Rural Poverty    InstructionIdeas for Teacher Education     Sharon & Stephen Metcalfe  Mount Vernon Nazarene University   ...
Views of PovertyPoverty Policies = “Programs for people                    in the inner city.”• „Deserving Poor‟ versus „U...
Urban/Rural Sociological Differences                    (Natchigal, 1982)     Rural                              Urban• Pe...
Views of „Rural‟„Less populated version‟ of urban & suburban America.                                                    (...
Rural Poor Demographics                 (Duncan, 1992)• 30% of the U.S. population lives in      rural areas.• 40% of ALL ...
Rural Poverty Demographics                   (Duncan, 1992)1. Typically working poor.    65% of rural poor families have 1...
SES „Cultures‟Two Lenses:   (Neuman, 2009) – ‘Culture of Achievement’: middle   class routines/language fostering – ‘Cultu...
SES „Cultures‟Two Lenses of „Cultural Capital‟                 (Bourdieu as cited in Holyfield, 2002, p. 53) – ‘Aesthetic ...
Being Poor in the Country               (Holyfield, 2002)• Harder being poor in the country.• Harder escaping from poverty...
Being Poor in the Country                  (Holyfield, 2002)• Poverty hides easier in the country.  – Typically single-car...
Rural Poor      Educational Attainment                 (Holyfield, 2002)• Rural Poor Adults:  44.5%= Less than a high scho...
Rural Poor Educational Needs• Language reflects acquired information.                                          (Anastasiow...
Rural Poor Cultural Tools• Teachers assume „Language of School‟Children of poverty „translate‟ school English.     Reflect...
Poverty & Brain Development                  (Jensen, 2009b)    Environment impacts development.      Poverty is an advers...
Poverty and the Brain (Jensen, 2009b)• Poverty: chronic mind/body condition.  – Chronic instability adds chronic stress.• ...
Common Poverty Risk Factors1.   Emotional and social challenges2.   Acute and chronic stressors3.   Cognitive lags4.   Hea...
Poverty in Your Classroom Disadvantage responds much like disability.                                     (Tokuhama-Espino...
Poverty in Your ClassroomStudents from poverty are more likely to havechallenges or real-world concerns with:Organizationa...
Poverty in Your ClassroomPoverty-Related Deficits:    Lack of a Present Tense orientation (Payne, 2006)  – No planning = n...
„Poverty is Diversity‟• Focus on how your students in poverty learn.• Attend to what your students bring to the           ...
Rural-Specific Education                              (Schaft & Jackson, 2010)3 foci:• Identity – Restructuring, affirming...
Strategies for Teaching Students              in Poverty1. Build positive relationships with   students and families.2. Co...
1. Positive Relationships• Model respect – Low SES students need context,                   background, or skills.  – Alwa...
1. Positive RelationshipsProvide hope; build supportive relationships• Promote student status• Embed social skills  – Basi...
1. Positive RelationshipsLearn your students’ needs  – Academic tutoring/counseling; Reading materials  – Career, mental h...
1. Positive RelationshipsEmpower students  – Take time to teach HOW to act differently  – Role-model problem solving strat...
1. Positive RelationshipsInclude parents, provide support and outreach  – Schedule times convenient for parents who work  ...
2. Formative and Summative            Assessments• Frequent assessment:  – Informs instruction  – Helps identify what stud...
3. Integrate Learning Experiences• Link what is known to new learning.• Tie content to students‟ real-life.• Engage studen...
3. Integrate Learning ExperiencesTeach, Model, Practice Core Skills  – Attention  – Sort-and long-term memory  – Sequencin...
3. Integrate Learning Experiences• Teach Language Arts in all instruction.                            (Anastasiow & Hanes,...
3. Integrate Learning Experiences• No more than 50% of instructional time for new  content.  – Brain works best with time ...
3. Integrate Learning Experiences              CHAMPSChampion‟s Mind SetHopeful EffortAttentional Skills  Never assume int...
4. Positive Climate for Instruction•   Create a User-Friendly classroom.•   Create a democratic learning environment.•   P...
4. Positive Climate for Instruction •   Structure time effectively. •   Be flexible - culturally and academically. •   Sen...
Seven „Odds-Changing‟         Instructional Principles                    (Neuman, 2009)1.   Target your neediest students...
References• Anastasiow, N. J., & Hanes, M. L. (1976). Language patterns of poverty      children. Springfield, IL: Charles...
References (continued)• DiFazio, W. (2006) Ordinary people: A little food and cold storage.       Philadelphia, PA: Temple...
References             (continued)• Jensen, E. (2009b). Teaching with poverty in mind. Alexandria, VA:       ASCD.• Leone,...
References             (continued)• O‟Hare, W. P. (2009). The forgotten fifth: Child poverty in rural        America. Cars...
References               (continued)• Sinagatullin, I. M. (2009). Teaching is more than pedagogical        practice: Thirt...
References            (continued)• Wilson, Z. (2011). Speak your piece: Rural education reform.      Daily Yonder. Retriev...
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Rural Poverty and Instruction

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  • Insert RE21 information after this slide
  • Limited economies offer fewer options, fewer resources.
  • Reflects rapid mental functioning and alertness.
  • Anything that costs money
  • *”To get kids to focus on academic excellence, we must remove the real-world concerns that are much higher on their mental and emotional priority lists” (Jensen, 2009, p. 73)
  • Engaging Instruction – any strategy to get kids to participate emotionally, cognitively, or behaviorallyGather information from students about what excites them, what bores themCommunicate the evidence and make a plan
  • Add a strategy each week and monitor progressSwitch up social groupsIncorporate movement Ask more compelling questionsAppreciate and acknowledge every responseUse energizers, games, drama, simulations, and other demonstration strategiesKeep content alive with call-backs, hand raisers, stretching, and unfinished sentences and review questionsBe passionate about what you teachBuild in processing time to build in-depth understandings and process contentNever use more than 50% of instructional time to deliver new contentArts, Athletics, and Advanced Placement“Exercise increases the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a protein that supports learning and memory function, repair and maintenance of neural circuits, and the production of brain cells that are crucial to forming the connections the brain needs to learn” (Jensen, 2009b, p. 120).Exercise protects against negative factors of stress, disabilities, and diseases and enhances memory, focus, and brain function.Implement a strong arts program – arts build the student brain’s academic operating system and should be integrated into all subject areas…music, visual, and kinetic artsStep up the activity – minimum of 30 minutes a day, five days a week of voluntary, gross motor repetitive activityImplement an advanced placement curriculum (once the brain is more fit, it must be challenged)
  • CHAMPS – Champion’s Mind Set, Hopeful Effort, Attentional Skills, Memory, Processing Skills, Sequencing SkillsHow to boost working memory: use pause technique, chunk content then review, prime the learning, do fast physical activity first to activate frontal lobe dopamine and norepinephrine.Sequencing Skills:Learning a new languageMusical artsProjectsWritten lists and timelinesModels, diagrams, flow chartsDramaTalking out loud, journaling, check listsSummary storiesTalk through a process with partner listeningGraphic organizersContent on cards in orderActivity steps-physical activity checklistAttentional Skills: brain is naturally attracted to novelty, contrast, reward, and movement, playing an instrumentPartner, teamwork – 1 review, 1 writeTheater, drama, or danceSpecialize computer gamesHigh interest readingProcessing skills: reading, writing, science, relationships, auditory processingPost on the wall clear directions of what you want the student to doObserve another doing it, take notesUse models and flow chartsTalk through your own thinking with partner/coachCreate experiment to test hypothesis
  • Rural Poverty and Instruction

    1. 1. Rural Poverty InstructionIdeas for Teacher Education Sharon & Stephen Metcalfe Mount Vernon Nazarene University Sharon: sharon.metcalfe@mvnu.edu Stephen: stephen.metcalfe@mvnu.edu
    2. 2. Views of PovertyPoverty Policies = “Programs for people in the inner city.”• „Deserving Poor‟ versus „Underclass‟
    3. 3. Urban/Rural Sociological Differences (Natchigal, 1982) Rural Urban• Personal/Tightly • Impersonal/loosely linked coupled• Generalists • Specialists• Homogenous • Heterogeneous• Traditional Values • Liberal Values• Lower/smaller density • Greater/Larger density• Seasonal orientation • Time-clock orientation
    4. 4. Views of „Rural‟„Less populated version‟ of urban & suburban America. (Natchigal. 1982)“People Left Behind” living beneath „normal‟ standards: hicks – backward – uncultured – illiterate‟ – provincial„A place where The Good Life can still be lived.‟ Mayberry/Green Acres„Where city folks go to play, relax, escape.‟ (Sinagatullin, 2009)
    5. 5. Rural Poor Demographics (Duncan, 1992)• 30% of the U.S. population lives in rural areas.• 40% of ALL poverty is rural.• 80% of rural poor are White. *Most non-white rural families are poor.
    6. 6. Rural Poverty Demographics (Duncan, 1992)1. Typically working poor. 65% of rural poor families have 1+ person employed. Rural Poverty „American Dream‟: “Steady job that allows me to make my way without owing anybody anything.”2. Typically two-parent families.3. Higher percent are elderly.
    7. 7. SES „Cultures‟Two Lenses: (Neuman, 2009) – ‘Culture of Achievement’: middle class routines/language fostering – ‘Culture of Material Hardship’: Learned approaches to living without adequate resources (coping)
    8. 8. SES „Cultures‟Two Lenses of „Cultural Capital‟ (Bourdieu as cited in Holyfield, 2002, p. 53) – ‘Aesthetic Taste’: middle class codes and guides to ‘proper behavior’ – ‘Taste of Necessity’: adaptation and acceptance of ‘the necessary’
    9. 9. Being Poor in the Country (Holyfield, 2002)• Harder being poor in the country.• Harder escaping from poverty in the country.
    10. 10. Being Poor in the Country (Holyfield, 2002)• Poverty hides easier in the country. – Typically single-car families. – Lack of transportation isolates families. Isolation promotes „invisibility‟.
    11. 11. Rural Poor Educational Attainment (Holyfield, 2002)• Rural Poor Adults: 44.5%= Less than a high school education 32.8% = High school diploma only 22.7% = Any schooling beyond high school →77.3% = HS diploma or less
    12. 12. Rural Poor Educational Needs• Language reflects acquired information. (Anastasiow & Hanes, 1976) – Product of both ethnicity and SES„Poor English‟ Spoken by the economically poor. – Structurally less „sophisticated‟. – Often interpreted as „less intelligent‟. – Historical link to discrimination.
    13. 13. Rural Poor Cultural Tools• Teachers assume „Language of School‟Children of poverty „translate‟ school English. Reflects higher cognitive activity.
    14. 14. Poverty & Brain Development (Jensen, 2009b) Environment impacts development. Poverty is an adverse environment.• Affects these areas of life: • Physical-Emotional-Psychological health; Linguistic development; Medical coverage; Social opportunities; Career options; Financial opportunities
    15. 15. Poverty and the Brain (Jensen, 2009b)• Poverty: chronic mind/body condition. – Chronic instability adds chronic stress.• Poverty impacts the brain for the worse. – Impulsivity – Poor short-term memory development – Greater instance of depression• Physical brain structures of people in poverty are different than those who aren‟t. Good News: The Brain can Change.
    16. 16. Common Poverty Risk Factors1. Emotional and social challenges2. Acute and chronic stressors3. Cognitive lags4. Health and safety issuesCommon teacher complaints about lowSES students: Chronic tardiness, Lack of motivation, Inappropriate behavior, Absenteeism
    17. 17. Poverty in Your Classroom Disadvantage responds much like disability. (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2010)• Poor school-readiness skills lead low SES children to exhibit classroom behaviors that may be unproductive-to-seriously disruptive. (Howard, Dresser, & Dunklee, 2009, p. 29)
    18. 18. Poverty in Your ClassroomStudents from poverty are more likely to havechallenges or real-world concerns with:Organizational skills/supplies TransportationReading Readiness Skills Parental supportPrioritizing academics Short-term memoryEmotional/social regulation Medical/health issues (Jensen, 2009b)
    19. 19. Poverty in Your ClassroomPoverty-Related Deficits: Lack of a Present Tense orientation (Payne, 2006) – No planning = no prediction – „No prediction‟ impedes cause/effect skills – Cause/effect identifies consequences. – Consequence ID improves impulsivity control. – Impulsivity control prevents TROUBLE
    20. 20. „Poverty is Diversity‟• Focus on how your students in poverty learn.• Attend to what your students bring to the learning setting.• Diagnostic , not a „programmatic‟ approach. ‘What’s going on here?’
    21. 21. Rural-Specific Education (Schaft & Jackson, 2010)3 foci:• Identity – Restructuring, affirming locality• Place – What does education have to say about the local experience?• Community – Linking education & investment in local over global interests.
    22. 22. Strategies for Teaching Students in Poverty1. Build positive relationships with students and families.2. Conduct frequent formative assessment.3. Integrate learning experiences and instruction.4. Create a positive climate for instruction (level the playing field). (Howard, Dresser, & Dunklee, 2009)
    23. 23. 1. Positive Relationships• Model respect – Low SES students need context, background, or skills. – Always say please and thank you – Avoid directives – Avoid sarcasm – Take responsibility for mistakes and make amends – Be consistent and fair
    24. 24. 1. Positive RelationshipsProvide hope; build supportive relationships• Promote student status• Embed social skills – Basic meet-and-greet skills – Turn-taking skills – Teach/Remind students to use courtesy words.
    25. 25. 1. Positive RelationshipsLearn your students’ needs – Academic tutoring/counseling; Reading materials – Career, mental health counseling – Child care for teen parents – Life skills classes (finances, health, housing) – Medical and psychological care; Dental care; Access to medications – Arrangements for when students stay after school
    26. 26. 1. Positive RelationshipsEmpower students – Take time to teach HOW to act differently – Role-model problem solving strategies – Introduce „Responsibility‟ and „Making Restitution‟ – Conflict resolution/Anger management skills – Goal setting – Stress reduction techniques (recognize the signs of chronic stress)
    27. 27. 1. Positive RelationshipsInclude parents, provide support and outreach – Schedule times convenient for parents who work different shifts/group conferences for siblings. – Encourage and organize carpooling or taxis.• Be inclusive – Our school, Our classroom – Acknowledge students for small productive things – Celebrate effort as well as achievement
    28. 28. 2. Formative and Summative Assessments• Frequent assessment: – Informs instruction – Helps identify what students do well – Identifies sources of difficulties – Assesses prior knowledge – Provides corrective feedback, continuous improvement
    29. 29. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences• Link what is known to new learning.• Tie content to students‟ real-life.• Engage students.
    30. 30. 3. Integrate Learning ExperiencesTeach, Model, Practice Core Skills – Attention – Sort-and long-term memory – Sequencing and processing – Problem-solving – Perseverance; applying skills in long term – Hopefulness and self-esteem – Social skills
    31. 31. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences• Teach Language Arts in all instruction. (Anastasiow & Hanes, 1976) – Cycle-of-failure potential increases without mastery of middle-class English. – Decode language the teacher uses and match it. Train for ‘the culture of commerce’. (Delpit, 1995)
    32. 32. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences• No more than 50% of instructional time for new content. – Brain works best with time to absorb new learning. • Learn, discuss, take a walk. Encourage processing.• Add new strategies regularly, monitor progress• Provide specific, customized, monitored, skill- building activities (30-90 min/day)• Increase arts activities, physical activity. “Brain aerobics”
    33. 33. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences CHAMPSChampion‟s Mind SetHopeful EffortAttentional Skills Never assume intact cognitive strategies.MemoryProcessing SkillsSequencing Skills
    34. 34. 4. Positive Climate for Instruction• Create a User-Friendly classroom.• Create a democratic learning environment.• Positive feedback early and often.• Provide verbal and nonverbal cues.• Deepen staff understanding, empathy, and cultural knowledge/relevance of instruction to local identity and community. (Woodrum, 2011)
    35. 35. 4. Positive Climate for Instruction • Structure time effectively. • Be flexible - culturally and academically. • Sense of humor. • Celebrate successes. • Augment nutrition: healthy snacks, water. • Before/after school homework clubs, transportation.
    36. 36. Seven „Odds-Changing‟ Instructional Principles (Neuman, 2009)1. Target your neediest students.2. Earlier is better.3. Coordinate services.4. Focus on „compensatory instruction‟.5. Use the highest qualified instructors available.6. Don‟t dilute any instruction – quality matters.7. Always hold high standards and accountability.
    37. 37. References• Anastasiow, N. J., & Hanes, M. L. (1976). Language patterns of poverty children. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.• Bishop, B. (2010). Poverty highest in rural America: Rising in recession. Daily Yonder. Retrieved from http://www.dailyyonder.com/poverty- highest-rural-america-rising-recession/2010/12/21/3098• Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. in Crane, D. R., & Heaton, T. B., Eds. (2008). Handbook of families and poverty. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.• Coombs, P. H., & Ahmed, M. (1974). Attacking rural poverty: How nonformal education can help. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.• Delpit, L. D. (1995). Other people’s children. New York, NY: New Press.
    38. 38. References (continued)• DiFazio, W. (2006) Ordinary people: A little food and cold storage. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.• Duncan, C. M. (1992) Rural poverty in America. Westport, CT: Auburn House.• Hansen, N. M. (1970). Rural poverty and the urban crisis. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.• Holyfield, L. (2002). Moving up and out: Poverty, education, and the single parent family Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.• Howard, T., Dresser, S. G., & Dunklee, D. R. (2009). Poverty is not a learning disability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.• Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind, (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.• Jensen, E. (2009a). Super teaching: Over 100 practical strategies, (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
    39. 39. References (continued)• Jensen, E. (2009b). Teaching with poverty in mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.• Leone, B. (1999) Poverty: Opposing views. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.• Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.• Nachtigal, P. M. (1982). Rural education: In search of a better way. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.• Neuman, S. B. (2009) Changing the odds for children at risk: Seven essential principles of educational programs that break the cycle of poverty. Westport, CT: Praeger.• OConnor, A. (2001). Poverty knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.
    40. 40. References (continued)• O‟Hare, W. P. (2009). The forgotten fifth: Child poverty in rural America. Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire, Vol. 10. Retrieved from http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/Report-OHare- ForgottenFifth.pdf.• Payne, R.K. (2003). A framework for understanding poverty, (3rd ed.). Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc.• Pilisuk, M., & Pilisuk, P. (1971). Poor Americans: How the white poor live. New York, NY: Aldine Publishing.• Provasnik, S., Kewal-Ramani, A. Coleman, M. M., Gilbertson, L., Herring, W., & Xie, Q. (2007). Status of education in rural America. National Center For Educational Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. Washington D.C.: US Dept. of Education.
    41. 41. References (continued)• Sinagatullin, I. M. (2009). Teaching is more than pedagogical practice: Thirty-three strategies for dealing with contemporary students. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.• Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2010) The new science of teaching and learning: Using the best of mind, brain, and education science in the classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.• Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.• US Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2004) Rural poverty at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/ publications /rdrr100/rdrr100.pdf.• Watras, J. (2002). The foundations of educational curriculum and diversity: 1565 to the present. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    42. 42. References (continued)• Wilson, Z. (2011). Speak your piece: Rural education reform. Daily Yonder. Retrieved from http://www.dailyyonder. com/speak-your-piece-rural-educationreform/2011/08/22 /3487.• Woodrum, A. (2011). Rural education for the twenty-first century: Identity, place, and community in a globalizing world. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26(5). Retrieved from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/26-5.pdf.

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