but also with Christianity • Used Slavonic language to celebrate mass; use of native language helped convert many Moravians • Before Rurik, Oleg, Slavs practiced native religion based on nature, with many gods • 863, Constantinople churchman sent two Greek monks to Moravia to convert Slavs to Christianity, brothers Cyril and Methodius • 2. The two developed written alphabet for Slavonic language, based on Greek alphabet, called Cyrillic alphabet • Thanks to Cyril, Methodius Byzantine version of Christianity spread to Russia
  9. 9. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 Christian Russia Establishment • Important convert, Grand Duke Vladimir I of Kiev • Baptized a Christian; married sister of a Byzantine emperor • Conversion helped gain economic, political advantages from Byzantine Empire State Religion • Even if conversion politically motivated, he built libraries, schools, churches • In 988, Vladimir made Christianity state religion of Kievan Russia • Christianity spread, but tensions between branches of church grew worse Russian Orthodox Church • Following 1054 schism, semi-independent church set up in Russia still linked to Orthodox Church in Constantinople • Eventually became Russian Orthodox Church • Vladimir made saint in new church
  10. 10. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 Summarize How did Christianity spread to Russia? Answer(s): Monks from the Byzantine Empire traveled to Moravia and established the Cyrillic alphabet and a Slavonic mass to spread Christianity.
  11. 11. Section 2 Kingdoms and Christianity Russia under Attack 3. During the mid-1000s, Kievan Rus reached the height of its power as a center of trade and culture. But by the end of the 1200s, it had suffered a steep decline. Kievan Rus was under attack—first by princes within its borders, and later by invaders from beyond. Kievan Rus Weakened • After death of Yaroslav, internal disputes common among Rus • Main threat from princes whose lands were within state’s borders Bogolyubsky • Princes wanted to enlarge lands • 1169, one such prince, Andrew Bogolyubsky, captured Kiev, became new grand prince Stage Set • Andrew insisted on ruling from home city, Vladimir • Further weakened Kiev’s position as the capital • Stage set for fierce attacks from Europe, Asia
  12. 12. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 A Threat from the East The Mongols • 1200s, Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, swept across Asia • Genghis Khan and Mongols created immense empire • Mongol raiders defeated Rus and their allies in 1223 End of Kievan Rus Control • 1227, Genghis Khan died, empire divided into four regions • 1240, Kiev fell to Mongols led by Batu Khan • Mongol state established in southern Russia; Kievan Rus dominance over Disaster Avoided • Mongols mostly left local princes in charge, did not interfere with church • Prince Alexander encouraged Russians not to rebel against new masters • As result Mongols did not destroy as much as in other lands
  13. 13. Section 2 Kingdoms and Christianity A Threat from the North Swedes Prince Alexander • At same time Mongols attacked Rus, danger came from different direction • Same Prince Alexander who calmed Mongol threat, turned attention to Swedes • 1240, band of Swedes invaded Russian territory north of Novgorod • July 15, 1240, Alexander launched surprise attack against Swedish camp on Neva River • Swedes wanted to take control of lucrative trade route between Russia, Byzantine Empire • Swedes defeated; Russia saved from full-scale invasion from north
  14. 14. Section 2 Kingdoms and Christianity Invasion from the Baltic • Alexander known as Alexander Nevsky after victory • Banished by city of Novgorod after meddling in internal affairs • When another invader threatened, Novgorod turned again to Alexander Teutonic Knights • German military order of knights wanted to force Russians to abandon Orthodox Church, convert to Roman Catholicism • Teutonic Knights invaded from Baltic Sea; Alexander fought several battles with them Massacre on the Ice • April 1242, Alexander’s army lured Knights onto thinning ice • Ice cracked; men, horses fell into freezing water • Battle known as massacre on the ice, one of Russia’s most famous • Nevsky celebrated as hero
  15. 15. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2
  16. 16. Section 2 Kingdoms and Christianity From Kiev to Muscovy For more than 200 years after Alexander’s battles, Russia remained under the control of Asian nomadic peoples. Tatars • Tatars, central Asian people who spoke a Turkic language, emerged as Russia’s rulers after Mongols • 1480, Russia eventually freed from foreign domination Muscovy • Muscovy, east of Kiev, grew in importance within Russia • Became capital of nation that gradually expanded to occupy much of Asia
  17. 17. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 2 Sequence Which people first invaded Russia in 1223? What other groups invaded? Answer(s): Mongols; Swedes, Germans