Second language acquisition!


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  • Reid also discusses this in her book
  • Which do you have???
  • Form Focused Instruction
  • Switch to overheads or PP on Thomas-Collier study
  • Group by subject matter and grade level. . . . Where are your students?
  • Adapted from Scarcella, R. (1990). Teaching language minority students in the multicultural classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Adapted from Scarcella, R. (1990). Teaching language minority students in the multicultural classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • See pp. 134-135 for specifics
  • P 136 in Brown learning strategies more use with receptive skills rather than on communication skills
  • Hymes looked at all the relevant factors in understanding how the communication event is achieved. . .or isn’t achieved
  • Can be used to observe classroom interactions
  • Started Toronto researchers to look at “successful” language learner traits and “unsuccessful” traits- Shift away from this focus (cognitive and affective characteristics)
  • Second language acquisition!

    2. 2. INNATIST VIEW AND UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR THEORY (CHOMSKY) Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Human capacity for learning L1- all babies born with same language universals “hardwired” in the brain Parameter- (Re) Setting Child‟s brain “selects” form of each universal feature (parameter) that corresponds to his or her L1 group. Must reset L1 parameters to those of the new language. *Critical Period Hypothesis (hard to find evidence as most exposed to language) Innate language learning ability decreases or disappears after a certain age (some say 12yrs some younger/older) -Victor -Genie - ASL *applied to L1. . . Not sure about its applicability to L2
    3. 3. KRASHEN‟S 5 HYPOTHESES (L2) Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Acquisition refers to unconscious development of language through exposure (similar to L1 learning). Learning refers to conscious effort to develop language through study and practice- learning results in conscious knowledge. Monitor Hypothesis “Monitor” is similar to an editor in the brain which adjusts and corrects our utterances before we speak. Need time and knowledge of rules for this to work. Correct production is important. Natural Order Hypothesis Second language is acquired in a predictable sequence, but not necessarily “easiest” to “hardest”. . She run(s) Affective Filter- explains various rates of acquisition Made up of people’s feelings (affective realm) about language learning and determines whether they acquire the language when they have the opportunity- input does not become “in-take” Input Hypothesis i + 1 (comprehensible input). . . “i” is where the learner is currently and the “+1” is the information that is new (graduated information). . . .
    4. 4. CAH- CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE LEARNING MEANT OVERCOMING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN L1 AND TL*     Rooted in behaviorist (language as the sum of all the little parts) and structuralist approaches Claimed that the interference from the L1 was the primary barrier for TL and Prediction of difficulties for TL learners if the two languages were contrasted In areas where there was no interference, then (positive) transfer could take place
    5. 5. CAH TO CLI (CROSS-LINGUISTIC INFLUENCE)  Limitations: - Oversimplification - Difficult to determine which category items were to fit into - Predictions were hard to verify - Ronald Wardhaugh labeled the former as the “strong version” and questioned the ability to truly contrast languages (knowledge and (scientific data gathering issue)
    6. 6. FOSSILIZATION OR STABILIZATION   Fossilization- normal and natural, but was once thought of as the permanent learning of an error Stabilization- another term with a stronger focus on the moment with the possibility of further development
    7. 7. FOREIGNER TALK- WHAT NATIVE SPEAKERS DO. . . Variety of language used by native speakers to non-native speakers  Similar to “baby talk”- simplified speech  Fewer contractions  Longer pauses  Often volume gets. . . .loudER   Studied by Charles Ferguson in 1975
    8. 8. LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS- ASSUMPTION MADE THAT THERE IS ACQUISITION OF ONE LANGUAGE Young Learners Lack cognitive and metalinguistic awareness  Suggested innate language acquisition ability (critical period hypothesis)  Attitudinal and cultural opennessrisk takers (individual dependent)  Older Learners More extensive thinking about language  Innate ability lessened, rely on problem solving and metalinguistic ability  Often more inhibited by new language and fear of mistakes 
    9. 9. LEARNING CONDITIONS DIFFER Young learner     Often allowed silent period until ready to speak Practice in a fun and safe way: song, games, play Exposure in school for hours (casual and formal) Errors MAY be corrected more often . . . Or remodeled Older learner     Forced to speak – real world or classroom Practice is not as “safe” when in the real world (doctor visits, grocery shopping, oil change) Limited to the classroom in many cases- limited range of the language Errors often overlooked-hard to correct from adult to adult in non-academic settings
    10. 10. ATTITUDES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING  What was the best combination of attitudes when it came to language learning? Positive attitudes toward self  Positive attitude toward native language  Positive attitude toward target language group   How can we encourage all three in the mainstream classroom, the ELL classroom, and in the school as a whole?
    11. 11. SECOND CULTURE ACQUISITION Acculturation vs Assimilation How do you feel about this?  Culture shock- Often happens when a person comes into contact with another culture - Can be mild both physically and psychologically - Can manifest in deeper psychological states of panic and distress
    12. 12. CULTURE SHOCK   EDWARD HALL (1959) Stage 1- “Honeymoon” like a dream come true, adventure, exciting, people are willing to “help out” because you are new Stage 2- Culture Shock- often need company of other nationals (ex-pats), complaining about host country   Physical ailments, bowels & stomach upset, tired, can‟t concentrate, change in sleep (more or less), eating changes Psychological- foot in both worlds, worry about ability to perform, homesickness
    13. 13. CULTURE SHOCK. . .   Stage 3- “Culture Stress” some issues are resolved and some are not (others split this into Initial Adjustment where one finds their “role”, begins to feel connected and self-confident and Mental Isolation-angry at host culture, resent the loss of status, selfdoubt, worry, fear of being left behind at home, disappointment in self) Stage 4- Acceptance and Integration where one stops comparing the home and host culture, adapts or assimilates, self-confident
    14. 14. ANOMIEFeelings of social uncertainty or dissatisfaction, relationship between language learning and attitude toward foreign culture (Lambert, 1967)  First symptoms of early third stage progression of acculturation  Feeling of homelessness, not rooted anywhere  When language has finally been “mastered”  Can lead to regression in stages 
    15. 15. MISTAKES AND ERRORS HARD TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE IN MANY CASES Mistakes  Performance error ◦ ◦    Random guess Forget to use known system correctly Common to both NS and NNS NS often recognize them and correct them NNS can also selfcorrect when they are aware (or made aware) of the misuse Errors Reflects competence of the speaker  NS- deviation from adult grammar  Consistent incorrect use  Self-correction is not a skill   This is questionable unless observed
    16. 16. SIGNIFICANCE OF ERRORS  Look at production data to find out production competence--- Where else do we do this in education?  “Correct” speech and written work shows us what students have already acquired in the TL Determine if they are:  Local errors- meaning is clear, interruption of utterance may shutdown speaker  Global errors- meaning is unclear and may need more immediate attention We must look at errors and/or mistakes to get information about the learners‟ linguistic system
    17. 17. ERROR ANALYSIS -DIFFERENT FROM CAH IN THAT IT LOOKS AT ALL POSSIBLE SOURCES, NOT JUST NEGATIVE TRANSFER FROM L1 Making mistakes Adjusting and making new attempts for success Obtaining feedback
    18. 18. TYPES OF FEEDBACK Recasts Clarification Requests Metalinguistic Feedback Elicitation Explicit Correction Repetition
    19. 19. RESPONSES TO FEEDBACK  Uptake- student reaction/utterance to the teacher‟s feedback S: [to another student] What means this word? T: Uh, Luis, how do we say that in English? What does . . . ? S: Ah, what does this word mean? Repair- when the learner corrects, either selfrepair or peer-repair Repetition- repetition of correct form after teacher feedback
    20. 20. RECASTS Restate the whole utterance minus the error. Often a reformulation or expansion of the utterance. Recasts are not explicit. S: I lost my road. T: Oh, yeah, I see, you lost your way. And then what happened? S1: Why you don‟t like Marc? T: Why don‟t you like Marc? S2: I don‟t know, I don‟t like him. (no “uptake” or immediate response from the student)
    21. 21. CLARIFICATION REQUESTS Indication that the utterance has been misunderstood by the teacher or that the utterance is incorrect. . . Usually suggests a repetition or reformulation by the student. S: I want practice today, today. (grammatical error) T: I‟m sorry? (clarification request) T: How often do you wash the dishes? S: Fourteen T: Excuse me. (Clarification request) S: Fourteen T: Fourteen what? (Clarification request) S: Fourteen for a week. T: Fourteen times a week? (Recast) S: Yes. Lunch and dinner.
    22. 22. METALINGUISTIC FEEDBACK Comments, information, or questions related to the correctness of the student‟s utterance without providing the correction- also some terms used here S: I am here since January. T: Well, okay, but remember we talked about the present perfect tense? S: We look at the people yesterday. T: What‟s the ending we put on verbs when we talk about the past? S: e-d
    23. 23. ELICITATION 3 techniques to directly elicit the correct form - Teacher elicits completion of their response (It‟s a. . . ) - Questions to elicit correct forms (How do we say ___ in English?) - Ask students to reformulate their utterance S: [to another student] What means this word? T: Uh, Luis, how do we say that in English? What does ...? S: Ah, what does this word mean? S: My father cleans the plate. T: Excuse me, he cleans the??? S: Plates?
    24. 24. ELICITATION 3 techniques to directly elicit the correct form - Teacher elicits completion of their response (It‟s a. . . ) - Questions to elicit correct forms (How do we say ___ in English?) - Ask students to reformulate their utterance S: [to another student] What means this word? T: Uh, Luis, how do we say that in English? What does ...? S: Ah, what does this word mean? S: My father cleans the plate. T: Excuse me, he cleans the??? S: Plates?
    25. 25. EXPLICIT CORRECTION Clearly indicate that what was said was incorrect with provision of a corrected form. S: When I have 12 years old. . . T: No, not have. You mean, “when I was 12 years old. . . “ S: The dog run fastly. T: „Fastly‟ doesn‟t exist. „Fast‟ does not take-ly. That‟s why I picked „quickly‟.
    26. 26. REPETITION Teacher repeats errors from student‟s speech with intonation patterns to mark errors S: When I have 12 years old. . . T: When I was 12 years old. . . S: He‟s in the bathroom. T: He‟s in the bedroom. Repetition with metalinguistic comment S: We is. . . T: We is? But it‟s two people, right? You see your mistake? You see the error? When it‟s plural it‟s „we are‟.
    27. 27. EFFECTIVENESS OF FFI 1. Are some types of FFI more beneficial than others? - Learners must notice the form and the tie from feedback to form, as well as quality of uptake 2. Is there an optimal time to provide FFI? - Still questions surrounding an optimal time to provide feedback: before, during, after? 3. Are particular linguistic features more affected by FFI? - impossible to answer, too many variables such as linguistic features and context of learning 4. Does frequency of input/exposure make a difference? - yes, but they must be meaningful exchanges 5. Do particular students benefit more from FFI? - generally a left-brain, field-independent, analytic, learner will benefit a bit more, as will “Js” and “Ts” from MyersBriggs
    28. 28. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) are language skills needed in social situations. It is the dayto-day language needed to interact socially with other people. English language learners (ELLs) employ BIC skills when they are on the playground, in the lunchroom, on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephone. Social interactions are usually context embedded. They occur in a meaningful social context. They are not very demanding cognitively. The language required is not specialized. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years after arrival in the U.S. Problems arise when teachers and administrators think that a child is proficient in a language when they demonstrate good social English.
    29. 29. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Formal academic learning : listening, speaking, reading, and writing subject area content. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas: five to seven years. Recent research (Thomas & Collier, 1995) has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to their peers. Academic language acquisition isn't just the understanding of content area vocabulary. It includes skills such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, and inferring. Academic language tasks more difficult and context reduced. The language also becomes more cognitively demanding. New ideas, concepts and language are presented to the students at the same time.
    30. 30. ESL STANDARDS FOR PRE-K-12 STUDENTS Goal Standards 1: Use English to communicate in social settings Students will: 1. Use English to participate in social interaction 2. Interact in, through, & with spoken & written English for personal expression and enjoyment 3. Use learning strategies to extend their communicative competence 2: To use English to achieve academically in all content areas 1. Use English to interact in the classroom 2. Use English to obtain, process, construct, & provide subject matter information in spoken & written form 3. Use appropriate learning strategies to construct & apply academic knowledge 3: To use English in socially & culturally appropriate ways 1. Use the appropriate language variety, register, & genre according to audience, purpose, & setting 2. Use nonverbal communication appropriate to audience, purpose, & setting 3. Use appropriate learning strategies to extend their sociolinguistic & sociocultural competence
    31. 31. 5 STAGES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION      Pre-production (No English)- new learners of English with up to 500 known words, the silent period Early production (Receptive English Only)- can speak one or two word phrases, have about 1000 known words Speech Emergence (Survival English)- can communicate with simple phrases and sentences, have about 3,000 known words Intermediate Fluency- beginning to use more complex sentences and are willing to express opinions and share thoughts, about 6,000 known words Advanced Fluency (Proficient English)-near native in their language skills, takes 4-10 years
    32. 32. FACTORS AFFECTING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Motivation  First language development  Language distance and attitude  Access to language  Age  Personality and learning style  Peers and role models  Quality of instruction  Cultural background   *-schema Copyright 2002, Center for Applied Linguistice
    33. 33. DIFFERENCES B/T MAINSTREAM AMERICAN TEACHERS‟ EXPECTATIONS AND IMMIGRANT PARENTS‟ EXPECTATIONS Mainstream American Teachers’ Expectations        Students participate in classroom activities/discussions Creativity is valued Learning through inquiry and debate One does their own work Reading is a way of discovering Children should state their opinions even when they contradict the teacher‟s Students need to ask questions Language Minority Parents’ Expectations        Students should be quiet and obedient, observing more than participating Students should be told what to do Students learn through memorization and observation Students should help one another Reading is the decoding of information and facts Teachers are not to be challenged Students should not ask a lot of questions
    34. 34. CULTURAL VIEWS U.S. Born English Language Learners Foreign Born English Language Learners U.S. born students generally have a more realistic view of the United States. U.S. born students generally are more aware of U.S. history, customs, and traditions. U.S. born students often perceive their own cultural differences as negative. Foreign born students generally have an idealized view of the United States. Unless they have had an opportunity to study U.S. history and culture before arriving, most foreign born students are not aware of its history, customs, and traditions. In general, foreign born students experience their own differences as positive.
    35. 35. DIFFERENCES IN READING BETWEEN NATIVE SPEAKERS AND ESL LEARNERS. . . SEEN IN OTHER AREAS AS WELL NS NNS Samples print, picks out key words  Can make predictions based on what was read  Tests each prediction  Confirms or rejects each prediction  Corrects when necessary       May not be familiar with the print symbols, not able to pick key words Insufficient background, cultural, or linguistic knowledge to notice cues May not be able to tell what sounds like English or what makes sense May be unable to confirm or confirms incorrectly May not recognize a miscue or how to correct it
    36. 36. Learning Strategies used by L2 Learners METACOGNITIVE “ executive” function Self-monitor production/comp (similar to teaching reading) Thinking about learning while it is taking place COGNITIVE Specific learning tasks SOCIOAFFECTIVE Social interaction & mediation of the material Interacting with others Evaluate after learning event Direct involvement of material (things we do with items to be learned) Some communication strategies
    37. 37. EFFECTIVENESS OF STRATEGY USE Learning strategies use listening and reading skills: - skills most effective for listening - monitoring, elaboration, inferencing (hard to teach-my bias) We can teach these: attention to keywords, how to use graphic organizers , inferencing from context, prediction, use a worksheet, taking notes, In Reading, we can teach: bottom-up (part to whole) and top-down (whole to part) processing, predicting, guessing from context, brainstorming, summarizing *Gender has shown to make a difference in both learning and communication strategy use also based on cultural norms
    38. 38. SEVERAL TYPES OF COMMUNICATION EXCHANGES 1. Message is sent. . . Message is not received 2. Message is sent. . . . . .Message is received and misunderstood 3. Message is sent. . . Message is received and understood What do speakers, L2 learners, do to make sure “good” communication is achieved?
    39. 39. COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES   Use of both verbal and nonverbal practices for productive communication Idea went from compensatory to strategic competence. . . Learners using what they are learning for better communication Question- Are these consciously employed?
    40. 40. DOERNYEI‟S COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES (1995) Avoidance  Syntactic or Lexical (verwohnt, gewohnt )  Phonological (can‟t say it - St. Poelten- die Stadt wo deine Mama arbeitet)  Topic     Change subject Pretend not to understand Just does not respond Completely abandon the topic
    41. 41. COMPENSATORY STRATEGIES (STILL FROM DOERNYEI)  BROWN. . . NOT EXHAUSTIVE LIST Prefabricated patterns   LIST ON P.138 IN Standard “tourist” phrases Code-switching Can be early on in language learning  Used to fill in missing information  **sometimes not compensatory strategy (see next slide)  Appeal to authority  Simply ask for help either verbally or nonverbally
    42. 42. CODE-SWITCHING  (WARDHAUGH) Code switching is a conversational technique used to establish, cross or destroy group boundaries; to create evoke or change interpersonal relationships with their rights and obligations. How do we decide how to speak?  Hmong or English  Level of Formality  Use of code switching allows me to demonstrate how close I am to either a person or topic.  The ability to speak appropriately is indicative of shared background assumptions.
    43. 43. THREE CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION *THINK ABOUT HOW AN L2 LEARNER HAS TO DISSEMINATE THE MEANING OF THESE WHICH ARE CULTURALLY BASED* 1. “Verbal” Language - grammar - vocabulary - pronunciation - reading - writing
    44. 44. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION CON‟T 2. Paralanguage (Hymes‟(1974) ethnographic framework “K”- key from SPEAKING acronym) - speed - voice intonation - intensity - silence - stress
    45. 45. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION CON‟T 3. Nonverbal Language - gestures - posture - facial expressions - eye contact - space - dress
    46. 46. HYMES‟ SPEAKING S- Setting such as time of day and location, Scene is the abstract psychological setting/cultural definition (holiday party among family, holiday party at the office, State of the Union Address) P- Participants, speaker-listener, addressor-addressee, senderreceiver E- Ends, recognized and expected outcomes of the exchange (trial in the courtroom, but depends on which person you are: judge, defense lawyer, juror, plaintiff, accused) A-Act Sequence, form and content of message, exact words, how they are used, relationship to the topic (lecture, party chit-chat, meeting) K- Key, tone or manner in which the message is conveyed, also nonverbals (gesture, posture) I-Instrumentalities, channel or medium chosen (oral, written, dialect, register, code) N-Norms of interaction and interpretation (loudness, silence, gaze return) G- Genre, type of utterance such as a poem, riddle, sermon, lecture,
    47. 47. MORE FACTORS    Inhibition related to ambiguity tolerance, and vulnerability defenses to protect the ego Often increases as one matures Language Ego (Guiora et al., 1972a) Identity shift, or change to the identity with L2  Study on effects of valium resulted in showing importance of the tester (teacher?)   Thin (permeable) and thick (not as permeable) language ego studies (impact L2 acquisitionopenness, vulnerability, ambiguity tolerance) (Ehrman, 1999,1993)  Language classrooms have worked to create settings in which inhibitions are lowered and mistakes seen as less threatening both internally and externally
    48. 48. RISK TAKING RELATED TO IMPULSIVITY AND MAKING INTELLIGENT GUESSES FROM Be willing to guess and be wrong. . . But controlled and in moderate doses (Beebe, 1983)  Accurate guesser (Rubin & Thompson, 1994)  Can be impacted by one‟s resilience. . . Higher global self-esteem perhaps (Beebe, 1983)    Can this lead to fossilization, relatively permanent incorrect patterns? Teachers- tone down the risk-takers (blurters, we all have them) and make space for those who are not risk takers
    49. 49. ANXIETY   Tension, anxiety, uneasiness Several levels of anxiety- which it is (language anxiety is what we are focusing on)    Trait anxiety-more permanent (it is a trait) State anxiety- related to an event or act Three components of foreign language anxiety (often with negative impact) 1. communication apprehension (inability to express mature thoughts and ideas)  2. fear of negative social evaluation (how one is viewed by others)  3. test anxiety   Two distinctions relating to anxiety 1)debilitative (dysphoricdetrimental) 2)facilitative (euphoric-beneficial)  ** anxiety is reinforced by self-efficacy and attributionteachers must modify their practice to accommodate
    50. 50. MORE CONCEPTS TO THINK ABOUT. . .  Teachers‟ Questions in ESL classrooms     Display questions (information) Referential (genuine) questions Scaffolding (when a more knowledgeable speaker provides assistance to a less knowledgeable speaker) - Gradual release model Open and Closed Questions  Open-ended thought to produce explanations which lead to more complex language    Greater quantity of output Greater quality of output Wait Time   Little more than 1 or 2 seconds before moving to another student Repeat or paraphrase before waiting silently
    51. 51. •Errors: errors on either the teacher’s language or the student’s language •Feedback on errors: when errors are present, is there feedback and from whom? •Genuine questions: do teachers and students ask questions to which the answer is unknown in advance? •Display questions: do teachers ask questions that they know the answers to in order to allow students the ability to display their knowledge? •Negotiation of meaning: do teachers and students work to understand what the others are saying? •Metalinguistic comments: do the teachers and students talk about language, in addition to using it to transmit information? Teacher Errors Feedback on errors Genuine questions Display questions Negotiation of meaning Metalinguistic comments Student Student-Student
    52. 52. GOOD LANGUAGE LEARNERS: 14 CHARACTERISTICS SUMMARIZED FROM RUBIN(RUBIN & THOMPSON, 1982) *SNOWBALL FIGHT ACTIVITY*  Find their own way, taking charge of their learning  Organize information about language    Are creative, developing a “feel” for the language by experimenting with its grammar and words Make their own opportunities for practice in using the language inside and outside the classroom Learn to live with uncertainty by not getting flustered and by continuing to talk or listen without understanding every word
    53. 53. CON‟T      Use mnemonics and other memory strategies to recall what has been learned Make errors work for them and not against them Use linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of their first language, in learning a second language Use contextual cues to help them in comprehension Learn to make intelligent guesses
    54. 54. CON‟T     Learn chunks of language as wholes and formalized routines to help them perform “beyond their competence” Learn certain tricks that help to keep conversations going Learn certain production strategies to fill in gaps in their own competence Learn different styles of speech and writing and learn to vary their language according to the formality of the situation
    55. 55. WHAT FOUR THINGS I HOPE YOU REMEMBER . . . 1. Encourage first language development. 2. Know your own attitudes and beliefs about language learners in general. They will come through in your lessons. 3. Take a second and third look at the whole student, not just their language ability. 4. “It depends”