SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 5
Cells and Tissues
Name the parts of the cell: The three main parts of the cell are Plasma
Membrane, Cytoplasm, and Nucleus.
Interstitial Fluidor Tissue Fluid: separates thecell contents fromthe dilute salt
water solution that bathes every cell in the body.
Plasma Membrane: is the membrane that encloses the cytoplasmand forms the
outer boundary of the cell. Ithas three functions which are a communication
device, identifies the cell, and is a well-guarded gateway. Itallows certain
substances into the cell while keeping others out.
Two layers of phosphate – containing fat molecules: Phospholipids forms a fluid
framework for the plasma membrane and Cholesterol the second kind of fat
molecule helps stabilize the phospholipid molecules to preventbreakage of the
plasma membrane.
Tissue Typing: the plasma membrane surfaceproteins serveas positive
identification tags, they occur only in the cells of that individual. Tissue Typing is a
procedureperformed before an organ fromone individual is transplanted into
another.
Cytoplasm: is the fluid inside the cell. Itfills the spacebetween the plasma
membrane and the nucleus.
Ribosomes “Protein Factories”: they makeenzymes and other protein
compounds; this is why they get the nick name protein factories.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: is a systemof membranes forming a network of
connecting sacs and canals that wind back and forth through a cell’s cytoplasm,
fromthe nucleus almost to the plasma membrane. There are two types.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: gets its name because many ribosomes are
attached to its outer surface, giving it a rough texture like sandpaper. Rough ER
receives folds, and transports newly made proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: The absenceof attached ribosomes gives it a
smooth texture. Smooth ER manufactures new membrane.
Golgi Apparatus: consists of tiny, flattened sacs stacked on one another near the
nucleus. Sacs break off the smooth ER and carry new proteins and other
compounds to the sacs of the Golgi apparatus.
Mitochondria: in a mitochondria’s walls complex energy releasing chemical
reaction occurs continuously, becauseof these reactions supply mostof the
power for the cellular work they have been nicknamed the cell’s “power plants”.
Each mitochondrion has its own DNA molecule, sometimes called mitochondrial
chromosome.
Lysosomes: look like small sacs often with tiny particles in them. Because
lysosomes contain enzymes that can digest food compounds they havebeen
nicknamed “digestive bags”.
Centrioles: arepaired organelles. Two of these rod shaped structures exist in
every cell. Each centriole is composed of fine tubules that play an important role
during cell division.
Microvilli: aresmallfinger like projections of the plasma membrane of some cells.
These projections increasethe surfacearea of the cell and increase its ability to
absorb substances.
Cilia:are fine hair-likeextensions on the exposed or free surfaces of somecells.
Cilia are organelles capable of movement.
Flagella: is a single projection extending fromthe cell surface. Oneexample of
flagella is the tail of the male spermcell. Movements of the flagellum allow the
spermto swimto the ovum for fertilization.
Nucleus: controls every organellein the cytoplasmand process of cell
reproduction. The nucleus mustfunction properly for a cell to be able to duplicate
itself.
Nucleolus: is a denseregion of the nuclear material that is critical in protein
formation because it programs theformation of ribosomes in the nucleus.
ChromatinGranules: are in the nucleus, they are thread like structures made of
proteins and hereditary molecules called DNA.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): Theenergy for active transportprocessing is from
ATP. However, for active transportprocessing to occur, the breakdown of ATP
and the use of the released energy are required.
Diffusion: is the process by which substances scatter themselves evenly
throughoutan available space.
Osmosis: is the diffusion of water, but not solutes (substances dissolved in the
water), across a selectively permeable membrane.
Filtration: is the movement of water and solutes through a membraneas a result
of pushing forcethat is greater on one side of the membranethan on the other
side. This force is called hydrostatic Pressure, which is the forceor weight of a
fluid pushing against somesurface.
Cystic Fibrosis: Severalseverediseases resultfromdamageto cell transport
processes. CF is an inherited condition in which chloride ion pumps into the
plasma membrane are missing.
Interphase: when a cell is not dividing but instead going about its usualfunctions.
Metaphase: thenuclear envelope has disappeared. The chromosomes have
aligned themselves across thecenter of the cell.
Anaphase: chromosomes moveaway fromthe center of the cell. Movement of
the chromosomes occurs along spindlefibers toward the centrioles the
chromosomes arebeing pulled to oppositeends of the cell. Cleavage Furrow
begins to divide the cell into two daughter cells can be seen for the first time at
the end of anaphase.
Telophase: cell division is complete. Two nuclei appear, and chromosomes
become less distinct and appear to break up. As the nuclear envelope forms
around the chromatin the cleavage furrow completely divides the cell into two
parts.
Hypertrophy: an increase in cell size.
Atrophy: decreasein cell size.
Hyperplasia: a cells responseto changes in the internal environmentby
increasing their rate of reproduction.
Epithelial Tissue: covers thebody and many of its parts. They are packed close
together with little or no intercellular material between them; they form
continuous sheets that contain no blood vessels. Theselarge groups of tissues can
be subdivided according to the shape and arrangement of the cells found in each
type.
Squamous: flat and scale-like
Cuboidal: cube shaped
Columnar: more tall than wide
Transitional: varying shapes thatcan stretch.
Connective Tissue: is the mostabundant and widely distributed tissuein the
body. Itexists in more varied forms than any other tissue types.itis different from
epithelial tissuein the arrangementand variety of its cells and in the amount and
kinds of intercellular material called matrix, found between its cells.
Muscle Tissue: musclecells are the movement specialists of the body. They have
a higher degree of contractility than any other tissuecells.
Nervous Tissue: a rapid communication between body structures and control of
body functions. Nervous tissueconsists of two kinds of cells: nerve cells or
neurons which are the functionalor conducting units of the systemand special
connecting and supporting cells called glia.
Regeneration: tissueusually repairs themby allowing the phagocytic cells to
remove dead or injured cells, then filling in the gaps that are left. Epithelial and
connective tissues have the greatest capacity to regenerate.
Keloid: is an unusually thick scar that develops in the lower layer of the skin.
Gene:a specific segment of basepairs in a chromosome.
Pinocytosis: is an active transportmechanismused to incorporate fluids or
dissolved substances into cells by trapping them in a pocket of plasma membrane
that pinches off inside the cell.
Phagocytosis: this process permits a cell to engulf and eat foreign material.
Certain white blood cells destroy bacteria by phagocytosis.
Active Transport: is the uphill movement of a substancethrough a living cell
membrane.

More Related Content

What's hot

Ch3 Ppt Lect
Ch3 Ppt LectCh3 Ppt Lect
Ch3 Ppt Lectbholmes
 
Cell structure and function
Cell   structure and functionCell   structure and function
Cell structure and functionUsra Hasan
 
Cell structure and its function
Cell structure and its functionCell structure and its function
Cell structure and its functionShaista Jabeen
 
Cell Physiology 1-dr. roomi
Cell Physiology 1-dr. roomiCell Physiology 1-dr. roomi
Cell Physiology 1-dr. roomicapellea
 
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2wraithxjmin
 
5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two
5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two
5 - A tour of the cell - Part TwoAhmad V.Kashani
 
Cellular structure and function ii
Cellular structure and function iiCellular structure and function ii
Cellular structure and function iijmorgan80
 
Presentation cell tissue and organ
Presentation cell tissue and organPresentation cell tissue and organ
Presentation cell tissue and organFaruk Hossain
 
Animal and plant cells
Animal and plant cellsAnimal and plant cells
Animal and plant cellsstaceygym
 
Cellular structure and function
Cellular structure and functionCellular structure and function
Cellular structure and functionjmorgan80
 
Cell structure and function
Cell structure and function Cell structure and function
Cell structure and function JohnDoe1763
 

What's hot (19)

Ch3 Ppt Lect
Ch3 Ppt LectCh3 Ppt Lect
Ch3 Ppt Lect
 
Cell physiology 2013
Cell physiology 2013Cell physiology 2013
Cell physiology 2013
 
Cell structure and function
Cell   structure and functionCell   structure and function
Cell structure and function
 
Cell
CellCell
Cell
 
Powerpoint, cells and tissues
Powerpoint, cells and tissuesPowerpoint, cells and tissues
Powerpoint, cells and tissues
 
Cell Histology, Structure and Function of Cell,
Cell Histology, Structure and Function of Cell,Cell Histology, Structure and Function of Cell,
Cell Histology, Structure and Function of Cell,
 
Cell & tissue nursing
Cell & tissue nursingCell & tissue nursing
Cell & tissue nursing
 
Cell structure and its function
Cell structure and its functionCell structure and its function
Cell structure and its function
 
(cell structure) medical biology
  (cell structure) medical biology  (cell structure) medical biology
(cell structure) medical biology
 
Cell Physiology 1-dr. roomi
Cell Physiology 1-dr. roomiCell Physiology 1-dr. roomi
Cell Physiology 1-dr. roomi
 
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
 
5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two
5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two
5 - A tour of the cell - Part Two
 
Cellular structure and function ii
Cellular structure and function iiCellular structure and function ii
Cellular structure and function ii
 
Presentation cell tissue and organ
Presentation cell tissue and organPresentation cell tissue and organ
Presentation cell tissue and organ
 
Animal and plant cells
Animal and plant cellsAnimal and plant cells
Animal and plant cells
 
Cell structure
Cell structureCell structure
Cell structure
 
Human cell
Human cellHuman cell
Human cell
 
Cellular structure and function
Cellular structure and functionCellular structure and function
Cellular structure and function
 
Cell structure and function
Cell structure and function Cell structure and function
Cell structure and function
 

Viewers also liked

Textos unidad 6
Textos unidad 6Textos unidad 6
Textos unidad 6Devora MP
 
Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...
Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...
Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...Álvaro Miguel Carranza Montalvo
 
New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115
New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115
New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115James Evered
 
Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army
 Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army
Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka ArmyChandana Wickramasinghe
 

Viewers also liked (7)

Textos unidad 6
Textos unidad 6Textos unidad 6
Textos unidad 6
 
Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...
Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...
Evaluación de los Procesos de Educación Superior, Bolivia, Evaluación, Prospe...
 
New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115
New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115
New Resume - J.Evered (Arboriculture - BCC) 161115
 
Pat_RESUME
Pat_RESUMEPat_RESUME
Pat_RESUME
 
Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army
 Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army
Colonel Chandana Wickramasinghe - Sri Lanka Army
 
Maurice Ullman CV M
Maurice Ullman CV MMaurice Ullman CV M
Maurice Ullman CV M
 
EPGCONresume2015
EPGCONresume2015EPGCONresume2015
EPGCONresume2015
 

Similar to Cells and tissues

Similar to Cells and tissues (20)

AHP Unit1.ppt
AHP Unit1.pptAHP Unit1.ppt
AHP Unit1.ppt
 
Cell
CellCell
Cell
 
The Fundamental Unit Of Life.pptx
The Fundamental Unit Of Life.pptxThe Fundamental Unit Of Life.pptx
The Fundamental Unit Of Life.pptx
 
Chapter 3
Chapter 3 Chapter 3
Chapter 3
 
Composite Cell lecture to facilitate learning fir 1st year students.
Composite Cell lecture to facilitate learning fir 1st year students.Composite Cell lecture to facilitate learning fir 1st year students.
Composite Cell lecture to facilitate learning fir 1st year students.
 
INTRODUCTION AND CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION.pptx
INTRODUCTION AND CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION.pptxINTRODUCTION AND CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION.pptx
INTRODUCTION AND CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION.pptx
 
CELL MICROBIOLOGY AND MICROSCOPE TYPES
CELL MICROBIOLOGY  AND  MICROSCOPE  TYPESCELL MICROBIOLOGY  AND  MICROSCOPE  TYPES
CELL MICROBIOLOGY AND MICROSCOPE TYPES
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
 
Basic cytology
Basic cytologyBasic cytology
Basic cytology
 
Cell_Modifications.pptx
Cell_Modifications.pptxCell_Modifications.pptx
Cell_Modifications.pptx
 
Unit1-Cell_Str.pptx
Unit1-Cell_Str.pptxUnit1-Cell_Str.pptx
Unit1-Cell_Str.pptx
 
9th Grade Biology.pdf
9th Grade Biology.pdf9th Grade Biology.pdf
9th Grade Biology.pdf
 
introduction to human physiology
introduction to human physiologyintroduction to human physiology
introduction to human physiology
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
 
Anatomy & Physiology Slides
Anatomy & Physiology SlidesAnatomy & Physiology Slides
Anatomy & Physiology Slides
 
Anatomy & Physiology Slides
Anatomy & Physiology SlidesAnatomy & Physiology Slides
Anatomy & Physiology Slides
 
Cells
CellsCells
Cells
 
01 cell-and-tissue
01 cell-and-tissue01 cell-and-tissue
01 cell-and-tissue
 
Cell As A System Analysis
Cell As A System AnalysisCell As A System Analysis
Cell As A System Analysis
 
Zakirullah Anatomy &Physiology LEC 03a.ppt
Zakirullah Anatomy &Physiology LEC 03a.pptZakirullah Anatomy &Physiology LEC 03a.ppt
Zakirullah Anatomy &Physiology LEC 03a.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

Biology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wise
Biology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wiseBiology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wise
Biology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wiseNAGKINGRAPELLY
 
Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...
Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...
Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...mauryashreya478
 
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...Compliatric Where Compliance Happens
 
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTSSARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTSNehaSaini499770
 
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdfPreventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdfAditiAlishetty
 
Incentive spirometry powerpoint presentation
Incentive spirometry powerpoint presentationIncentive spirometry powerpoint presentation
Incentive spirometry powerpoint presentationpratiksha ghimire
 
Champions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdf
Champions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdfChampions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdf
Champions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdfeurohealthleaders
 
What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?Optimal Healing 4u
 
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptxCASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptxdrsriram2001
 
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...Oleg Kshivets
 
lupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughly
lupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughlylupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughly
lupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughlyRitasman Baisya
 
arpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and education
arpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and educationarpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and education
arpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and educationNursing education
 
Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...
Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...
Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...The Lifesciences Magazine
 
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptxSubconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptxvideosfildr
 
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health SupportSayhey
 
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper ColinEHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper ColinJasper Colin
 
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are HeardAdvance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are HeardVITASAuthor
 
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...LinshaLichu1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Biology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wise
Biology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wiseBiology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wise
Biology class 12 assignment neet level practise chapter wise
 
Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...
Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...
Information about acne, detail description of their treatment by topical and ...
 
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
2024 Compliatric Webinar Series - OSV Overview and Panel Discussion April 202...
 
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTSSARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS
SARS Cov-2 INFECTION AND ITS EMERGING VARIANTS
 
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdfPreventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
Preventing Common Nutritional Deficiencies In Poultry Flocks (PPT).pdf
 
DELIRIUM psychiatric delirium is a organic mental disorder
DELIRIUM  psychiatric  delirium is a organic mental disorderDELIRIUM  psychiatric  delirium is a organic mental disorder
DELIRIUM psychiatric delirium is a organic mental disorder
 
Incentive spirometry powerpoint presentation
Incentive spirometry powerpoint presentationIncentive spirometry powerpoint presentation
Incentive spirometry powerpoint presentation
 
Champions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdf
Champions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdfChampions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdf
Champions of Health Spotlight On Leaders Shaping Denmark's Healthcare.pdf
 
What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?What are weight loss medication services?
What are weight loss medication services?
 
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptxCASE  STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
CASE STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.pptx
 
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
Local Advanced Esophageal Cancer (T3-4N0-2M0): Artificial Intelligence, Syner...
 
lupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughly
lupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughlylupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughly
lupus quiz.pptx for knowing lupus thoroughly
 
arpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and education
arpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and educationarpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and education
arpita 1-1.pptx management of nursing service and education
 
Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...
Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...
Importance of Assessing Level of Consciousness in Medical Care | The Lifescie...
 
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptxSubconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
Subconjunctival Haemorrhage,causes,treatment..pptx
 
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
20 Benefits of Empathetic Listening in Mental Health Support
 
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper ColinEHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
EHR Market Growth is The Boom Over - Jasper Colin
 
Dr Sujit Chatterjee Hiranandani Hospital Kidney.pdf
Dr Sujit Chatterjee Hiranandani Hospital Kidney.pdfDr Sujit Chatterjee Hiranandani Hospital Kidney.pdf
Dr Sujit Chatterjee Hiranandani Hospital Kidney.pdf
 
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are HeardAdvance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning: Ensuring Patient Voices Are Heard
 
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...Medisep insurance policy , new  kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
Medisep insurance policy , new kerala government insurance policy for govrnm...
 

Cells and tissues

  • 1. Cells and Tissues Name the parts of the cell: The three main parts of the cell are Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, and Nucleus. Interstitial Fluidor Tissue Fluid: separates thecell contents fromthe dilute salt water solution that bathes every cell in the body. Plasma Membrane: is the membrane that encloses the cytoplasmand forms the outer boundary of the cell. Ithas three functions which are a communication device, identifies the cell, and is a well-guarded gateway. Itallows certain substances into the cell while keeping others out. Two layers of phosphate – containing fat molecules: Phospholipids forms a fluid framework for the plasma membrane and Cholesterol the second kind of fat molecule helps stabilize the phospholipid molecules to preventbreakage of the plasma membrane. Tissue Typing: the plasma membrane surfaceproteins serveas positive identification tags, they occur only in the cells of that individual. Tissue Typing is a procedureperformed before an organ fromone individual is transplanted into another. Cytoplasm: is the fluid inside the cell. Itfills the spacebetween the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Ribosomes “Protein Factories”: they makeenzymes and other protein compounds; this is why they get the nick name protein factories. Endoplasmic Reticulum: is a systemof membranes forming a network of connecting sacs and canals that wind back and forth through a cell’s cytoplasm, fromthe nucleus almost to the plasma membrane. There are two types. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: gets its name because many ribosomes are attached to its outer surface, giving it a rough texture like sandpaper. Rough ER receives folds, and transports newly made proteins.
  • 2. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: The absenceof attached ribosomes gives it a smooth texture. Smooth ER manufactures new membrane. Golgi Apparatus: consists of tiny, flattened sacs stacked on one another near the nucleus. Sacs break off the smooth ER and carry new proteins and other compounds to the sacs of the Golgi apparatus. Mitochondria: in a mitochondria’s walls complex energy releasing chemical reaction occurs continuously, becauseof these reactions supply mostof the power for the cellular work they have been nicknamed the cell’s “power plants”. Each mitochondrion has its own DNA molecule, sometimes called mitochondrial chromosome. Lysosomes: look like small sacs often with tiny particles in them. Because lysosomes contain enzymes that can digest food compounds they havebeen nicknamed “digestive bags”. Centrioles: arepaired organelles. Two of these rod shaped structures exist in every cell. Each centriole is composed of fine tubules that play an important role during cell division. Microvilli: aresmallfinger like projections of the plasma membrane of some cells. These projections increasethe surfacearea of the cell and increase its ability to absorb substances. Cilia:are fine hair-likeextensions on the exposed or free surfaces of somecells. Cilia are organelles capable of movement. Flagella: is a single projection extending fromthe cell surface. Oneexample of flagella is the tail of the male spermcell. Movements of the flagellum allow the spermto swimto the ovum for fertilization. Nucleus: controls every organellein the cytoplasmand process of cell reproduction. The nucleus mustfunction properly for a cell to be able to duplicate itself.
  • 3. Nucleolus: is a denseregion of the nuclear material that is critical in protein formation because it programs theformation of ribosomes in the nucleus. ChromatinGranules: are in the nucleus, they are thread like structures made of proteins and hereditary molecules called DNA. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): Theenergy for active transportprocessing is from ATP. However, for active transportprocessing to occur, the breakdown of ATP and the use of the released energy are required. Diffusion: is the process by which substances scatter themselves evenly throughoutan available space. Osmosis: is the diffusion of water, but not solutes (substances dissolved in the water), across a selectively permeable membrane. Filtration: is the movement of water and solutes through a membraneas a result of pushing forcethat is greater on one side of the membranethan on the other side. This force is called hydrostatic Pressure, which is the forceor weight of a fluid pushing against somesurface. Cystic Fibrosis: Severalseverediseases resultfromdamageto cell transport processes. CF is an inherited condition in which chloride ion pumps into the plasma membrane are missing. Interphase: when a cell is not dividing but instead going about its usualfunctions. Metaphase: thenuclear envelope has disappeared. The chromosomes have aligned themselves across thecenter of the cell. Anaphase: chromosomes moveaway fromthe center of the cell. Movement of the chromosomes occurs along spindlefibers toward the centrioles the chromosomes arebeing pulled to oppositeends of the cell. Cleavage Furrow begins to divide the cell into two daughter cells can be seen for the first time at the end of anaphase. Telophase: cell division is complete. Two nuclei appear, and chromosomes become less distinct and appear to break up. As the nuclear envelope forms
  • 4. around the chromatin the cleavage furrow completely divides the cell into two parts. Hypertrophy: an increase in cell size. Atrophy: decreasein cell size. Hyperplasia: a cells responseto changes in the internal environmentby increasing their rate of reproduction. Epithelial Tissue: covers thebody and many of its parts. They are packed close together with little or no intercellular material between them; they form continuous sheets that contain no blood vessels. Theselarge groups of tissues can be subdivided according to the shape and arrangement of the cells found in each type. Squamous: flat and scale-like Cuboidal: cube shaped Columnar: more tall than wide Transitional: varying shapes thatcan stretch. Connective Tissue: is the mostabundant and widely distributed tissuein the body. Itexists in more varied forms than any other tissue types.itis different from epithelial tissuein the arrangementand variety of its cells and in the amount and kinds of intercellular material called matrix, found between its cells. Muscle Tissue: musclecells are the movement specialists of the body. They have a higher degree of contractility than any other tissuecells. Nervous Tissue: a rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions. Nervous tissueconsists of two kinds of cells: nerve cells or neurons which are the functionalor conducting units of the systemand special connecting and supporting cells called glia.
  • 5. Regeneration: tissueusually repairs themby allowing the phagocytic cells to remove dead or injured cells, then filling in the gaps that are left. Epithelial and connective tissues have the greatest capacity to regenerate. Keloid: is an unusually thick scar that develops in the lower layer of the skin. Gene:a specific segment of basepairs in a chromosome. Pinocytosis: is an active transportmechanismused to incorporate fluids or dissolved substances into cells by trapping them in a pocket of plasma membrane that pinches off inside the cell. Phagocytosis: this process permits a cell to engulf and eat foreign material. Certain white blood cells destroy bacteria by phagocytosis. Active Transport: is the uphill movement of a substancethrough a living cell membrane.