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  1. 1. VALUES
  2. 2. Values
  3. 3. Values Defined <ul><li>Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important </li></ul><ul><li>Define right or wrong, good or bad </li></ul><ul><li>Include cross-cultural, ethical and organisational culture values </li></ul>Courtesy of The Warehouse
  4. 4. How we develop Values
  5. 5. Do You Know ???
  6. 6. Managing Values
  7. 7. Character – Defined <ul><li>Berkowitz (2002) says character is made up of those personal characteristics that lead a person to do the right thing in a given situation as opposed to not doing the right thing </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan and Bohlin (1999) define good character as knowing the good, loving the good, and doing the good </li></ul><ul><li>Wiley (1998) suggested that character is a reliable inner disposition to act in a morally good way, having qualities such as honesty and integrity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Character <ul><li>Character is a multifaceted phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>The components of character tend to have their own developmental trajectories </li></ul><ul><li>People all develop at different rates </li></ul><ul><li>The developmental sequence of the components of character different in different people </li></ul><ul><li>The components of character develop gradually or in stages over an extended period of time </li></ul>(Berkowitz, 2002)
  9. 9. Is Character Inherited ? <ul><li>CHARACTER </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of genetic predispositions & environmental influences </li></ul>
  10. 10. Piaget’s Theory of Character Development <ul><li>Jean Piaget (1965) - first psychologist to suggest a theory of moral development. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Piaget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development emerges from action, and people construct and reconstruct their knowledge of the world as a result of interactions with the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget suggested that people pass through three qualitatively different stages of moral reasoning </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Piaget’s First Stage <ul><li>MORAL REALISM </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, children tend to have a clear sense of right and wrong, although they believe that there is typically only one right answer to every situation </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to trust adults at this stage and do not question an adult’s moral judgments </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage, children tend to believe in moral absolutes and tend to only see a situation from their limited perspective </li></ul>
  12. 12. Piaget’s Second Stage <ul><li>MORALITY OF RECIPROCALITY </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, children begin to understand that rules and regulations are formed through negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn that rules can be changed and they see the world through the eyes of other people </li></ul><ul><li>They are able to comprehend that there may be more than one right answer </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that punishment should act as restitution for immoral acts </li></ul><ul><li>They begin to use logic and hypotheses at this stage </li></ul>
  13. 13. Piaget’s Third Stage <ul><li>MATURE ADULT THINKING </li></ul><ul><li>In this stage, many different moral issues are addressed through practical decision making. People at this stage, the ethics of cooperation and the complexity of moral issues are better understood. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Kohlberg’s Theory Character Development <ul><li>Lawrence Kohlberg (1989) also developed a theory about the stages people pass through in developing moral thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg believed that people could only progress through the stages one at a time and they could not skip a stage </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that there were six identifiable stages that could be classified into three levels </li></ul>
  15. 15. Kohlberg’s Theory Character Development
  16. 16. Formation of Personal Values
  17. 17. Some Basic Values <ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Kindness </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Caring </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul>
  18. 18. Some Basic Values <ul><li>RESPECT </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that all people have value </li></ul><ul><li>Respect differences in other people </li></ul><ul><li>Do not judge people prematurely </li></ul><ul><li>Treat people with dignity and courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Do not embarrass, insult, or hurt others </li></ul>
  19. 19. Some Basic Values <ul><li>KINDNESS </li></ul><ul><li>People show compassion and generosity towards others </li></ul><ul><li>They treat others as they would like to be treated </li></ul><ul><li>They are sensitive to the feelings of others, and they give of their time and money to help people in need </li></ul>
  20. 20. Some Basic Values <ul><li>TRUSTWORTHINESS </li></ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t cheat, deceive or steal </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Have courage to do the right things </li></ul><ul><li>Build a good reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Are loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Stand by family, friends and country </li></ul>
  21. 21. Some Basic Values <ul><li>CARING </li></ul><ul><li>Be kind </li></ul><ul><li>Be compassionate </li></ul><ul><li>Express gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Forgive others </li></ul><ul><li>Help people in need </li></ul>
  22. 22. Some Basic Values <ul><li>FAIRNESS </li></ul><ul><li>Are open-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to others </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take advantage of others </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t blame others carelessly </li></ul>
  23. 23. Some Basic Values <ul><li>RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Are consistent in words and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Think before acting </li></ul><ul><li>Always imagine the consequences of ones actions </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts ones mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely make excuses or blame other people </li></ul>
  24. 24. Some Basic Values <ul><li>INTEGRITY </li></ul><ul><li>People behave honorably and justly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep promises </li></ul><ul><li>They always try to do what is right, even under difficult circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>They are honest and do not lie, cheat, or steal </li></ul>
  25. 25. Some Basic Values <ul><li>DETERMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Determined People : - </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to pursue worthy goals regardless of difficulties they might encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Follow their dreams, even in the face of opposition or discouragement from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Have the patience and strength to try again when confronted with failure or mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Are very self-disciplined </li></ul><ul><li>Always try to do their best </li></ul>
  26. 26. Values Categories <ul><ul><li>Is it your family, freedom, your culture of personal values that you have achieved and preserved that deserve (or price of life) is an economic value assigned to life in general, or to specific living organisms. In your protection and a high ranking priority in life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The value of life social and political sciences, it is the marginal cost of death prevention in a certain class of circumstances. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Value – Money OR Talent ???
  28. 28. Corporate values <ul><li>WORKPLACE VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused versus enacted </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused are values we want others to believe we hold </li></ul><ul><li>Enacted (endorse) are values-in-use; what we actually practice </li></ul>
  29. 29. Organizations are a part of a larger society and are accountable to that society for their actions Corporate Social Responsibility – A Value ?
  30. 30. Values – Dividing The Nation
  31. 31. Values or Ethics ? <ul><li>Values - In the Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Self Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Fair and Equitable Distribution of Resources </li></ul>
  32. 32. Values or Ethics ? <ul><li>Values are statements of what we consider as an ideal – it is what we hope to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics offer a direction for action to take place that is derived from what is the desired outcomes </li></ul>
  33. 33. What is Ethics ? <ul><li>Ethical principles come from values that society deems as good or desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Social Work values reflect our fundamental beliefs about what is right and wrong </li></ul>
  34. 34. Selected Take Away Values From Our Classroom Session On VALUES <ul><li>Value for time </li></ul><ul><li>Respect others </li></ul><ul><li>Save money </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest </li></ul><ul><li>Help others </li></ul>