World History Ch. 16 Section 2 Notes


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World History Ch. 16 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Spain Builds an Empire • The Portuguese in Brazil • French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas • Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the French and Indian War • Map: Colonies in the Americas Conquest and Colonies
  2. 2. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Reading Focus • How did Spain build an empire in the Americas? • What kind of colony did the Portuguese establish in Brazil? • What was life like in the French, Dutch, and English colonies in the Americas? Main Idea 1. The countries of Europe established colonies in the lands they had discovered but, in some cases, only after violently conquering the native people who lived there. Conquest and Colonies
  3. 3. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 • Scramble to establish colonies and empires in new lands • Spain first to successfully settle in the Americas • Eventually conquered native empires, the Aztecs and Incas • First areas settled by Spanish, Caribbean islands, Hispaniola, Cuba • Columbus hoped to find gold, did not • Spanish introduced encomienda system there Spain in Caribbean • Colonist given land and Native Americans to work the land • Required to teach native workers about Christianity Encomienda • Disastrous system for Native Americans • Mistreatment, overwork took toll on population • Europeans spread new diseases Millions Died Spain Builds an Empire
  4. 4. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Conquistador • Some Spaniards moved from Caribbean to mainland to set up colonies • Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico, ended with conquest of Aztecs • Cortés a conquistador, military leader who fought against Native Americans Other Advantages • In addition to Native American allies, Cortés had metal weapons, heavy armor, guns, horses—animals never seen before in Americas • Disease also swept through Aztec Empire, killing thousands of people Cortes Marches on Capital • Moctezuma II, Aztec emperor at time of Spanish arrival in Mexico • Aztecs powerful, ruled much of Mexico; unpopular with those they conquered • Cortés joined by thousands of those who wanted to defeat Aztecs The Conquest of Mexico
  5. 5. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Aztec Empire November 8, 1519, Cortés, army entered Tenochtitlán, Aztec capital • Cortés, Moctezuma greeted each other respectfully • Spanish soon took emperor prisoner – Battle erupted – Moctezuma killed • Months of heavy fighting followed – Cortés eventually took city – Defeated entire Aztec empire
  6. 6. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 • 1532, new ruler, Atahualpa, agreed to meet with Spanish • Pizarro demanded Atahualpa accept Christianity, hand over empire to Spain • Atahualpa refused • Spanish killed Atahualpa, destroyed Inca army, took over empire New Ruler • 10 years after conquest of Aztecs, Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Peru • Had heard of fabulous wealth of Inca Empire; hoped to win wealth for himself • Inca Empire already weakened by smallpox; many killed, including emperor • Civil war had also broken out Francisco Pizarro The Conquest of Peru
  7. 7. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Beginnings of Slavery • Disease, mistreatment took toll on native population • Some appalled at treatment • One reformer, Bartolomé de Las Casas recommended replacing Native Americans as laborers with imported African slaves • Slave labor soon became common practice in Americas Life in the Spanish Empire • With Mexico, Peru, Spain gained control of huge empire in Americas • Spanish king chose officials, viceroys, to govern American holdings • Spanish colonial economy based on gold, silver mining, farming • Spanish drafted Native Americans for labor in mines, on farms
  8. 8. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Summarize How did the Spanish create an empire in the Americas? Answer(s): conquered Aztec and Inca empires; appointed viceroys to govern
  9. 9. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 2. Portuguese built an empire in the Americas Because of treaty, their empire was not as large as the Spanish one • 1494, Treaty of Tordesillas drew imaginary line through Atlantic Ocean – Everything west, including most of then-undiscovered Americas, would belong to Spain – Everything to east would be Portuguese – Only Brazil remained as Portuguese colony Treaty • Heavy Brazilian jungles made mining, farming difficult • Portuguese in no hurry to settle • 1530s, colonists slowly moved in, mostly along Atlantic coast – Established huge farming estates, as in Spanish lands – First used Native American, then African slave, labor to work on farms Colonization The Portuguese in Brazil
  10. 10. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Explain Why did few colonists originally move to Brazil? Answer(s): Heavy jungles made farming and mining difficult.
  11. 11. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Native American hunters were the French traders’ main source of furs. Many traders married Native American women, intermingling the two cultures. Silver and gold from American colonies began to circulate in Europe; other European countries paid close attention. Leaders in France, England, and the Netherlands decided that they needed to establish colonies in the Americas. • French explorers established colonies in New France, or Canada • Hoped this would be a rich source for gold, silver • Did not find riches, but found other potentially valuable trade goods New France French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas • Waters of North Atlantic swarming with fish, staple of European diet • Forests yielded valuable furs • French did not send large numbers of colonists; small groups of traders • Did not enslave Native Americans Trade and Colonization
  12. 12. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 • 1682, René-Robert La Salle canoed down entire Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico • Claimed enormous Mississippi region, tributaries for France • Named huge, fertile area Louisiana, after King Louis XIV Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico • A few French explorers headed south to seek more lands to claim • 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded city of Quebec • French also explored Mississippi River • Thought it flowed to Pacific, would provide route to Asia South from New France Further Explorations
  13. 13. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Trade Interests • Dutch who came to North America interested in trade • Only large colony, New Netherland, in Hudson River valley Slow Growth in Americas • New Netherland did not grow • Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of world • Other colonies more profitable New Amsterdam • 1626, governor bought island of Manhattan from Wappinger • Founded city of New Amsterdam, later New York City More Valuable Goods • Produced goods that could not be obtained in Europe, Americas • Caribbean sugar, Asian spices more valuable The Dutch of New Netherland
  14. 14. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 • 3. 1607, first English colony established at Jamestown • Settlers hoped to find gold, silver, river route to Pacific • Instead found marshy ground, impure water • 80 percent of settlers died during first winter in America • Colony still endured • 1620, Pilgrims sailed from England • Pilgrims had been persecuted in England for religious beliefs • Established colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts • Persevered despite difficulties • Colony self-sufficient within 5 years Pilgrims • English settlers did not share same relationship with Native Americans as French, Dutch • Jamestown, Plymouth colonies received aid from local peoples • Still, colonists viewed Native Americans with distrust, anger Native Americans The English Colonies
  15. 15. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Problems • English ran into conflict with French settlers in Americas • Mid-1700s, English colonists attempted to settle in French territory, upper Ohio River valley; tension in region grew; war broke out, 1754 Costly War • Eventually French surrendered, yielded Canada, all French territory east of Mississippi • War costly for British; king tried to place costs of war on colonists • Led to resentment, which eventually brought about American Revolution French and Indian War • Both had Native American allies; English called it French and Indian War • War began badly for British; French had more soldiers than English • British turned tide, took city of Quebec British-French Conflict
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  18. 18. Exploration and Expansion Section 2 Sequence What series of events led to the French and Indian War? Answer(s): English attempted to settle in Ohio River valley; tension grew between English and French; Native Americans allied with each side