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Presentation cell tissue and organ

Basic Biological Science

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Presentation cell tissue and organ

  1. 1. Basic Biological Science Biology : Is the study of life. Life : The actual definition of life is yet been established, according to the views of modern science the definition of life – is nothing but the activities of Protoplasm. Anatomy : Anatomy is the study of the Structure of the body. Physiology : Physiology is the study of the functions of normal human body.
  2. 2. Cell Cell is the structural & functional unit of living organism
  3. 3. Type of Cell On the basis of the structure of nucleus cell is of two types- Prokaryotic cell ( e.g. Bacteria) Eukaryotic cell ( e.g. Human cell) On the basis of physiological function cell is of two types- Somatic Cell ( e.g. Body cell) Sex Cell ( Reproductive cell)
  4. 4. Function of a cell Ingestion & assimilation – the process by which food substances are taken into the cells of the body after they have been digested and absorbed. Growth & repair – Development & regeneration of organs. Metabolism – The sum of all the chemical & physical changes that takes place within the body. Respiration – the process of gaseous exchange. Excretion – elimination of wastes product from the body.
  5. 5. Components of cell A cell Consists of – Cell membrane – a semi- permeable membrane covering protoplasm. Protoplasm – it consist of Cytoplasm & Nucleus. Cytoplasm – Except nucleus the rest of cell body is called Cytoplasm.
  6. 6. Components of Cytoplasm: It Consist of – Mitochondria : Rod-like structure & is called power house of cell. Energy stored as ATP ( Adenosine Triphosphate). Endoplasmic Reticulum : Participate in protein synthesis. Golgy Body : Canal – like structure that helps in synthesis of carbohydrate cell membrane. Lysosome: Are vesicular in shape. It helps to digest intracellular substances.
  7. 7. Nucleus : Centrally located a round mass is called nucleus. It is separated from cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. Function of Nucleus : It produces Ribosome. Synthesize RNA & protein Parts of Nucleus : Nuclear membrane Nucleoplasm Nucleolus Nuclear reticulum or chromatin.
  8. 8. Tissue Collection of cell having similar structure & performing a common physiological function is called tissue.
  9. 9. Types of Tissue : Epithelial tissue : Covering the external & internal body surfaces. e.g.- Skin, internal covering of GIT. Connective tissue : Connects different structures of the body & also helps to Provide framework of the body. e.g.- Blood, Bones. Muscular tissue : Muscular tissue make up the major part of the soft tissues of the body & by means of its contraction power helps in locomotion. e.g.- Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle. Nervous tissue : Nervous tissue is highly specialized tissue which controls and co-ordinates the body functions by forming nervous system. e.g. White matter, Grey matter.
  10. 10. Organ Collection of tissues united together to perform a particular function is called organ.
  11. 11. The skin is one of the human body’s largest organs. Skin contains sensory devices that monitor the external environment. The nerves in skin receive the stimuli that are than interpreted by the brain as touch, heat & cold. Skin Skin is composed of three layers: Epidermis – the outer layer. Dermis – the middle layer. Subcutaneous – the inner layer.
  12. 12. Heart The heart is a conical, hollow muscular organ. It is a central pumping station. It pumps blood to all parts of the body. It is covered with a thin cover- Pericardium.
  13. 13. Four Chambers Left atrium Right atrium Left ventricle & Right ventricle Features: Four valves Pulmonary Tricuspid Mitral & Aortic valves. Three layers Epicardium (outer) Myocardium (Middle) Endocardium (Inner)