World History Ch. 14 Section 4 Notes


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World History Ch. 14 Section 4 Notes

  1. 1. The High Middle Ages Section 4 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Religious Crises • Wars and Conflict • Map: Hundred Years’ War • Faces of History: Joan of Arc
  2. 2. The High Middle Ages Section 4 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages Preview, continued • Black Death • Quick Facts: Effects of the Plague • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the Bubonic Plague
  3. 3. The High Middle Ages Section 4 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages Main Idea 1. In the late Middle Ages, Europeans faced many challenges, including religious crises, wars, and a deadly plague. Reading Focus • What sorts of religious crises did Europe face during the late Middle Ages? • What were the causes of war and conflict in the late Middle Ages? • What was the Black Death, and how did it affect people?
  4. 4. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Religious Crises 2. In 1346, Europe faced challenges to its religious, political and social order. Since Christianity tied most Europeans together, religious crises were a grave threat to all society. Heresy • Heresy, beliefs that opposed official teachings of church • Heretical beliefs began increasing in Europe, 1100s • Spread throughout medieval society Alarm • Most people remained faithful • Cases of heresy increased, church officials alarmed • Heretics deemphasized role of clergy, sacraments Order • Heresy threatened social order in church • Heretical beliefs frightened religious officials • Determined to stop spread of heresy
  5. 5. The High Middle Ages Section 4 Fighting heresy • Inquisitions primary method of fighting heresy • Legal procedures supervised by special judges who tried suspected heretics • Accused came before court, local authorities punished guilty parties Other means • Francis of Assisi, Dominic of Osma, created new religious orders • Members of orders, friars, spread Christian teachings among people • War also used to fight heresy • Pope Innocent III called for crusade against heretics in southern France, 1208; spent 20 years trying to eliminate heretics there
  6. 6. The High Middle Ages Section 4 The Papacy in Dispute Adding to turmoil in medieval church, a dispute over the papacy • Political fighting in Rome, 1309 – Pope forced to flee to Avignon, southern France – Next several popes also lived at Avignon • 100 years of dispute – 70 years later, Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome – Upon his death, disagreement over new pope; two claimed power, one in Rome, one in Avignon – Council of Pisa tried to settle dispute, created third claim to office – Conflict unresolved, three popes reigned in Europe for 40 years
  7. 7. The High Middle Ages Section 4 Find the Main Idea What religious challenges did Europeans face in the later Middle Ages? Answer(s): the Inquisition, location of the papacy, who would be the next pope
  8. 8. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Wars and Conflict Wars were also being fought so political leaders could gain power for themselves. The two most violent involved the kings of England. Hundred Years’ War • French king died without son, 1328 • King Edward III of England, nearest living relative • Also had first cousin, regent • English wanted Edward to rule both countries • French did not want English king, favored regent King Philip VI • Regent crowned as King Philip VI of France, decision did not please English • Edward invaded France, 1337, began Hundred Years’ War • English won many victories – Used better weapons – Moved deeper into France – Under Henry V, advanced to gates of Paris
  9. 9. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Hundred Years’ War War Changed Course • Young peasant girl, Joan of Arc, changed course of war, 1429 • Claimed saints told her to lead French into battle • Joan, army defeated English at Orléans • Led French to several more victories before being captured, executed by British King Charles VII • After Joan’s death, French King Charles VII rallied army • French steadily took back land lost to English • Drove English almost completely out of country, 1453 • War finally ended after more than 100 years
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  11. 11. The High Middle Ages Section 4 Wars of the Roses No end of fighting • Shortly after peace with France, two families began war over English throne • Lancasters, used red rose as emblem; Yorks, used white rose as emblem • Conflict became known as Wars of the Roses Yorkist victories • Yorkists successful early; Edward IV took throne, 1461 • Won significant victories over Lancastrians • Trouble began after Edward’s death Richard III • Edward’s sons disappeared after his death; brother, Richard III, crowned king • Richard faced number of uprisings; killed in battle of Bosworth Field, 1485 • Tudor Henry VII claimed throne, neither York nor Lancaster; new era began
  12. 12. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Summarize How did fights over the thrones of England and France lead to conflict in medieval Europe? Answer(s): heirs unclear; dispute over French throne led to Hundred Years' War; dispute over English throne led to Wars of the Roses
  13. 13. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Black Death 3. Another crisis Different theories • Hundred Years’ War took toll on English, French armies • Historians unsure what disease was, or if single disease • At same time another crisis struck, between 1347 and 1351 • One theory, combination of two different plagues • Black Death, deadly plague • Bubonic, pneumonic Origins Spread quickly • Brought to Europe by merchant sailors from Genoa • Plague traveled with merchants • Plague contracted in Asia • Spread quickly, struck coastal regions first, moved inland • Flea-infected rats moved from Genoa to European ports • Almost all of Europe touched by Black Death by 1351
  14. 14. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Black Death Course of the Disease • • • • • Black Death, one of worst global killers in all history Symptoms: dark splotches, high fever, vomiting, severe headaches Almost always fatal, most who caught plague died within days Priests and doctors who tended sick also caught plague, died Plague devastated Europe, Central Asia, North Africa, Byzantine Empire Effects More Vacant Land Varying responses to plague Most common, God’s punishment Some turned to witchcraft for cures Some blamed Jews, accused of poisoning water wells • Led to increase in anticlericalism, anti-Semitic feelings in Europe • Loss of population left more vacant land, bought by wealthy • Created more efficiently organized estates, used less labor • Peasants moved to cities to find work • Medieval manor system fell apart • • • •
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  16. 16. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Analyze How did the Black Death help end the manorial system? Answer(s): reduced labor supply; survivors demanded wages; left manors for cities; manor system collapsed
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  18. 18. Section 4 The High Middle Ages Video The Impact of the Bubonic Plague Click above to play the video.