Basic Biological Science
Biology : Is the study of life.
Life : The actual definition of life is yet been
established, according to the views of modern science
the definition of life – is nothing but the activities of
Anatomy : Anatomy is the study of the Structure of the
Physiology : Physiology is the study of the functions of
normal human body.
Cell is the structural & functional
unit of living organism
Type of Cell
On the basis of the structure of nucleus cell is of
Prokaryotic cell ( e.g. Bacteria)
Eukaryotic cell ( e.g. Human cell)
On the basis of physiological function cell is of two
Somatic Cell ( e.g. Body cell)
Sex Cell ( Reproductive cell)
Function of a cell
Ingestion & assimilation – the process by which food
substances are taken into the cells of the body after they
have been digested and absorbed.
Growth & repair – Development & regeneration of organs.
Metabolism – The sum of all the chemical & physical
changes that takes place within the body.
Respiration – the process of gaseous exchange.
Excretion – elimination of wastes product from the body.
Components of cell
A cell Consists of –
Cell membrane – a semi-
Protoplasm – it consist of
Cytoplasm & Nucleus.
the rest of cell
body is called
Components of Cytoplasm:
It Consist of –
Mitochondria : Rod-like structure
& is called power house of cell.
Energy stored as ATP (
Endoplasmic Reticulum :
Participate in protein synthesis.
Golgy Body : Canal – like
structure that helps in synthesis
of carbohydrate cell membrane.
Lysosome: Are vesicular in
shape. It helps to digest
Nucleus : Centrally located a round mass is called
nucleus. It is separated from cytoplasm by a nuclear
Function of Nucleus :
It produces Ribosome.
Synthesize RNA & protein
Parts of Nucleus :
Nuclear reticulum or chromatin.
Collection of cell having similar structure & performing a
common physiological function is called tissue.
Types of Tissue :
Epithelial tissue : Covering the external & internal body
surfaces. e.g.- Skin, internal covering of GIT.
Connective tissue : Connects different structures of the
body & also helps to Provide framework of the body. e.g.-
Muscular tissue : Muscular tissue make up the major part of
the soft tissues of the body & by means of its contraction
power helps in locomotion. e.g.- Skeletal muscle, cardiac
Nervous tissue : Nervous tissue is highly specialized tissue
which controls and co-ordinates the body functions by
forming nervous system. e.g. White matter, Grey matter.
Collection of tissues united together
to perform a particular function is
The skin is one of the human body’s largest organs. Skin
contains sensory devices that monitor the external
environment. The nerves in skin receive the stimuli that are
than interpreted by the brain as touch, heat & cold.
Skin is composed of three
Epidermis – the outer layer.
Dermis – the middle layer.
Subcutaneous – the inner layer.
The heart is a conical, hollow muscular organ. It is
a central pumping station. It pumps blood to all
parts of the body. It is covered with a thin cover-
Left ventricle &