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Cells and Tissues  leaf growing point bud stem ©   Biophoto Associates 0.02cm 1
Cutting sections <ul><li>The slice of tissue must be only 0.01-0.1 mm thick if cells are to be seen clearly </li></ul><ul>...
Cutting sections Transverse section Longitudinal section 3
A group of cells from  animal tissue cytoplasm cell membrane nucleus 4
Cytoplasm 5 The  cytoplasm  is a living, semi-liquid material Although it looks structureless it contains many structures ...
Nucleus 6 The  nucleus  is a specialised region  of cytoplasm which regulates all the chemical changes which take place in...
Cell membrane 7 The cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm and stops it flowing out It also controls which substances can ge...
Cells from the cheek lining ©  Biophoto Associates cytoplasm nucleus cell membrane 0.01mm 8
Plant cells Plant cells differ from animal cells in having a cell wall  outside the cell membrane, and a large, fluid-fill...
Chloroplasts Cells from the green parts of plants, such as leaves, contain  chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are always in t...
Cells are 3-dimensional Cells seen in sections look flat, 2-dimensional. This is misleading and the picture shows how thre...
Structure of a leaf cell cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm Longitudinal section Transverse section vacuole nucleus The dia...
Plant and animal cells <ul><li>All cells have c ytoplasm , a  nucleus  and a  cell membrane . </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cell...
14 Plant cells Animal cells Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Cell membrane Cell membrane Cell wall Chloroplasts
Organs, cells and tissues The stomach is an  organ , part of the digestive  system The stomach wall contains muscle  tissu...
Self test <ul><li>The following slides contain questions with alternative answers, only one of which is correct. Click on ...
Question 1 <ul><li>Which of these structures controls cell division? </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus...
Question 2 <ul><li>In a plant cell, which of these describes the vacuole? </li></ul><ul><li>A semi-liquid living material ...
Question 3 <ul><li>The cell structure which controls the entry or exit of substances is </li></ul><ul><li>the nucleus </li...
Question 4 <ul><li>Plant cells do not have cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have no vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Pla...
Answer Incorrect 21
Answer Correct 22
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Powerpoint, cells and tissues

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Source: D.G. Mackean (www.biology-resources.com)

Powerpoint, cells and tissues

  1. 1. Cells and Tissues leaf growing point bud stem © Biophoto Associates 0.02cm 1
  2. 2. Cutting sections <ul><li>The slice of tissue must be only 0.01-0.1 mm thick if cells are to be seen clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Thin slices of plant tissue can be made by hand using a sharp razor blade </li></ul><ul><li>The slices are called sections </li></ul><ul><li>Special apparatus and techniques are needed to make very thin sections </li></ul><ul><li>The next slide shows the difference between a transverse and a longitudinal section </li></ul>2
  3. 3. Cutting sections Transverse section Longitudinal section 3
  4. 4. A group of cells from animal tissue cytoplasm cell membrane nucleus 4
  5. 5. Cytoplasm 5 The cytoplasm is a living, semi-liquid material Although it looks structureless it contains many structures which are not visible at this magnification All the processes which keep the cell alive, take place in the cytoplasm or nucleus cytoplasm
  6. 6. Nucleus 6 The nucleus is a specialised region of cytoplasm which regulates all the chemical changes which take place in the cytoplasm It sends chemical signals to the cytoplasm which start or stop the chemical processes going on in it The nucleus also controls cell division nucleus
  7. 7. Cell membrane 7 The cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm and stops it flowing out It also controls which substances can get into and out of the cell It is only about 0.00001mm thick If it is damaged, the cell will die cell membrane
  8. 8. Cells from the cheek lining © Biophoto Associates cytoplasm nucleus cell membrane 0.01mm 8
  9. 9. Plant cells Plant cells differ from animal cells in having a cell wall outside the cell membrane, and a large, fluid-filled vacuole nucleus cell wall cytoplasm vacuole 9
  10. 10. Chloroplasts Cells from the green parts of plants, such as leaves, contain chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are always in the cytoplasm vacuole chloroplast cell wall © Biophoto Associates 0.2mm 10
  11. 11. Cells are 3-dimensional Cells seen in sections look flat, 2-dimensional. This is misleading and the picture shows how three plant cells might look if you could see them in 3 dimensions cell wall cytoplasm nucleus 11
  12. 12. Structure of a leaf cell cell wall cell membrane cytoplasm Longitudinal section Transverse section vacuole nucleus The diagram shows how a 3-dimensional leaf cell would appear in transverse and longitudinal section 12
  13. 13. Plant and animal cells <ul><li>All cells have c ytoplasm , a nucleus and a cell membrane . </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have also a cell wall , a central vacuole and in many cases, chloroplasts . </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells do not have these structures </li></ul>13
  14. 14. 14 Plant cells Animal cells Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Cell membrane Cell membrane Cell wall Chloroplasts
  15. 15. Organs, cells and tissues The stomach is an organ , part of the digestive system The stomach wall contains muscle tissue The muscle tissue consists of muscle cells 15
  16. 16. Self test <ul><li>The following slides contain questions with alternative answers, only one of which is correct. Click on the button next to your answer to see if it is correct. </li></ul>16
  17. 17. Question 1 <ul><li>Which of these structures controls cell division? </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul>17
  18. 18. Question 2 <ul><li>In a plant cell, which of these describes the vacuole? </li></ul><ul><li>A semi-liquid living material </li></ul><ul><li>A specialized region of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>A region containing chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>A solution of salts and sugars </li></ul>18
  19. 19. Question 3 <ul><li>The cell structure which controls the entry or exit of substances is </li></ul><ul><li>the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>The cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>The cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>The cytoplasm </li></ul>19
  20. 20. Question 4 <ul><li>Plant cells do not have cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have no vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>All plant cells have chloroplasts </li></ul>Which one of these statements is correct? 20
  21. 21. Answer Incorrect 21
  22. 22. Answer Correct 22

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