Introducing Online learning

479 views

Published on

Online Teaching and Learning in two sessions. Corban University

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
479
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • COI says that within an online course environment, there are three types of communication that occurs between participants—Social, Cognitive, and teaching. Together these forms of communication make up the Learning Experience.
  • COI says that within an online course environment, there are three types of communication that occurs between participants—Social, Cognitive, and teaching. Together these forms of communication make up the Learning Experience.
  • Introducing Online learning

    1. 1. Creating Robust Environments for Online Learning and Teaching: Part A- Foundations Scot Headley, George Fox University
    2. 2. A. Foundations for online learning and teaching include thephilosophical, psychological and theoretical bases fordeveloping and delivering effective online instruction.B. Applications for online learning and teaching include thetechnological, relational and instructional strategies andtechniques helpful for success in effective online instruction
    3. 3. Foundations in our consideration of online teaching andlearning:Institutional and Instructional ConsiderationsMotivation for learningCommunity of InquiryInstructional Design
    4. 4. Institutional and Instructional ConsiderationsConsider the following:•Students protest seemingly inane institutional policies related toinstitutional technology, library access and social media.•Institutional Technology administrators faced with difficultdecisions regarding selection of supported applications.•Faculty members who are asked to begin teaching online with noappropriate rationale, prior background or preparation.Each of these situations (and a myriad of others) createschallenging tension and at times, unresolved difficulties inuniversity efforts at online education.
    5. 5. The Parallel Role and Functions Model provides explanation forthe competing and supporting interests, needs and outcomespresent in the delivery of online. This model puts forward thenotion that for each of the primary participants in university-based online education; the institution, the faculty member andthe students, a pair of parallel roles exists.These roles represent fundamental aspects of higher educationinstitutions, the bureaucratic element and the educationalelement.
    6. 6. In this model, the university concurrently serves as afacilitating medium for learning (the educational role) and as aself-sustaining system (the bureaucratic role).The faculty member serves as a guide for learning (theeducational role) while at the same time also performs herrole as an agent of the institution (a bureaucratic role).The student, in this model, functions as both a learner(educational role) and as a client of a corporate system (thebureaucratic role).
    7. 7. This model seeks to explore and explain, for example, thefollowing:a.institutional decision making regarding instructional deliveryschemes and policies and procedures associated with distanceeducation;b.technological tools used and not used for online education;c.faculty workload and faculty responsibilities in the onlineeducation environment;d.preparation of faculty and students to work online;e.financial costs, investments and returns;f.pedagogical assumptions, practices and outcome; andg.relationships between faculty and administration, and facultyand students in the online education milieu.
    8. 8. Educational roles and functions and bureaucratic roles andfunctions often reflect differing values, needs and goals.Consider applications such as academic freedom,assessment, marketing, and faculty reward systems in lightof this model.A key function of a bureaucratic system is to maintain itself.A key function of an educational system is individual andcommunity growth.The functions are not mutually exclusive, and do at timescompete with each other.Instructors are not autonomous and work within a systemthat requires commitments and investments that at timesappear to be counter-productive to the aim of supporting growth.
    9. 9. Motivation for learningMy students are adults, are responsible, independent and arevolunteers in the learning enterprise.Andragogy is “any intentional and professionally guidedactivity that aims at a change in adult person” (Knowles, HoltonIII, & Swanson, 2005, p. 60). One of the definitions ofadulthood is that adults are responsible for their own lives andlearning.Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). Theadult learner: The definitive classic in adult education andhuman resource development (6th ed.). Burlington, MA:Butterworth-Heinemann.
    10. 10. The foundational idea of andragogy is that adults learn differentlythan children. Basic assumptions include:(1) Adults need to understand why they should learn something;(2) Adults recognize their personal responsibility for the outcomeof their life and operate in a self-directed manner as a result;(3) Adults bring a depth and breadth of experiences to theireducational pursuits than do children;(4) Adults pursue learning when faced with life circumstances notpreviously encountered;(5) Adults approach to learning is centered around specific tasksor challenges; and(6) Adults are primarily motivated to learn by internal drivers suchas self-worth
    11. 11. Assumptions of Pedagogy and AndragogyPedagogical model Variable Andragogical modelLearn to “pass the course” The Need to Know Learner needs to know whyDependent personality Learners Self-concept Personal responsibility to learnOf little worth Learners Experience Quality of experienceWhat is needed to pass Readiness to Learn Relevance and applicabilitySubject-oriented Orientation to Learning Life and problem-centeredExternal motivation Motivation Internal motivation
    12. 12. Characteristics exhibited by adults related to motivation forlearning (Wlodkowski)Relevance is the ultimate criteria for sustaining adult interest.Are critical and self-assured about their judgment of the valueof what they are learning.Are reluctant to learn what they cannot endorse by the virtueof its value, usefulness, or contribution to their goalsRequire respect from their teachers as a condition for learning.To want to actively test what they are learning in real work andlife settings.Desire to use their experience and prior learning asconsciously and as directly as possible while learningDesire to integrate new learning with their life roles
    13. 13. Motivational Framework for Culturally ResponsiveTeachingFour strategies, or conditions to establish motivated learning.Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn.A comprehensive guide for teaching adults (third ed.). SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Establishing InclusionDeveloping AttitudeEnhancing MeaningEngender competence
    14. 14. Establishing inclusion:Description: Adult learners and teachers desire to feel theyare a part of the learning environment by experiencing asense of mutual respect, harmony, and community as theyare connected to each other.Guide question: How do we create or affirm a learningatmosphere in which we feel respected by and connected toone another?Means: collaborative learning, particularly through sharingpersonal storiesOutcomes: the outcomes of establishing inclusion stretchfrom experiencing a climate of belonging to increasing learnerinvolvement to neuronal network integration and long-termmemory.
    15. 15. Developing attitude:Description: Attitudes are the outgrowth of our engagement inculture and with others. A learning experience forms andshapes attitudes both positively and negatively just as attitudesform and shape a learning experience both positively andnegatively.Guide question: How do we create or affirm a favorabledisposition toward learning through personal relevance andlearner volition?Means: relevant learning goals, particularly learner-directedOutcomes: learners will thrive best when they experiencerelevance and exercise volition within their cultural contexts.
    16. 16. Enhancing meaning:Description: Culturally responsive teaching allows the learner tounderstand, to find significance, and to make sense out oflearning experiences that in some way connect with thelearner’s own experiences.Guide question: How do we create engaging and challenginglearning experiences that include learners’ perspectives andvalues?Means: critical reflection and group discussionOutcomes: enhancing meaning will also increase the learner’sparticipation in the learning experience.
    17. 17. Engender competence:Description: Adult learning that values praxis and application willlead to competence, for the learner is motivated to apply suchlearning to his/her cultural context.Guide question: How do we create or affirm an understandingthat learners have effectively learned something they value andperceive as authentic to their real world?Means: self assessment and reflectionOutcomes: competency, when expressed through authenticlearning experiences, will build the learner’s confidence level.
    18. 18. community of learners where “critical both reflection and discourse are utilized to facilitate the construction of personally meaningful and socially valid knowledge” Garrison & Anderson, 2007, p. 21
    19. 19. Supporting Social Discourse CognitivePresence Presence Learning Experienc e Setting Selecting Climate Content Teaching Presence http://communitiesofinquiry.com/
    20. 20.  socialpresence is “the ability of participants in a Community of Inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people through the medium of communication being used” Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2007). E-Learning in the 21st century: A Framework for Research and Practice. New York: RoutledgeFalmer
    21. 21.  “the exploration, construction, resolution and confirmation of understanding through collaboration and reflection in a Community of Inquiry”
    22. 22.  Teaching presence is “the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes”
    23. 23. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedInstructor’s general educational philosophyTheory of learningContent or Field, the theory and logic, the data andrelationshipsExperience of instructor and studentsNeed (Institutional, societal, individual and corporateneeds of participants)
    24. 24. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectives
    25. 25. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesAssessment
    26. 26. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivitiesAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    27. 27. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivitiesTools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, videoAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    28. 28. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivitiesTools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, videoAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    29. 29. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivitiesTools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, videoAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    30. 30. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivitiesTools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, videoAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    31. 31. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivitiesTools Forum, live chat, uploaded file, audio, videoAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    32. 32. Instructional DesignPhilosophy, Theory, Content, Experience and NeedObjectivesActivities Forum, live chat, uploaded file,Tools audio, videoAssessment Assignments (read, react, compose, discuss, etc.)
    33. 33. Foundations for online learning and teaching include thephilosophical, psychological and theoretical bases fordeveloping and delivering effective online instruction. Institutional Considerations, Motivation, Community of Inquiry, Instructional Design
    34. 34. Creating Robust Environments for Online Learning and Teaching: Part B- Applications Scot Headley, George Fox University
    35. 35. Applications for online learning and teaching include thetechnological, relational and instructional strategies andtechniques helpful for success in effective online instruction Technology Relationships Instruction
    36. 36. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Effective Undergraduate Education (Chickering and Gamson, 1987 AAHE Bulletin) Good practice in undergraduate education:1. encourages contact between students and faculty,2. develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,3. encourages active learning,4. gives prompt feedback,5. emphasizes time on task,6. communicates high expectations, and7. respects diverse talents and
    37. 37. Technology Tools•Email, FTP, Web-based resources (Web 1.0)•Content Management System (Moodle, Blackboard, Sakai,etc.)•Web conferencing systems (Adobe Connect, Elumminate,iVocalize, Go to Meeting)•Multiuser Virtual Environments (Second Life)•Web 2.0 tools (wikis, blogs, media hosting such as Flickr andYouTube)•Public content management and community sites such asGoogle aps, Facebook, Ning, etc.•Open Educational Resources (Connexions, TED, etc.)•Chat, Phone over IP, Mobile applications
    38. 38. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners1.Access and Motivation2.Online Socialization3.Information Exchange4.Knowledge Construction5.DevelopmentSalmon, G. (2000). E-Moderating: The key to teaching andlearning online. London: Kogan Page.
    39. 39. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 1.Access and MotivationStudent Need: Get connected to course, access supportmaterials, understand purpose and develop motivation.Instructor Response: Provide invitation and welcome, giveclear direction regarding access and support. Motivationplan in place.Specific suggestions: Consistent, well organized system ofpresenting guidelines and instructions. Multiplecommunication avenues (email and course site, at least).Provide opportunity for informal exchange of personalinformation (student lounge, autobiographical statements,photos, etc.) Live gatherings, if possible for relation buildingand question and answer sessions. Clear and appropriateobjectives, assignments and assessment.
    40. 40. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 2. Online SocializationStudent Need: Develop a sense of belonging and identity,learn to use the system(s) for accessing information andcommunication, understand guidelines for behavior.Instructor Response: Modeling appropriate interactivity,making connections between participants and the learningenvironment, promoting respect.Specific suggestions: Detailed syllabus and guidelines forexpectations. Seed discussion areas with examples ofpostings, provide prompt feedback to initial posts.Encourage off-task communication in a lounge or “gettingto know you” space. Redundant communication onexpectations.
    41. 41. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 3. Information ExchangeStudent Need: Select and use information, exchange ideaswith others. Appropriately constrain interaction andinformation retrieval.Instructor Response: Directing effort. Presenting guidelinesfor interaction, research and assignments. Personalizingcourse activities.Specific suggestions: Share examples, assessment rubrics. Provide access to information sources, coach oninformation sources. Respond and interact with discretion.
    42. 42. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 4. Knowledge ConstructionStudent Need: Assert individual views. Make meaning andshare new learning. Develop collaborative efforts atknowledge building.Instructor Response: Group building. Facilitating discussionand connecting the conversations with the content.Specific suggestions: Encourage collaboration, provideoptions on assignment if appropriate. Provide opportunitiesfor demonstration of learning through reflection andapplication projects. Make introductions of people,resources, ideas.
    43. 43. Salmon’s Model: Stages of Needs of Online Learners 5. DevelopmentStudent Need: Have and accept responsibility for self-learning. Challenge assumptions regarding process andcontent.Instructor Response: Openness to challenge. Support forself-directed learning. Troubleshoot technical or processissues.Specific suggestions: Provide appropriate and timelyfeedback. Check and recheck published information.Monitor discussions closely. Offer ongoing “office hours”.
    44. 44. Communication and Feedback Timelines1.Do not “over-participate” in forum discussions. Respond toconversations where appropriate, to answer direct questions,to clear up misunderstanding or to further a key point.2.Consider offering a general impression of a conversation (asummary and analysis of a discussion as opposed to detailedfeedback to every message.3.Establish and publish firm commitments for responding tostudent communications: a. Phone and email: 24 hour response b. Course discussio n posting:
    45. 45. Suggestions for Success•Instructors invest more time working with smaller sections ofstudents.•Instructors take an active role in pursuing lurkers or non-participants.•Course planning and syllabi allow time for relationshipbuilding and reflection as primary activities of the course.•Depth of learning is a desired outcome, as much as or morethan breadth.•Interaction amongst the participants is rewarded in the formalassessment of the course.
    46. 46. Suggestions for Success•Instructors model commitment to relationships throughprompt and respectful replies to inquiries and discussion.•Personal and technical needs and concerns of students areattended to and addressed appropriately.•The instructor invites interactions outside of the formal coursespace.•Feedback is prompt and readily available.
    47. 47. Supporting Social Discourse CognitivePresence Presence Learning Experienc e Setting Selecting Climate Content Teaching Presence http://communitiesofinquiry.com/
    48. 48.  Instructional design and organization ◦ Setting Curriculum ◦ Designing Methods ◦ Establishing Time Parameters ◦ Utilizing Medium Effectively ◦ Establishing Netiquette
    49. 49.  Facilitating Discourse ◦ Identifying Areas of Agreement/Disagreement ◦ Seeking to Reach Consensus/Understanding ◦ Encouraging, Acknowledging, or Reinforcing Student Contributions ◦ Setting Climate for Learning ◦ Drawing in Participants, Prompting Discussions ◦ Assess the Efficacy of the Process
    50. 50.  Direct Instruction ◦ Present content/questions ◦ Focus the discussion on specific issues ◦ Summarize the discussion ◦ Confirm understanding through assessment and explanatory feedback ◦ Diagnose misconceptions ◦ Inject knowledge from diverse sources (Textbooks, articles, internet, personal experiences, etc) ◦ Responding to technical concerns
    51. 51. Assumptions•Asynchronous vs. Synchronous elements•Fully online vs. Hybrid or Mixed Delivery•Orientation of Instructor regarding Nature of Learning, Roleof Instructor, Role of Student•Activities (Reading, writing, discussing, building of…,demonstrating, presenting•Level of intellectual Activity (see Bloom)•Relationships: Student to student, Student to content,student to teacher, student to group
    52. 52. Bloom’s Taxonomy (updated)Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information?Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts?Applying: can the student use the information in a new way?Analysing: can the student distinguish between the different parts?Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision?Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm

    ×