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How AI can help games fulfil their purpose

How AI can help games fulfil their purpose

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My keynote at the 7th EAI International Conference on Interactive Digital Media (https://icidm.eai-conferences.org/2021/).
It discusses the potential of games for serious purposes and the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for games. It discusses how AI can be used in games applied to learning of social skills and how AI can improve the social qualities of artificial agents in games. It concludes with a discussion of the use of AI for game production, in particular, to generate content and to automate playtesting.

My keynote at the 7th EAI International Conference on Interactive Digital Media (https://icidm.eai-conferences.org/2021/).
It discusses the potential of games for serious purposes and the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for games. It discusses how AI can be used in games applied to learning of social skills and how AI can improve the social qualities of artificial agents in games. It concludes with a discussion of the use of AI for game production, in particular, to generate content and to automate playtesting.

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How AI can help games fulfil their purpose

  1. 1. How AI can help games fulfil their purpose Rui Prada INESC-ID and Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal EAI ICIDM 2021 - 7th EAI International Conference on Interactive Digital Media July 30 – August 1, 2021 - Johor Bahru, Malaysia (Online)
  2. 2. Games with purpose Artificial Intelligence in Games 1 2
  3. 3. Games are means for Entertainment Communication Participation Experience
  4. 4. Games with Purpose (Serious Games) Good means to transmit information and show how things work (Multimedia) Capture attention and maintain interest
  5. 5. Games for Education Promote practice, exploration and error (Interactivity) Personal emotional experience
  6. 6. Examples of Games with Purpose
  7. 7. Play with Seismic Phenomena Treme-treme https://treme-treme.pt/ https://youtu.be/e1Mq8Egy9ko • For kids (and all) • Learn how to prepare • Learn how to protect • Learn the dangers (during and after) • Promote discussion
  8. 8. Play with Math and Problem Solving* Festarola *Ricardo Rodrigues, Paula Costa Ferreira, Rui Prada, Paula Paulino, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, “Developing Children's Regulation of Learning in Problem-Solving With a Serious Game” in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 26-40, Oct. 2020. IEEE. • For kids • To develop problem solving skills • Promote self-regulation of learning and self-efficacy • Engage students in the subject of mathematics
  9. 9. Play with Organic Chemistry ChemTouch https://youtu.be/fIC9GTJFQcs • VR game for university students • Learn how to build molecules • Learn atoms’ connections • Stereochemistry (3D Chemistry) • Understand Structure and symmetry
  10. 10. Games for People with Intellectual Disability • Quality of Life Training Game • Cognitive functions: calculus and problem solving, memory, spatial orientation, language, etc. • Quality of Life dimensions: interpersonal relationships, social inclusion, self-determination, physical and emotional well-being, etc. 15 million people with intellectual disability in the European Union https://id-gaming-project.eu
  11. 11. Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Games
  12. 12. AI in Games AI to build the social dimension of the game Play against the player Populate the social world, play social roles in games AI to support the development of the game To generate content for games To automate testing 1 2
  13. 13. AI to build the social dimension in Games
  14. 14. Social roles that AI agents play in games* *Diogo Rato; Rui Prada: “A taxonomy of social roles for agents in games” (to appear) in proceedings of ICEC’21 - the 20th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, pp. 1-12, Coimbra, Portugal, October 2021. IFIP.
  15. 15. Social roles that AI agents play in games* *Diogo Rato; Rui Prada: “A taxonomy of social roles for agents in games” (to appear) in proceedings of ICEC’21 - the 20th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, pp. 1-12, Coimbra, Portugal, October 2021. IFIP.
  16. 16. Social roles that AI agents have in gameplay* *Diogo Rato; Rui Prada: “A taxonomy of social roles for agents in games” (to appear) in proceedings of ICEC’21 - the 20th International Conference on Entertainment Computing, pp. 1-12, Coimbra, Portugal, October 2021. IFIP.
  17. 17. Social Roles in AI agents •Agents need to understand social reality • Culture and group dynamics • Social relations • Social emotions *Frank Dignum, Rui Prada, Gert Jan Hofstede “From autistic to social agents” in Proceedings of the 2014 international conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 1161-1164. 2014. IFAAMAS *Samuel Mascarenhas, Nick Degens, Ana Paiva, Rui Prada, Gert Jan Hofstede, Adrie Beulens, Ruth Aylett: “Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents: From theory to implementation” in Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. pp. 1-32, 2015. Springer. *Gonçalo Pereira, Rui Prada, Pedro A. Santos: “Integrating social power into the decision-making of cognitive agents” in Artificial Intelligence. vol. 241, pp. 1-44, December 2016. Elsevier.
  18. 18. Socially Situated Cognition* • Social meaning of objects • E.g. An apple can be food, a gift, a toy, a weapon, … • Social categorization and social identity • The agents and their social groups in a given context • Social affordances • What you can do with the agents and objects in the context • Socially affordable • What is acceptable *Diogo Rato, Samuel Mascarenhas, Rui Prada “Towards Social Identity in Socio-Cognitive Agents” arXiv preprint arXiv:2001.07142 (2020).
  19. 19. Social AI agents in Minecraft • Context • Time, location, agents • Social practices • Activated by context • Social roles • Locations have social properties • Expected activity • Ownership • Agents have categories/identities • Define relevant social practices • E.g. Lumberjack Background/Observer
  20. 20. https://fatima-toolkit.eu *Samuel Mascarenhas, Manuel Guimarães, Rui Prada, João Dias, Pedro A. Santos, Kam Star, Ben Hirsh, Ellis Spice, and Rob Kommeren “A Virtual Agent Toolkit for Serious Games Developers” in proceedings of 2018 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG), pp. 1-7. IEEE, August 2018.
  21. 21. Space Modules Inc. Sports Team Manager Social AI agents with FAtiMA Toolkit Challenger/Contender Subordinate/Master
  22. 22. *Ana Salta, Rui Prada, Francisco S. Melo “A Game AI Competition to foster Collaborative AI research and development” in IEEE Transactions on Games, pp. 1-14, 2020. IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/TG.2020.3024160 Teammate Cooperative play in Geometry Friends* http://gaips.inesc-id.pt/geometryfriends/
  23. 23. Social robots and games
  24. 24. *André Tiago Pereira, Rui Prada, Ana Paiva: “Improving social presence in human-agent interaction” in proceedings of CHI’2014 - 32nd annual ACM conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1449-1458, Toronto, Canada. April 2014. ACM. Opponent Playing boardgames* • Contextual gaze • Emotional reactions to game events • Interpersonal relations • Increased the social presence of the artificial player Emys the Risk player
  25. 25. Playing Team Games* • Displaying emotions as individual or group • Determine the cognitive unit for the emotional appraisal • Positive effects for group identification, trust and likability *Filipa Correia, Samuel Mascarenhas, Rui Prada, Francisco S. Melo, Ana Paiva: "Group-based emotions in teams of humans and robots" in proceedings of HRI'18 - International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 261-269, Chicago, IL, USA, March 2018. ACM/IEEE. Teammate Opponent
  26. 26. Social Robots as Team Leaders* • Leadership types • Transactional (TA): focus on task • Transformational (TF): focus on people • 108 people (Portuguese companies) 36 teams of 3 • Productivity: higher for TA • Engagement: higher for TF • Role Ambiguity: no sig. difference • Trust: no sig. difference *Sara L. Lopes, José Bernardo Rocha, Aristides I. Ferreira, Rui Prada “Social robots as leaders: leadership styles in human-robot teams” (to appear) in proceedings of RO-MAN 2021 – The 30th International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Canada 2021. IEEE. Subordinate/Master
  27. 27. AI to support the development of games
  28. 28. Procedural Content Generation for Games • Automate the creation of content for games • Reduce production costs • Adapt content to players • Computational creativity • Co-creation • Humans and agents together Levels of Geometry Friends
  29. 29. Procedural Content Generation for Cooperative Games • Generate levels for the Geometry Friends game • Use of Genetic Algorithms
  30. 30. Procedural Content Generation for Cooperative Games • Population • Chromosome: [RectangleSpawn, CircleSpawn, PlatformArray] • 8 platforms: [Activation, Position, Dimentions] • Ex:[120,200,300,240,1,340,120,400,30,0,230,30,200,50,...] • Evolution process • Selection: Elitism with selection of 30% • Crossover: 2 parents breed one child • Gets random parts from each parent (e.g. platforms) • Mutation: change the activation of a platform or its characteristics
  31. 31. Procedural Content Generation for Cooperative Games • Fitness: character reachability • Circle only • Rectangle only • With collaboration • Both • Intersection with user input • Min value of intersection User Input User Input User Input
  32. 32. Procedural Content Generation for Cooperative Games • Sample results: population 50 and 2000 generations input area reachability level
  33. 33. Automated Testing • Software testing with autonomous (testing) agents • Agents for User eXperience testing • Social and emotional agents • Predict UX by running the agents in the environment • Predict emotion from interaction traces *Pedro M. Fernandes, Manuel Lopes Rui Prada “Agents for Automated User Experience Testing” in proceedings of the AIST’2021 – the 1st International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in Software Testing, International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), pp.. 247-253, IEEE. 2021 *Rui Prada, ISWB Prasetya, Fitsum Kifetew, Frank Dignum, Tanja EJ Vos, Jason Lander, Jean-yves Donnart, Alexandre Kazmierowski, Joseph Davidson, Pedro M Fernandes “Agent- based Testing of Extended Reality Systems” in proceedings of ICST’- 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST), pp. 414-417, IEEE. 2020. https://iv4xr-project.eu
  34. 34. Predict Emotion from Interaction Traces • Machine Learning approach • Users play a game • Self-report annotation: PAD model https://iv4xr-project.eu
  35. 35. Predict Emotion from Interaction Traces Arousal Accuracy: 69.22 % Pleasure Accuracy: 64.52 % Dominance Accuracy: 62.58 % https://iv4xr-project.eu Preliminary results • 88 participants, 3 maps • 264 traces ML approach: Random Forests • Predict 3 classes: increase, decrease, stable
  36. 36. Conclusions Games can be used for a purpose: educate, inform, motivate and persuade AI has an important role in game development AI to create social agents in games AI to create content AI to automate testing
  37. 37. Thank you! rui.prada@tecnico.ulisboa.pt http://gaips.inesc-id.pt/rprada http://labjogos.tecnico.ulisboa.pt https://iv4xr-project.eu https://id-gaming-project.eu EAI ICIDM 2021 - 7th EAI International Conference on Interactive Digital Media July 30 – August 1, 2021 - Johor Bahru, Malaysia (Online)

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