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RELATIVE CLAUSES We use a relative clause to give extra information about thenouns in the main clause, without starting another sentence. The relative clause goes immediately after the noun it relatesto. The relative pronouns are:WHO /THAT Subject or object pronoun for PEOPLEWHICH /THAT Subject or object pronoun for ANIMALS ORTHINGSWHERE Refers to a PLACEWHEN Refers to a TIME expressionWHOSE POSSESSION for people, animals andthings.
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSESA defining relative clause gives ESSENTIAL informationabout the person or the thing in the main clause. The mainclause would be incomplete without the defining clause.Example:This is the programme. I wanted to watch it.Main clause Relative clauseWe join these two ideas referring to the same THING by usingWHICH or THAT instead of IT or THEY.This is the programme WHICH / THAT I wanted towatch.
Example: Mary is the woman. She won the national lottery lastweek.Main clause Relative clauseWe join these two ideas about the same PERSON by using WHOinstead of the personal SHE in the second clause.Mary is the woman WHO/ THAT won the lottery last weekExample: Those are the students. Their teacher is Dutch.Main clause Relative clauseThose are the students WHOSE teacher is Dutch.
We often OMIT the relative pronouns (WHO/THAT/WHICH)when it is the OBJECT of the relative clauseExamples:1. The car (THAT/ WHICH) I bought last year has brokendown.The relative pronoun can be omitted2. The car THAT/ WHICH broke down in the city centrecaused a huge traffic jam.The relative pronoun is obligatory.
EXERCISE 1COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH A SUITABLE RELATIVEPRONOUN.1. She’s the girl _______ mother lives next door.2. This is the ring _______ Lucy gave me for our anniversary.3. Last Tuesday was __________ I heard the news.4. That’s the hospital_________ Jake was born.5. Messi is the player _________ has scored many goals thisyear.6. The giraffe is the animal_________ has the longest neck ofany species.7. Bananas ________ come from the Canary Islands are verytasty.8. Last summer, we found a fantastic beach ________ thewaves are great for surfing.9. Tom is an actor _________ does voice-overs for TVcommercials.10. That is the boy ________ surname is the same as mine.
EXERCISE 2JOIN THE SENTENCES USING A RELATIVE CLAUSE. OMITTHE RELATIVE PRONOUN IF POSSIBLE.1. I met a girl . She knew my brother.2. We walked down the street. John Lennon was shot there.3. I have a cat. It can walk on two legs.4. That’s the boy. His mother works in the post office.5. The shop is closed now. I used to work there.6. Kate is the girl. I met her yesterday.7. People are very lucky. They can play a musical instrument.8. I met somebody. His mother is a famous actress.
NON DEFINING RELATIVECLAUSES A non- defining relative clause adds EXTRA information to asentence. The information in these clauses is not essential. We always put a COMMA before and after the clause.Example: Johns mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6grandchildren. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use ‘THAT’ instead ofwho or which. We cannot omit any relative pronoun.
DIFFERENCES DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSEElephants THAT LOVE MICE are very unusual.(This tells us which elephants we are talking about). NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSEElephants, WHICH ARE LARGE AND GREY, can sometimes be foundin zoos.(This gives us some extra information about elephants - we aretalking about all elephants, not just one type or group).
EXERCISE 11. The school was built in 1907. The school has about 800students.2. Jimbo is living in Thailand now. Jimbo got divorced lastyear.3. Samantha is coming to the party. Samanthas mother ismayoress of this town.4. Clare is a good teacher. I dont like Clare very much.5. Madrid is the capital of Spain. The President lives in Madrid.6. The Eiffel Tower is a famous French landmark. The EiffelTower was built by Gustave Eiffel.7. This company makes sports shoes. Its name is the same asa Greek god’s.8. This person has made many adverts for Vodafone. He’s afamous footballer.
EXERCISE 2Decide whether the sentences are defining or non-definingclauses. Insert commas where necessary.1. Do you know the girl whose mother is a nurse?.2. Has anyone see the book that I was reading?3. Our friends who we met at university arecoming to visit next week.4. That is the building where they shot the filmVanilla Sky.5. Mr Jackson whose son also goes to this schoolwill be attending the party next weekend.6. The authors latest book which has become abestseller is about two children in Jamaica.