Workplace Violence

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Workplace Violence

  1. 1. Workplace Violence: What To Know What To Do William McPeck Director Employee Health and Safety Maine State Government
  2. 2. The Perspective I Bring <ul><li>Social worker with EAP specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Maine State Fire Marshal’s Office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigated fires, explosions and arsons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trained in criminal profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Trained in threat assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor in non-violent crisis intervention </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Workplace Violence? <ul><li>Workplace violence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any act of physical violence – overt aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homicide, physical and sexual assault </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Workplace aggression – emotional toll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressions of hostility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures, facial expressions and verbal assaults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threats of physical violence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment, intimidation, bullying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ostracism/shunning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstructionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive/aggressive behaviors that impede job performance or achievement of organizational objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Joel Neuman, Journal of Management, May/June, 1998 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Workplace Violence Can… <ul><li>Be inflicted by a stranger with criminal intent, or </li></ul><ul><li>Be inflicted by an abusive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee, supervisor or manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client, patient or customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former employee, manager or supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family member or significant other </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Workplace Violence Can… <ul><li>Affect or involve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitors, customers, patients or clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contractors </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why the Increase in Workplace Violence? <ul><li>Increase in societal tolerance of violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of violence as a form of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased accessibility to weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Less control over work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of careers, commitment and loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job vs. career </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downsizing, Reengineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do more with less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of middle management </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why the Increase in Workplace Violence? (con’t) <ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown of support systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extended families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of neighborhood/community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The increasing pace of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to cope with pace of organizational change </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Why the Increase in Workplace Violence? (con’t) <ul><li>Insatiable electronic media demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24/7 TV news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government and government workers easy targets for angry citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in government benefits and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entitlement philosophy </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Source of the statistics needs to be kept in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Two general sources of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational injury statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Labor Statistics Annual Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities Surveillance System - NIOSH </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million individuals are the victim of a violent workplace crime each year (BJS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This represents 15% of all violent crimes committed annually in America (BJS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1998 National Crime Victimization Survey estimates some 2 million American workers are victims of workplace violence each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: National Crime Victimization Study – 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1980 – 1989 nearly 7,600 U.S. workers were victims of homicide in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 12% of all deaths from injury in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of death in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#1 Motor vehicle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#2 Machinery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#3 Homicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: NIOSH, 1993) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace Homicides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>@7,600 1980 – 1989 (NIOSH, 1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,080 in 1994 (BLS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>860 in 1997 (BLS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>645 in 1999 (BLS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall workplace homicide has remained the third most frequent cause of fatalities in the workplace </li></ul>
  13. 13. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>1997, Percent of Work-Related Homicides by Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1 Criminal Intent – 85% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 Customer/Client – 3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 3 Co or Past Worker – 7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 4 Personal Relationship – 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: BLS) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1980 – 1989, workplace homicide was the leading cause of fatal occupational injury for women (NIOSH, 1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1999, workplace homicide was the second leading cause of fatal occupational injury for women (BJS) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of Workplace Violence 1992 – 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>73.6% Simple Assault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>19.7% Aggravated Assault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.2% Robbery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.5% Rape and Sexual Assault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.05% Homicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: National Crime Victimization Study - 1998 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully 99.8% of the victims of workplace violence survive the assaults they experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Joel Neuman, Journal of Management, May/June, 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This doesn’t make the experience any less traumatic! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Nationally (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Average number of violent non-fatal victimizations in the workplace, 1992 – 1996,by selected occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail - @285,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement – @240,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching - @135,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical - @130,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Health - @ 75,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation - @ 65,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: University of Iowa, Injury Prevention Research Center, February 2001 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How Big Is The Problem? <ul><li>Maine’s Experience (Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disabling Cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1997 144 cases 1.1% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1998 164 cases 1.3% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1999 218 cases 1.3% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Maine State Government Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correctional workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement personnel </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Who Commits Workplace Violence? <ul><li>80% committed by males </li></ul><ul><li>40% committed by complete strangers </li></ul><ul><li>35% committed by casual acquaintances </li></ul><ul><li>19% by individuals well known to victim </li></ul><ul><li>1% by relatives of the victim </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Weapons Used <ul><li>WORKPLACE HOMICIDES, 1990-1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guns – 75% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knives etc. – 14% (Source, NIOSH, 1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 62% of the violent crimes the perpetrator was not armed; in 30% of the violent crimes the perpetrator was armed with a handgun (Source: BJS, 1994) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Where Did The Incidents Occur? <ul><li>61% in private companies </li></ul><ul><li>30% in government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>8% involved self-employed individuals </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: BJS, 1994) </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Does Workplace Violence Cost? <ul><li>The Economics of Workplace Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three most affected areas are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costly litigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negligent hiring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negligent retention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negligent supervision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lost productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> 80% for 2 weeks post incident </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CISD, investigations, PTSD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased turnover </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased morale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What Does Workplace Violence Cost? <ul><li>The Economics of Workplace Violence (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer buying decisions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intangible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media exposure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community relations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate image </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: Workplace Violence Research Institute) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What Does Workplace Violence Cost? <ul><li>Estimated that some 500,000 employees miss 1,751,000 days of work annually or 3.5 days per incident </li></ul><ul><li>This missed work equates to approximately $55 million in lost wages </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: BJS, 1994) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Classifications of Workplace Violence <ul><li>Type I Criminal Intent </li></ul><ul><li>Type II Customer/Client </li></ul><ul><li>Type III Worker-on-Worker </li></ul><ul><li>Type IV Personal Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: University of Iowa, Injury Prevention Research Center, February 2001 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Classifications of Workplace Violence <ul><li>Type I – Criminal Intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetrator has no legitimate relationship to the organization or its employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A crime is usually being committed in conjunction with the violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robbery, shoplifting, criminal trespassing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Classifications of Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Type II – Customer/Client </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The perpetrator has a legitimate relationship with the organization – The recipient or object of services provided by the affected workplace or victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This category includes customers, clients, patients, students, inmates, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Classifications of Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Type III – Worker-on-Worker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The perpetrator is an employee or past employee of the organization who attacks or threatens fellow past or present employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be seeking revenge for what is perceived as unfair treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes employees, supervisors and managers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Classifications of Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Type IV – Personal Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The perpetrator usually does not have a legitimate relationship with the organization, but has or has had a personal relationship with the intended victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May involve a current or former spouse, lover, relative, friend, or acquaintance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence carried out at the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The perpetrator is motivated by perceived difficulties in the relationship or by psychosocial factors that are specific to the perpetrator </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. What Are Possible Risk Factors? <ul><li>Exchange of money with the public </li></ul><ul><li>Working alone or in small numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Working late night or early morning </li></ul><ul><li>Working in high crime areas </li></ul><ul><li>Guarding valuable property or possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Working in community settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. taxicab drivers, retail clerks, police) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. What Are Possible Risk Factors? (con’t) <ul><li>Where alcohol/drugs sold or dispensed </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to unstable or volatile persons? (e.g. health care, social services, criminal justice settings) </li></ul><ul><li>Employees deciding on benefits, or in some way controlling a person’s future, well-being or freedom? (Such as a government agency does) </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: NIOSH) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conditions Allowing Workplace Violence <ul><li>Individual Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitating Events or Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>System Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Workplace Solutions, 1997 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Conditions Allowing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Individual Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoid personality and thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug and/or alcohol problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life stressor – divorce/separation, illness, helplessness, loss or control, isolation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Conditions Allowing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Precipitating events or conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment by co-workers or supervisors </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Conditions Allowing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>System Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not recognizing or ignoring early warning signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indifference to the needs of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor management of downsizings, terminations and accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishing or terminating impaired or deviant employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor or non-existent communication between labor and management </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Conditions Allowing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>System Characteristics (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information that could signal problems is not shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of commitment and involvement by top management </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Indicators of Potential Workplace Violence <ul><li>Intimidating, harassing, bullying, belligerent or other inappropriate and aggressive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous conflicts with customers, co-workers or supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing a weapon to the workplace (unless job related) </li></ul><ul><li>Making inappropriate references to guns </li></ul>
  38. 38. Indicators of Potential Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Making threats or idle threats about using a weapon to harm someone </li></ul><ul><li>Making statements showing a fascination with incidents of workplace violence </li></ul><ul><li>Making statements indicating approval of the use of violence to resolve a problem </li></ul>
  39. 39. Indicators of Potential Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Making statements indicating the identification with perpetrators of workplace homicides </li></ul><ul><li>Statements indicating desperation over family, financial or other types of personal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Statements about contemplating suicide </li></ul>
  40. 40. Indicators of Potential Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Direct or veiled threats of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme changes in normal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1998 </li></ul>
  41. 41. Profile of the Most Likely Type III Perpetrator <ul><li>A male, aged 25 to 40 years </li></ul><ul><li>Has a history of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be a loner </li></ul><ul><li>Owns several weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Has requested some form of assistance in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits frequent anger </li></ul><ul><li>Has a history of conflict with others </li></ul>
  42. 42. Profile of the Most Likely Type III Perpetrator (con’t) <ul><li>Has a history of family or marital problems </li></ul><ul><li>After periods of verbalizing anger, will become withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Is paranoid </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits self-destructive behavior such as alcohol and/or drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, don’t take profile too literally </li></ul><ul><li>Source: www.svn.net/mikekell/v3.html </li></ul>
  43. 43. Behavior Warning Signs of Potential Violence and Their Probability of Occurrence <ul><li>Male (80% or better) </li></ul><ul><li>White (75% or better) </li></ul><ul><li>Working age (90% or better) </li></ul><ul><li>Will display one or more of the following behaviors (90% or better) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A history of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of psychosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of abnormally strong sexual desire (erotomania) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Behavior Warning Signs of Potential Violence and Their Probability of Occurrence (con’t) <ul><ul><li>Evidence of drug and/or alcohol dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of depression and withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pattern of pathological blaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of impaired neurological functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An elevated frustration level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An interest/fascination in weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of a personality disorder </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Behavior Warning Signs of Potential Violence and Their Probability of Occurrence (con’t) <ul><ul><li>Unexplained increase in absenteeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noticeable decrease in attention to appearance and personal hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a plan to “solve all problems” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance and over reaction to changes in policies or procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repeated violations of the organization’s policies </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Behavior Warning Signs of Potential Violence and Their Probability of Occurrence (con’t) <ul><li>The following behaviors are commonly exhibited, but have an uncertain probability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will vocalize or otherwise act out, violent intentions prior to committing a violent act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over a sustained period of time, will exhibit behaviors that are interpreted as insignificant, strange, bizarre or threatening by coworkers and supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember: These are general guidelines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions will always occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Workplace Violence Research Institute </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Preventing Workplace Violence <ul><li>Three general approaches to prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative/Organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral/Interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: University of Iowa, Injury Prevention Research Center, February 2001 </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate inside and outside lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure entrances and exits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turnstiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical barriers </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Environmental (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal and Explosives Detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uniformed vs. Business Attire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Armed vs. unarmed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized customer/client meeting rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other engineering controls </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Administrative/Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace Violence Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threat Assessment Team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Administrative/Organizational (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring and Termination Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corroborate information on applications/resumes (42% contain intentional misstatements of material facts) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview – Use of open-ended questions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for a pattern of aggressive behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct background investigation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the possibility of violent response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan out – script out the procedure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Administrative/Organizational (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Practice Controls - Work practices aimed at maintaining a safe working environment – Written procedures and guidelines </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Behavioral/Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing employee attitudes toward security – It won’t happen to me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff training – Train staff to anticipate, recognize and respond to conflict and potential violence in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal security techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-violent crisis intervention techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De-escalation techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to report violent, inappropriate, disruptive or threatening behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><ul><li>Supervisor/manager training – in addition to the staff level training, supervisors and managers should receive training in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a positive work culture/climate that supports employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing skills for displaying compassion, concern and support for employees – employee trust is critical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to best utilize the EAP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Preventing Workplace Violence (con’t) <ul><li>Supervisor/manager training (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering progressive discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract management/grievance handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee counseling/coaching </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Special Considerations For Managers/Supervisors <ul><li>What are the workplace violence risks at the worksites you run? </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators that employees need immediate intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive tardiness or absences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increased need for supervisory attention or supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent work habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strained workplace relationships </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Special Considerations For Managers/Supervisors (con’t) <ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of safety procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New, sudden involvement in accidents or violations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in health or hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual or sudden behavioral change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascination with weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and/or drug abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous, confidential screening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-877-788-4173 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Special Considerations For Managers/Supervisors (con’t) <ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excuses and Blaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous and confidential screening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-877-788-4173 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Responding to Workplace Violence <ul><li>Facility Emergency Action Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Threat Assessment Team </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Response Team </li></ul><ul><li>CISD </li></ul><ul><li>EAP and Behavioral Health Services </li></ul><ul><li>Media Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Recovery/Continued Operation Plan </li></ul>
  60. 60. Special Issues for Field Forces <ul><li>Need to develop specific safety guidelines to employee’s specific situation and the problems they are likely to encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of daily work plans/itinerary (e.g. flight plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining periodic contact throughout their tour of duty </li></ul>
  61. 61. Special Issues for Field Forces (con’t) <ul><li>Use of a buddy system </li></ul><ul><li>Need to recognize potentially dangerous situations ahead of time, so back-up can be secured/started or a strategy implemented so the employee does not go in alone </li></ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1998 </li></ul>
  62. 62. For Further Information: <ul><li>William McPeck </li></ul><ul><li>Director, Employee Health and Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Maine State Government </li></ul><ul><li>114 Sate House Station </li></ul><ul><li>Augusta, ME 04333 </li></ul><ul><li>207-287-6783 (voice) </li></ul><ul><li>207-287-6796 (fax) </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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