Background of the study Arthur Holmes, PhD (Wheaton College) Larry D. Burton & Constance C. Nwosu (2003): Student Perceptions of the Integration of Faith, Learning, and Practice In an Educational Methods Course, Journal of Research on Christian Education, 12:2, 101-135 Terry Anne Lawrence, Larry D. Burton & Constance C. Nwosu (2005): Refocusing on the Learning in ―Integration of Faith and Learning", Journal of Research on Christian Education, 14:1, 17-50
What is the true mission ofa Christian university?
Wheaton College Wheaton College exists to help build the church and improve society worldwide by promoting the development of whole and effective Christians through excellence in programs of Christian higher education.
Messiah College Our mission is to educate men and women toward maturity of intellect, character and Christian faith in preparation for lives of service, leadership and reconciliation in church and society.
Azusa Pacific University Azusa Pacific University is an evangelical Christian community of disciples and scholars who seek to advance the work of God in the world through academic excellence in liberal arts and professional programs of higher education that encourage students to develop a Christian perspective of truth and life.
Biola University The mission of Biola University is biblically centered education, scholarship and service—equipping men and women in mind and character to impact the world for the Lord Jesus Christ. Our business is to inspire students learning so that they are empowered to think and practice from a Christian worldview in their fields of service.
Malone University The mission of Malone is to provide students with an education based on biblical faith in order to develop men and women in intellectual maturity, wisdom, and Christian faith who are committed to serve the church, community and world.
1 Corinthians 2:16 (NIV)16 for,―Who has known the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?‖[a] But we have the mind of Christ.
Methods Undergraduate, education majors Voluntary, anonymous survey given at the end of an Ed Psych course Females = 32 Males = 12
Types of integrative methodsconsidered for this survey Memorization of Bible verses Readings from Christian authors Watching Christian films Writing: responding to specific verses Writing: finding verses to apply Viewing verses embedded in lecture notes Teacher-led discussions: assigned films/readings Teacher-led discussions: spiritual issues related to lecture content Teacher-led discussions: spiritual issues related to current event topics Small group discussion: spiritual issues related to course content
Females responses (n = 32) Males responses (n = 12)#1: Tchr: spiritual issues rel. #1: Watching Christian films lectures #2: Tchr: spiritual issues rel.#2: Watching Christian films current events in the news#3: Tchr: spiritual issues rel. #3: Embedded verses in lect notes current events in the news #4: Tchr: spiritual issues rel.#4: Writing: find/apply own verses lecture#5: Writing: respond to spec #5: Memorizing verses verses #6: Writing: find/apply own verses#6: Tchr: analysis of #7: Tchr: analysis of films/readings films/readings#7: Embedded verses in lect notes #8: Writing: respond to spec#8: Memorizing verses verses Student Ratings Small group discussions#9: Reading from Christian authors #9: of Method #10: Reading from Christian Effectiveness (1-4)#10: Small group discussions authors
RATINGS (both genders) RANKINGS (both genders)1: Watching Christian films 1: Tchr-led discuss:2: Tchr-led discuss: lectures lectures 2: Tchr-led discuss: cur3: Tchr-led discuss: cur evnts evnts 3: Writing: find/apply4: Writing: find/apply verses verses 4: Tchr-led discuss: films/rd5: Writing: to specific 5: Writing: to specific verses verses6: Tchr-led discuss: films/rd 6: Watching Christian films7: Verses emb in lectures 7: Verses emb in lectures8: Memorizing verses 8: Small group discussions Methods’ Ratings vs9: Reading of Christian authors 9: Memorizing verses 10: Reading of Christian Rankings10: Small group discussions authors
More, Less, or About Right? Amt of Bible reading / verse memorization Amt of biblical analysis/appl in writing Amt of CT discussing how specific verses apply Amt of CT hearing profs dis/debate Chr issues Amt of CT of students dis/debate Chr issues Amt of exposure to important Chr authors Use of the Bible in class by professors Use of Chr reasoning in class by professors
Grouping by college selection motivations(Was biblical, Christian university in your Top2?)1210 8 males - no Bible choice 6 females - no Bib choice males - Bible in choice females - Bible in choice 4 2 0 FAITH CHR EVAN CH MOR NON
Agree #1: Homework: Reading &Memorizing Bible verses Amt of Bible reading and Scripture memorization25201510 5 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Agree #2: Using Bible inwriting Amt of biblical analysis/appl in writing assignments1816141210 8 6 4 2 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Agree #3: Reading Chrauthors Amt of exposure to important Christian authors25201510 5 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Agree #4: Christian reasoning Use of Christian reasoning in class by professors25201510 5 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Diff #1: Profs apply verses Amt of CT discussing how specific Bible verses apply to lecture content25201510 5 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Diff #2: Hearing profs debate Amt of CT hearing profs discussing/debating Christian issues25201510 5 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Diff #3: Students debating Amt of CT students themselves dis/debate Chr issues201816141210 8 6 4 2 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Diff #4: Profs using the Bible Use of Bible in class by professors25201510 5 0 MORE(noB) LESS(noB) RIGHT(NoB) MORE(B) LESS(B) RIGHT(B)
Voices of students who didn’t indicate adesire for a biblical, Christian education There is a lack of integration of different races, sexual orientations. They constantly push for Christian worship activities requiring 20 chapels per semester. Sometimes faith is pushed on students too hard and they turn away from it. It’s getting in the way in science and actual critical thinking. Dont push it on non-believers too much, but overall they are very effective.
Voices of students who indicatedsupport for Malone’s mission for abiblical, Christian education (guys) Were always talking to new believers -- I want more. People are hostile to learning about this when its forced on them; those that care will learn and those that dont care will harden themselves against it. The topics of faith and Christ never come up in class unless a student brings it up. This school needs help. The aspect that I like most about Malone is that the professors are genuine about their faith and their job. This passion has a trickle down effect to the students. This school can no longer be Christs Kingdom first, which it barely is now. The liberals are taking over and were letting them. I think Malone does a good job in their teaching of education and biblical faith.
Voices of students who indicatedsupport for Malone’s mission for abiblical, Christian education (girls) Nothing - we are a Christian school that should not be watered down in order not to offend nonbelievers. Not a lot of courses use the time to speak about faith because they need to lecture. The professors, faculty, and staff show that they truly care and definitely integrate Christian faith, but it is still lacking much discussion about it and needs more relation to lessons. Classes that arent Bible classes tend to leave out God and the Bible for the most part -- only one and maybe two often talk about God. Malone being a Christian university should plan more of that. Malone profs are open about their faith and do a great job of integrating their faith daily. I can see just by how the professors treat their students that they are Christians but I feel that they could make more of an effort to integrate that faith into their lessons.
Conclusions Previous findings confirmed – influence of the teacher seems to be the primary (and most desired) factor for faith- learning integration Our university’s mission is indeed supported by students: most desire a biblical, Christian education Though students not seeking a Christian education are satisfied, the vast majority of students want the Bible used more often and more specifically in class
Why use the Bible in class? Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is alive and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart. I Cor 1:28-30a28 God chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things—and the things that are not —to nullify the things that are, 29 so that no one may boast before him. 30 It is because of him that you are in Christ Jesus, who has become for us wisdom from God . . .