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Cells andCells and
TissuesTissues
Chapter 21 CMA Book
2
Levels of Chemical OrganizationLevels of Chemical Organization
• Atoms
oNucleus—central core of atom
• Proton—positively charged
particle in nucleus
• Neutron—uncharged particle in
nucleus
• Electron—negatively charged
particle
3
Levels of Chemical OrganizationLevels of Chemical Organization
• Elements, molecules, and compounds
o Element—a pure substance; made up of only one
kind of atom
• 19 elements found in the human body (Table 21-1)
o Molecule—chemical combination of 2 or more atoms
that forms a specific chemical compund:
• a water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and
one oxygen atom that are chemically joined
together
• Molecules can move thus take the form of liquid,
gas or solid
o Compound—substances whose molecules have
more than one kind of atom Eg. Water is an
inorganic compound essential to life
o Multiple molecules combine to form cells
CellsCells
• Are microscopic
• Differ in shape and size
• Contain cytoplasm “living matter”
• Each cell is surrounded by a thin
membrane called the plasma
membrane.
• Interstitial fluid or tissue fluid bathes
every cell in the body
5
CellsCells
• Composition
oCells contain cytoplasm—
substance found only in cells
oOrganelles are specialized
structures within the cytoplasm
oCell interior is surrounded by a
plasma membrane
Parts of the CellParts of the Cell
• Three main parts:
o Plasma membrane
• Surrounds entire cell – outer boundary
• Is selectively permeable
• Has two layers containing fat molecules –
phospholipids and cholesterol
• Functions: gateway between the fluid
inside the cell and the fluid around it,
functions as a communication device, and
identifies a cell as being part of one
particular individual (important in tissue
typing)
7
Parts of the CellParts of the Cell
• Three main parts, cont.
o Cytoplasm
• All the living material inside the cell (except
nucleus)
• Has numerous small structures within it called
organelles
– Ribosomes
– Endoplastic reticulum
– Golgi apparatus
– Mitochondria
– Lysosomes
– Centrioles
– Cilia
– Flagella
9
Parts of the CellParts of the Cell
• Cytoplasm (organelles)
– Ribosomes: make enzymes and other protein
compounds. “protein factories”
– Endoplasmic Reticulum: two types:
• Rough ER – has ribosomes attached giving it a
rough texture
• Smooth ER – makes new membrane for the cell
– Golgi Apparatus: tiny, flattened sacs stacked on one
another near the nucleus. It packages the processed
molecules into new little vesicles that break away
from the Golgi apparatus and move slowly outward
to the plasma membrane. “chemical processing and
packaging center.”
Parts of the CellParts of the Cell
• Cytoplasm (organelles)
o Mitochondria: “cell’s power plants.” Each
mitochondrion has its own DNA. This is
where cellular respiration happens.
o Lysosomes: contain enzymes that digest
food compounds. “digestive bags.” Have
protective function (eat microbes)
o Centrioles: rod-shaped structures that are
composed of fine tubules that play an
important role during cell division
Parts of the CellParts of the Cell
• Cytoplasm (organelles)
o Microvilli: small finger-like projections of
the plasma membrane of some cells.
Increase ability to absorb substances by
increasing surface area.
o Cilia: fine hair-like extensions on the free
surfaces of some cells. Capable of
movement in unison in a wavelike fashion
o Flagella: single projection extending from
the cell surface. The only example of a
flagellum in a human is the “tail” of the
male sperm cell
Parts of the CellParts of the Cell
• Three main parts, cont.
o Nucleus
• Controls every organelle in the cytoplasm
• Surrounded by a nuclear envelope made up of two separate membranes
• The nuclear envelope has a special type of cell material called a
nucleoplasm, which in turn has specialized structures – nucleolus and
chromatin granules
• Controls cell because it contains DNA, the genetic code—instructions for
making proteins, which in turn determine cell structure and function
• DNA molecules become tightly coiled chromosomes during cell division
• Each cell has 46 chromosomes in the nucleus
• DNA is determined by heredity and/or inherited from parents or other
ancestors
– Nucleolus – dense region of nuclear material that “programs” the formation of
ribosomes in the nucleus.
14
Relationship of CellRelationship of Cell
Structure and FunctionStructure and Function
• Every human cell has a designated function—some
help maintain the cell; others regulate life processes
of the body itself
• Specialized functions of a cell differ depending on
number and type of organelles
• Heart muscle cells contain many mitochondria
required to produce adequate energy needed for
continued contractions
• Flagellum of sperm cell gives motility, allowing
movement of sperm through female reproductive
tract, thus increasing chances for fertilization
Movement of SubstancesMovement of Substances
Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes
• The plasma membrane in every cell
separates the contents of the cell from the
fluid that surrounds it, however it also must
let certain things in and others out. This
happens in two ways:
o Passive Transport Processes
o Active Transport Processes
• Passive transport processes do not require
added energy and result in movement
“down a concentration gradient”
Movement of SubstancesMovement of Substances
Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes
• Passive Transport Processes
– Diffusion: substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an
available space
• It is unnecessary to add energy to the system
• Movement is from high to low concentration
• Osmosis and dialysis are specialized examples of diffusion
across a selectively permeable membrane
• Osmosis is diffusion of water (when some solutes cannot cross
the membrane)
• Dialysis is diffusion of solutes
– Filtration: the movement of water and solutes through a
membrane as a result of a pushing force that is greater on one
side of the membrane than on the other side (hydrostatic
pressure).
• Responsible for urine formation
17
Movement of SubstancesMovement of Substances
Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes
• Active transport processes: For active
transport processes to occur, the
breakdown of ATP and the use of the
released energy are required.
• Active transport processes occur only
in living cells
o Movement of substances is “up the concentration
gradient”
o Requires energy from ATP
19
Movements of SubstancesMovements of Substances
Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes
• Ion pumps
o Ion pump: a protein complex in the cell
membrane
o Ion pumps use energy from ATP to move
substances across cell membranes against
their concentration gradients
o Examples: sodium-potassium pump (pumps
Na+ ions out of a cell, while it pumps K+ ions
into the cell); calcium pump.
o Some ion pumps work with other carriers so
that glucose or amino acids are transported
along with ions
20
21
Movements of SubstancesMovements of Substances
Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes
• Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
o Both are active transport mechanisms because
they require cell energy
o Phagocytosis is a protective mechanism often
used to destroy bacteria
o Pinocytosis is used to incorporate fluids or
dissolved substances into cells
o Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis: Phagocytosis
means “to eat.” Engulfs foreign material.
Pinocytosis incorporates fluids into cells by
trapping them (pino means “drink.”)
22
Cell Transport andCell Transport and
DiseaseDisease
• Cystic Fibrosis
o Inherited condition in which chloride ion pumps in the plasma
membrane are missing.
o Cells that rely on chloride may die and their remains thicken the
secretions of many exocrine glands
o This leads to frequently recurring lung infections
o characterized by abnormally thick secretions in the airways and
digestive ducts
• Cholera
o Bacterial infection that causes cells lining the intestines to leak
chloride.
o Causes severe diarrhea, resulting from loss of water.
o Death can occur in a few hours if treatment is not received.
24
Cell Reproduction and HeredityCell Reproduction and Heredity
• DNA—molecule and genetic
information
o DNA molecule resembles a long, narrow ladder twisted
round and round its axis; shaped in a double helix
o DNA—contained in cell nucleus in chromosomes
o DNA is determined by heredity and inherited from parents
or other ancestors
o Abnormal DNA that is inherited, or that results from
damage, is often the basis of disease
o Factors that cause damage to DNA molecules include
chemical or mechanical irritants, radiation, bacteria, and
viruses
o Genetics is the study of the hereditary makeup of animals
or plants
Cell DivisionCell Division
• The process of cell reproduction
involves the division of the nucleus
(mitosis) and the cytoplasm.
• Enables cells to reproduce their own kind
• Makes heredity possible
• Interphase – when a cell is not
dividing, but instead going about its
usual functions
o This includes the initial growing stages of a newly formed
cell, followed by a period during which the cell prepares
for possible cell division.
26
Cell DivisionCell Division
• Prophase
o Chromatin condenses and chromatids become attached at
the centromere
o Spindle fibers appear
• Metaphase
o Chromosomes align themselves along the center of the cell
• Anaphase
o Chromosomes are being pulled to opposite ends of the cell
o Cleavage furrow begins to divide the cell into two daughters
cells
• Telophase
o Cell division is complete with two separate daughter cells that
each have identical genetic characteristics
Changes in Cell GrowthChanges in Cell Growth
and Reproductionand Reproduction
• Hypertrophy – increase in cell size
• Atrophy – decrease in cell size
• Hyperplasia – changes in the internal
environment that lead to increase of
reproduction
o Hyperplasia is the increase in the number of cells rather than the size
of each cell.
• Neoplasm – abnormal hyperplasia – tumor
o Uncontrolled cell reproduction results in formation of a benign or
malignant neoplasm (tumor)
• Anaplasia – cells change in orientation and fail
to mature normally
29
TissuesTissues
• Four main kinds:
o Epithelial – covers the body and many of its parts as well as
lines various parts of the body
• Form continuous sheets
• Are divided according to shape and arrangement of
cells:
o Shape:
• Squamous
• Cuboidal
• Columnar
• Transitional
o Arrangement:
• Simple
• Stratified
31
32
TissuesTissues
• Connective tissue
oMost abundant tissue in body
oMost widely distributed tissue in body
oMultiple types, appearances, and
functions
oRelatively few cells in intercellular
matrix
33
TissuesTissues
• Connective tissue
o Types
• Areolar—glue that holds organs together
• Adipose (fat)—lipid storage is primary function
• Fibrous—bundles of strong collagen fibers; e.g.,
tendon
• Bone—matrix is calcified; function is support
and protection
• Cartilage—matrix is consistency of gristle-like
gel; chondrocyte is cell type
• Blood—matrix is fluid; functions are
transportation and protection
34
TissuesTissues
• Four main kinds:
o Muscle – are the movement specialists of the body.
There are three types:
• Skeletal muscle tissue—attaches to bones; also
called striated or voluntary; control is voluntary;
striations apparent when viewed under a
microscope
• Cardiac muscle tissue—also called striated or
involuntary; composes heart wall; ordinarily cannot
control contractions
• Smooth muscle tissue—also called nonstriated
(visceral) or involuntary; no cross striations; found in
blood vessels and other tube-shaped organs
36
TissuesTissues
o Nervous tissue
• Function—rapid communication
between body structures and control of
body functions
• Neurons—conduction cells
• Consists of two kinds of cells:
• Neurons – nerve cells that have a cell
body and two types of processes:
axon and dendrite
• Glia – special connecting and
supporting cells
37
38
TissuesTissues
• Tissue repair—usually
accomplished by means of
regeneration of tissue
oEpithelial and connective tissues
regenerate easily
oMuscle and nervous tissues have
very limited abilities to repair
themselves
Genetic DisordersGenetic Disorders
• Considered medical conditions
• Caused by mutations in a single gene
or a set of genes
• Mutations are changes in the DNA
sequence of a gene or set of genes
• Genetic mutations can occur at any
point during life
Genetic DisordersGenetic Disorders
• Important to differentiate that it is
not a gene or genes that cause the
illness, but rather a mutation that
causes the normal genes to operate
improperly
• Genetic disorder present at birth is
referred to as congenital disorder
• May also be called a birth defect
Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking
QuestionsQuestions
1.Have you ever heard of ADHD?
2.If so what is it and what are the
signs of someone who has
ADHD?
3.Name five genetic disorders.

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Ch. 21 cells and tissues

  • 2. 2 Levels of Chemical OrganizationLevels of Chemical Organization • Atoms oNucleus—central core of atom • Proton—positively charged particle in nucleus • Neutron—uncharged particle in nucleus • Electron—negatively charged particle
  • 3. 3 Levels of Chemical OrganizationLevels of Chemical Organization • Elements, molecules, and compounds o Element—a pure substance; made up of only one kind of atom • 19 elements found in the human body (Table 21-1) o Molecule—chemical combination of 2 or more atoms that forms a specific chemical compund: • a water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom that are chemically joined together • Molecules can move thus take the form of liquid, gas or solid o Compound—substances whose molecules have more than one kind of atom Eg. Water is an inorganic compound essential to life o Multiple molecules combine to form cells
  • 4. CellsCells • Are microscopic • Differ in shape and size • Contain cytoplasm “living matter” • Each cell is surrounded by a thin membrane called the plasma membrane. • Interstitial fluid or tissue fluid bathes every cell in the body
  • 5. 5 CellsCells • Composition oCells contain cytoplasm— substance found only in cells oOrganelles are specialized structures within the cytoplasm oCell interior is surrounded by a plasma membrane
  • 6. Parts of the CellParts of the Cell • Three main parts: o Plasma membrane • Surrounds entire cell – outer boundary • Is selectively permeable • Has two layers containing fat molecules – phospholipids and cholesterol • Functions: gateway between the fluid inside the cell and the fluid around it, functions as a communication device, and identifies a cell as being part of one particular individual (important in tissue typing)
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Parts of the CellParts of the Cell • Three main parts, cont. o Cytoplasm • All the living material inside the cell (except nucleus) • Has numerous small structures within it called organelles – Ribosomes – Endoplastic reticulum – Golgi apparatus – Mitochondria – Lysosomes – Centrioles – Cilia – Flagella
  • 9. 9
  • 10. Parts of the CellParts of the Cell • Cytoplasm (organelles) – Ribosomes: make enzymes and other protein compounds. “protein factories” – Endoplasmic Reticulum: two types: • Rough ER – has ribosomes attached giving it a rough texture • Smooth ER – makes new membrane for the cell – Golgi Apparatus: tiny, flattened sacs stacked on one another near the nucleus. It packages the processed molecules into new little vesicles that break away from the Golgi apparatus and move slowly outward to the plasma membrane. “chemical processing and packaging center.”
  • 11. Parts of the CellParts of the Cell • Cytoplasm (organelles) o Mitochondria: “cell’s power plants.” Each mitochondrion has its own DNA. This is where cellular respiration happens. o Lysosomes: contain enzymes that digest food compounds. “digestive bags.” Have protective function (eat microbes) o Centrioles: rod-shaped structures that are composed of fine tubules that play an important role during cell division
  • 12. Parts of the CellParts of the Cell • Cytoplasm (organelles) o Microvilli: small finger-like projections of the plasma membrane of some cells. Increase ability to absorb substances by increasing surface area. o Cilia: fine hair-like extensions on the free surfaces of some cells. Capable of movement in unison in a wavelike fashion o Flagella: single projection extending from the cell surface. The only example of a flagellum in a human is the “tail” of the male sperm cell
  • 13. Parts of the CellParts of the Cell • Three main parts, cont. o Nucleus • Controls every organelle in the cytoplasm • Surrounded by a nuclear envelope made up of two separate membranes • The nuclear envelope has a special type of cell material called a nucleoplasm, which in turn has specialized structures – nucleolus and chromatin granules • Controls cell because it contains DNA, the genetic code—instructions for making proteins, which in turn determine cell structure and function • DNA molecules become tightly coiled chromosomes during cell division • Each cell has 46 chromosomes in the nucleus • DNA is determined by heredity and/or inherited from parents or other ancestors – Nucleolus – dense region of nuclear material that “programs” the formation of ribosomes in the nucleus.
  • 14. 14 Relationship of CellRelationship of Cell Structure and FunctionStructure and Function • Every human cell has a designated function—some help maintain the cell; others regulate life processes of the body itself • Specialized functions of a cell differ depending on number and type of organelles • Heart muscle cells contain many mitochondria required to produce adequate energy needed for continued contractions • Flagellum of sperm cell gives motility, allowing movement of sperm through female reproductive tract, thus increasing chances for fertilization
  • 15. Movement of SubstancesMovement of Substances Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes • The plasma membrane in every cell separates the contents of the cell from the fluid that surrounds it, however it also must let certain things in and others out. This happens in two ways: o Passive Transport Processes o Active Transport Processes • Passive transport processes do not require added energy and result in movement “down a concentration gradient”
  • 16. Movement of SubstancesMovement of Substances Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes • Passive Transport Processes – Diffusion: substances scatter themselves evenly throughout an available space • It is unnecessary to add energy to the system • Movement is from high to low concentration • Osmosis and dialysis are specialized examples of diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane • Osmosis is diffusion of water (when some solutes cannot cross the membrane) • Dialysis is diffusion of solutes – Filtration: the movement of water and solutes through a membrane as a result of a pushing force that is greater on one side of the membrane than on the other side (hydrostatic pressure). • Responsible for urine formation
  • 17. 17
  • 18. Movement of SubstancesMovement of Substances Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes • Active transport processes: For active transport processes to occur, the breakdown of ATP and the use of the released energy are required. • Active transport processes occur only in living cells o Movement of substances is “up the concentration gradient” o Requires energy from ATP
  • 19. 19 Movements of SubstancesMovements of Substances Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes • Ion pumps o Ion pump: a protein complex in the cell membrane o Ion pumps use energy from ATP to move substances across cell membranes against their concentration gradients o Examples: sodium-potassium pump (pumps Na+ ions out of a cell, while it pumps K+ ions into the cell); calcium pump. o Some ion pumps work with other carriers so that glucose or amino acids are transported along with ions
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21 Movements of SubstancesMovements of Substances Through Cell MembranesThrough Cell Membranes • Phagocytosis and pinocytosis o Both are active transport mechanisms because they require cell energy o Phagocytosis is a protective mechanism often used to destroy bacteria o Pinocytosis is used to incorporate fluids or dissolved substances into cells o Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis: Phagocytosis means “to eat.” Engulfs foreign material. Pinocytosis incorporates fluids into cells by trapping them (pino means “drink.”)
  • 22. 22
  • 23. Cell Transport andCell Transport and DiseaseDisease • Cystic Fibrosis o Inherited condition in which chloride ion pumps in the plasma membrane are missing. o Cells that rely on chloride may die and their remains thicken the secretions of many exocrine glands o This leads to frequently recurring lung infections o characterized by abnormally thick secretions in the airways and digestive ducts • Cholera o Bacterial infection that causes cells lining the intestines to leak chloride. o Causes severe diarrhea, resulting from loss of water. o Death can occur in a few hours if treatment is not received.
  • 24. 24 Cell Reproduction and HeredityCell Reproduction and Heredity • DNA—molecule and genetic information o DNA molecule resembles a long, narrow ladder twisted round and round its axis; shaped in a double helix o DNA—contained in cell nucleus in chromosomes o DNA is determined by heredity and inherited from parents or other ancestors o Abnormal DNA that is inherited, or that results from damage, is often the basis of disease o Factors that cause damage to DNA molecules include chemical or mechanical irritants, radiation, bacteria, and viruses o Genetics is the study of the hereditary makeup of animals or plants
  • 25. Cell DivisionCell Division • The process of cell reproduction involves the division of the nucleus (mitosis) and the cytoplasm. • Enables cells to reproduce their own kind • Makes heredity possible • Interphase – when a cell is not dividing, but instead going about its usual functions o This includes the initial growing stages of a newly formed cell, followed by a period during which the cell prepares for possible cell division.
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Cell DivisionCell Division • Prophase o Chromatin condenses and chromatids become attached at the centromere o Spindle fibers appear • Metaphase o Chromosomes align themselves along the center of the cell • Anaphase o Chromosomes are being pulled to opposite ends of the cell o Cleavage furrow begins to divide the cell into two daughters cells • Telophase o Cell division is complete with two separate daughter cells that each have identical genetic characteristics
  • 28. Changes in Cell GrowthChanges in Cell Growth and Reproductionand Reproduction • Hypertrophy – increase in cell size • Atrophy – decrease in cell size • Hyperplasia – changes in the internal environment that lead to increase of reproduction o Hyperplasia is the increase in the number of cells rather than the size of each cell. • Neoplasm – abnormal hyperplasia – tumor o Uncontrolled cell reproduction results in formation of a benign or malignant neoplasm (tumor) • Anaplasia – cells change in orientation and fail to mature normally
  • 29. 29
  • 30. TissuesTissues • Four main kinds: o Epithelial – covers the body and many of its parts as well as lines various parts of the body • Form continuous sheets • Are divided according to shape and arrangement of cells: o Shape: • Squamous • Cuboidal • Columnar • Transitional o Arrangement: • Simple • Stratified
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32 TissuesTissues • Connective tissue oMost abundant tissue in body oMost widely distributed tissue in body oMultiple types, appearances, and functions oRelatively few cells in intercellular matrix
  • 33. 33 TissuesTissues • Connective tissue o Types • Areolar—glue that holds organs together • Adipose (fat)—lipid storage is primary function • Fibrous—bundles of strong collagen fibers; e.g., tendon • Bone—matrix is calcified; function is support and protection • Cartilage—matrix is consistency of gristle-like gel; chondrocyte is cell type • Blood—matrix is fluid; functions are transportation and protection
  • 34. 34
  • 35. TissuesTissues • Four main kinds: o Muscle – are the movement specialists of the body. There are three types: • Skeletal muscle tissue—attaches to bones; also called striated or voluntary; control is voluntary; striations apparent when viewed under a microscope • Cardiac muscle tissue—also called striated or involuntary; composes heart wall; ordinarily cannot control contractions • Smooth muscle tissue—also called nonstriated (visceral) or involuntary; no cross striations; found in blood vessels and other tube-shaped organs
  • 36. 36 TissuesTissues o Nervous tissue • Function—rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions • Neurons—conduction cells • Consists of two kinds of cells: • Neurons – nerve cells that have a cell body and two types of processes: axon and dendrite • Glia – special connecting and supporting cells
  • 37. 37
  • 38. 38 TissuesTissues • Tissue repair—usually accomplished by means of regeneration of tissue oEpithelial and connective tissues regenerate easily oMuscle and nervous tissues have very limited abilities to repair themselves
  • 39. Genetic DisordersGenetic Disorders • Considered medical conditions • Caused by mutations in a single gene or a set of genes • Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a gene or set of genes • Genetic mutations can occur at any point during life
  • 40. Genetic DisordersGenetic Disorders • Important to differentiate that it is not a gene or genes that cause the illness, but rather a mutation that causes the normal genes to operate improperly • Genetic disorder present at birth is referred to as congenital disorder • May also be called a birth defect
  • 41. Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking QuestionsQuestions 1.Have you ever heard of ADHD? 2.If so what is it and what are the signs of someone who has ADHD? 3.Name five genetic disorders.

Editor's Notes

  1. What makes up an atom’s atomic mass? The number of protons and neutrons combined.
  2. What is interstitial fluid? Interstitial fluid is tissue fluid that bathes every cell in the body. What is the function of the plasma membrane? The plasma membrane encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of the cell.
  3. What is cholesterol, and what is its function? Cholesterol is a fat molecule that is a component of the plasma membrane. It helps stabilize the phospholipid molecules to prevent breakage of the plasma membrane. What are some of the other functions of the plasma membrane? The plasma membrane keeps the cell whole and intact. It serves as a well-guarded gateway between the fluid inside the cell and the fluid around the cell. The plasma membrane lets certain substances through; it also serves as a communication device.
  4. Structure of the plasma membrane. Note that protein molecules may penetrate completely through the two layers of phospholipid molecules.
  5. Organelles literally means “little organs” and they function as such.
  6. General characteristics of the cell. Artist’s interpretation of cell structure. Some of these structures, such as a flagellum or groups of cilia, are present only in certain types of cells.
  7. What is the primary function of ribosomes? To manufacture proteins. What are the two types of ER? How do they function? Rough endoplasmic reticulum transports new proteins within the cell. Smooth makes new membrane for the cell. What is the primary function of the Golgi apparatus? It processes molecules from the ER and packages them to move toward the plasma membrane. How does this process take place? There is continuous folding of the proteins and combinations to form glycoproteins. What are vesicles? Little sacs that fuse with the Golgi sacs and allow the contents to mingle.
  8. Describe the protective function of lysosomes. They contain enzymes that can digest food and substances that invade the cell. What is the role that centrioles play during cell division? Centrioles have fine tubules that play an important role during cell division.
  9. Cilia propel mucus upward over the cells that line the respiratory tract for example. What are two additional properties of cilia? They can move as a group in one direction and can propel mucus upward over the cells that line the respiratory tract. What is unique about flagella with regard to humans? The male sperm cell is the only human cell with a flagellum.
  10. What is the genetic code? DNA – genetic code for building both structural proteins and functional proteins.
  11. What are some examples of specialized organelles?
  12. What are the two transport processes for moving substances into and out of cells? Diffusion and filtration. How are they different? Diffusion is a passive transport process; filtration is the movement of water and solutes through a membrane because of a greater pushing force on one side of the membrane.
  13. What are osmosis and dialysis? Specialized examples of diffusion What are solutes? Substances dissolved in water In passive transport processes, no cellular energy is required to move substances from a high concentration to a low concentration. In active transport processes, cellular energy is required to move substances from a low concentration to a high concentration. Give some additional examples of filtration. Wastes are filtered out of the blood into the kidney tubules because of a difference in hydrostatic pressure.
  14. Diffusion. Note that the membrane is permeable to solute and water and that it separates a 10% solution of solute particles from a 20% solution. The container on the left shows the two solutions separated by the membrane at the start of diffusion. The container on the right shows the result of diffusion after some time has passed.
  15. ATP is adenosine triphosphate – a chemical substance that releases energy to do work in the cell. What is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? A substance produced in the mitochondria using energy from nutrients; capable of releasing that energy to do work for the cell. During active transport, ATP breaks down and releases the energy.
  16. Sodium-potassium pump. Three sodium ions (Na+) are pumped out of the cell and two potassium ions (K+) are pumped into the cell during one pumping cycle of this carrier molecule. ATP is broken down in the process so that the energy freed from ATP can be used to pump the ions.
  17. How do phagocytosis and pinocytosis work? Phagocytosis is the method by which a cell can movement an object or substance through the plasma membrane. Pinocytosis is an active transport mechanism used to incorporate fluids or rather dissolves substances into cells by trapping them in a pocket of plasma membrane that pinches off inside the cell.
  18. Phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is an active transport mechanism that requires expenditure of energy. Note how an extension of cytoplasm envelops the particles, which are drawn through the cell membrane and into the cytoplasm, where they are digested.
  19. If one of the transport processes fail, disease results. Many diseases have a cellular basis, meaning they are basically cell problems even though they may affect the entire body.
  20. What molecules play a crucial role in protein synthesis and mitosis? DNA and RNA What are the components of DNA? Sugar, phosphate, nitrogen bases What are the base pairs? Adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine How many chromosomes are in human body cells? 46
  21. Name the four stages of mitosis. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase What is interphase? A period when the cell is not dividing but going about its usual functions.
  22. Mitosis. For simplicity, only four chromosomes are shown in the diagram.
  23. What do spindle fibers resemble? “Guidewires” to assist the chromosomes to move toward the opposite ends of the cell later in mitosis. Daughter cells have identical genetic characteristics. Each may later undergo mitosis. What are the results of cell division? Two identical new cells.
  24. Discuss neoplasm. A neoplasm is a new mass of cells (tumor) that may exhibit anaplasia – a condition in which cells change in orientation to each other and fail to mature normally or differentiate into a specialized cell type.
  25. Cancer. This depiction of an abnormal mass of proliferating cells in the lining of lung airways is a malignant tumor—lung cancer. Notice how some cancer cells are leaving the tumor and entering the blood and lymph vessels.
  26. What are the four shapes of epithelial cells? Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional In what ways can they be arranged? As a simple arrangement (a single layer of cells of the same shape) or as a stratified (many layers of cells – named for the shape of cells in the outer layer)
  27. Classification of epithelial tissues. The tissues are classified according to the shape and arrangement of cells. (Barbara Cousins.)
  28. Where is connective tissue found? Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body; it is found in skin, membranes, muscles, bones, nerves, and all internal organs.
  29. What type is the most widely distributed of all connective tissue? Areolar tissue What type of tissue provides great strength and flexibility but no stretch? Fibrous tissue Osteons are also called Haversian systems. What is the function of hemopoietic tissue? Also called hematopoietic tissue; it forms blood cells and lymphatic system cells.
  30. Blood. Photomicrograph of a human blood smear. This smear shows a white blood cell surrounded by a number of smaller red blood cells. The liquid matrix of this tissue is also called plasma. (From Gartner LP, Hiatt JL: Color textbook of histology, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2007, Saunders.)
  31. Skeletal – voluntary. Attached to bone, produce body movements Cardiac – the walls of the heart and contractions that cause the heartbeat Smooth (visceral) – involuntary. The walls of blood vessels and hollow organs. Contractions propel food material through the digestive tract, etc. Describe the structure and distinctive traits of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells are striated, voluntary, and characterized by many cross striations and many nuclei per cell. Individual cells are long and threadlike and often called fibers. Give some examples of smooth muscles. Muscles of the digestive tract and respiratory tubes.
  32. Give a general description of a neuron. A functional or conducting unit with special connecting and supporting cells called glia What does an axon do? Transmits the nerve impulse away from the cell body What does a dendrite do? Transmits the impulses toward the cell body
  33. Nervous tissue. Light micrograph of neurons in a smear of the spinal cord. The neurons in this slide show characteristic cell bodies and multiple cell processes. (Dennis Strete.)
  34. What is the difference between a scar and a keloid? A scar is a dense fibrous mass of cells that replaces normal tissue during healing; a keloid is an unusually think scar that develops in the lower layer of the skin What tissues have the greatest capacity to regenerate? Epithelial and connective tissues have the greatest capacity to regenerate. Do all tissues regenerate? If not, name the tissues that do not regenerate. Nerve tissue has a limited capacity to regenerate, but it is not as limited as once thought.