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ELDER ABUSE AND
MALTREATMENT
Objectives
 Define elder abuse and differentiate between the
types of abuse
 Provide prevalence rates for elder abuse
 ...
Elder Abuse
(National Center on Elder Abuse, 2010)
Statistics
 About 700,000 to 3.5 million older Americans are
abused, neglected, or exploited each year
(National Research...
Statistics by Age, Gender and Race
 Persons aged 80 years and older are more likely to suffer from
abuse and neglect (Nat...
Elder Abuse and Neglect is:
 Widely under recognized and underreported in the
United States.
 Has the potential to incre...
Risk Factors for Older Adults
 Lack of resources or access to resources
 Low income
 Low education level
 Previous tra...
Risk Factors for Abusers
 Caregiver stress, burden, depression and/or lack of
support
 Alcohol, drug and mental health p...
Risk Factors for Abusers
 Seniors are living longer, but not
necessarily better. Potential declines in
cognitive and phys...
Types of Abuse and Indicators
 Physical:
 Unexplained fractures, dislocations, lacerations, abrasions, burns, bruises, s...
Types of Domestic Elder Abuse (1996)
Indicators by Caregiver
 Prevents elder from speaking to or seeing
visitors
 Lack of affection towards elder
 Conflicti...
CASE STUDIES
Case Study #1
Police said a 47-year-old man intentionally neglected to
provide care for his 84-year-old father and is now ...
Questions
 What type/s of abuse has occurred?
 What may have placed the elder adult at risk for
this type of abuse?
 Wh...
Case Study #2
A couple is in jail after being charged in the death of the
man's 79-year-old mother. The couple is facing o...
Questions
 What type/s of abuse has occurred?
 What were the indicators of abuse?
Training to Identify Elder Abuse
 Click on or copy and paste weblink
below to view brief video about the
purpose of Elder...
Discussion with a Forensic Nurse
 This podcast features Pat King, a post-certified forensic
nurse who works with the fore...
http://dhs.georgia.gov/services/report-elder-abuse
Assessment
 Perform cognitive assessment screen, such as
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
 Ask brief screening ques...
Assessment Continued
 If elder abuse is suspected:
 Proceed with assessment.
 Evaluate risk factors for abuse (e.g., In...
Elder Abuse Measurements
 Brief Abuse Screen for the Elderly (BASE) – 5-item
Practitioner evaluation of caregiver and eld...
Adult Protective Services
 Click on or copy and paste the weblink below to
learn how Adult Protective Services (APS) work...
Interventions
 There is limited high-quality research on the
effectiveness of elder abuse interventions
(Daly, 2011; Ploe...
Current and Proposed Interventions
 Education of caregivers, APS workers, and health
care personnel
 Support group meeti...
References
 Daly, J. M., Merchant, M. L., & Jogerst, G. J. (2011). Elder abuse research: A systematic review. Journal of ...
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ARGEC: Elder abuse and maltreatment

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ARGEC: Elder abuse and maltreatment

  1. 1. ELDER ABUSE AND MALTREATMENT
  2. 2. Objectives  Define elder abuse and differentiate between the types of abuse  Provide prevalence rates for elder abuse  Identify risk factors for elder abuse and neglect  Describe specific indicators of elder abuse and neglect  Highlight common assessment instruments  Identify evidence-based interventions for elder abuse prevention
  3. 3. Elder Abuse (National Center on Elder Abuse, 2010)
  4. 4. Statistics  About 700,000 to 3.5 million older Americans are abused, neglected, or exploited each year (National Research Council Panel to Review Risk and Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 2003)  For every one case of abuse or neglect reported to authorities, about five more go unreported (The National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998).  Family members are the perpetrators of abuse and neglect in about 90% of cases, 40% being adult children and 15% spouses (The National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998).
  5. 5. Statistics by Age, Gender and Race  Persons aged 80 years and older are more likely to suffer from abuse and neglect (National Center on Elder Abuse, 2010).  Older women (67%) are far more likely than men (32%) to suffer from abuse (National Center on Elder Abuse Study, 2004).  More than half of the alleged perpetrators of elder abuse are female (53%) (National Center on Elder Abuse Study, 2004).  In a report from 2003, victims of elder abuse were Caucasian (66.4%), Black (18.7%), Hispanic (10.4%), Native American (1%), and Asian American/Pacific Islander (1%) (National Center on Elder Abuse, 2003).
  6. 6. Elder Abuse and Neglect is:  Widely under recognized and underreported in the United States.  Has the potential to increase as the aging population steadily grows in size.  Associated with adverse outcomes, including mortality.
  7. 7. Risk Factors for Older Adults  Lack of resources or access to resources  Low income  Low education level  Previous traumatic event  Problem relationships  Poor physical health  Alcohol, drug and mental health problems  Social isolation  Cognitive impairment with high physical needs  Dementia High Risk
  8. 8. Risk Factors for Abusers  Caregiver stress, burden, depression and/or lack of support  Alcohol, drug and mental health problems  Dependence on the elder for financial/material support  Poor relationship with the elder  Unemployment or lack of resources
  9. 9. Risk Factors for Abusers  Seniors are living longer, but not necessarily better. Potential declines in cognitive and physical functions could make them more vulnerable to victimization. (National Center on Elder Abuse, 2010)
  10. 10. Types of Abuse and Indicators  Physical:  Unexplained fractures, dislocations, lacerations, abrasions, burns, bruises, slap marks, hair loss, black eyes, cowering/flinching.  Sexual:  Unexplained STDs, pain, itching, bleeding or bruising in the genital area, bruising around the breast.  Emotional/Psychological:  Low self-esteem, overly anxious or withdrawn, extreme mood changes, depression, confusion, disorientation, suicidal behavior.  Financial:  Sudden change in finances and accounts, altered wills and trusts, unusual bank withdrawals, checks written as loans or gifts, unable to pay bills, loss of property.  Neglect:  Poor personal hygiene, unclean or unsuitable clothing, misuse of medication, malnourished, weight loss, unexplained falls, left alone.
  11. 11. Types of Domestic Elder Abuse (1996)
  12. 12. Indicators by Caregiver  Prevents elder from speaking to or seeing visitors  Lack of affection towards elder  Conflicting accounts of events  Anger, indifference, aggressive behavior toward elder
  13. 13. CASE STUDIES
  14. 14. Case Study #1 Police said a 47-year-old man intentionally neglected to provide care for his 84-year-old father and is now being charged with abusing a disabled elder person. "The father sleeps in a bed covered in his own feces. He appears to be malnourished. He is unable to walk due to extreme pain, so he cannot feed himself or go to the restroom," a Judge told the suspect after he said he didn’t understand the charges. Police found the home filthy, and the elder had not been shaven in a while. The elder’s best friend said he could be difficult to get along with. A neighbor who tried to check on the elder said the son would answer, “He's doing fine. He can't come to the phone.” (March 10, 2011, WSBTV Atlanta news)
  15. 15. Questions  What type/s of abuse has occurred?  What may have placed the elder adult at risk for this type of abuse?  What were the indicators of abuse?
  16. 16. Case Study #2 A couple is in jail after being charged in the death of the man's 79-year-old mother. The couple is facing one count each of cruelty to a person 65 or older and two counts each of forgery. The cruelty charge is a felony. Authorities say the mother died after six weeks of hospitalization for an infection that developed because she was denied adequate health care and nourishment. She was also kept in unsanitary living conditions. The son also cashed $1,200 worth of the elderly woman's Social Security checks while she was in the hospital, forging her signature. (April 11, 2008; WSBTV-Atlanta)
  17. 17. Questions  What type/s of abuse has occurred?  What were the indicators of abuse?
  18. 18. Training to Identify Elder Abuse  Click on or copy and paste weblink below to view brief video about the purpose of Elder Abuse Training.  https://gsu.sharestream.net/ssdcms/i.do?u=e9616eaec0354bc
  19. 19. Discussion with a Forensic Nurse  This podcast features Pat King, a post-certified forensic nurse who works with the forensic special investigator unit of the Georgia Division of Aging Services.  Pat will discuss her role and that of the special investigator unit in providing resources and training for individuals who investigate cases of elder abuse.  She will also highlight the individuals at highest risk, the most common types of abuse seen in Georgia, and the responsibilities of healthcare providers in reporting abuse.  Click on or copy and paste the weblink below to listen to the podcast:  https://gsu.sharestream.net/ssdcms/i.do?u=2dbe7ee0cc42425
  20. 20. http://dhs.georgia.gov/services/report-elder-abuse
  21. 21. Assessment  Perform cognitive assessment screen, such as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).  Ask brief screening questions such as, "How are things at home?", "Do you feel safe at home?”
  22. 22. Assessment Continued  If elder abuse is suspected:  Proceed with assessment.  Evaluate risk factors for abuse (e.g., Indicators of Abuse Screen, Geriatric Depression Scale).  Conduct a patient history, using the appropriate agency or institutional history form.  Conduct a physical assessment, using the appropriate agency or institutional physical assessment form.  Interview significant other persons that are present with the patient.  Follow the agency or institution's reporting policy and procedure. If a crime has been committed, notify local law enforcement. (National Guideline Clearinghouse, Elder Abuse Prevention, 2011)
  23. 23. Elder Abuse Measurements  Brief Abuse Screen for the Elderly (BASE) – 5-item Practitioner evaluation of caregiver and elder likelihood of abuse (Reis & Nahmiash,1998).  Elder Abuse and Neglect Instrument (EAI) – 41- item assessment of signs, symptoms and subjective complaints of elder abuse, neglect, exploitation and abandonment (Fulmer, 2003).  Caregiver assessment  Modified Caregiver Strain Index(Thornton & Travis, 2003)
  24. 24. Adult Protective Services  Click on or copy and paste the weblink below to learn how Adult Protective Services (APS) works in cases of elder abuse:  Report is made  Investigation  Support  If victim refuses services  http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/Stop_Abuse/Partners/APS/Ho w_APS_Works.aspx
  25. 25. Interventions  There is limited high-quality research on the effectiveness of elder abuse interventions (Daly, 2011; Ploeg, 2009).  Most interventions are aimed at increasing awareness and knowledge with the overall objective of increasing elder abuse reporting.
  26. 26. Current and Proposed Interventions  Education of caregivers, APS workers, and health care personnel  Support group meetings  Daily money management programs or assistants  Legislation  Respite programs and social support  Batterer interventions (anger management, cognitive therapy, and couples therapy). (Daly, 2011)
  27. 27. References  Daly, J. M., Merchant, M. L., & Jogerst, G. J. (2011). Elder abuse research: A systematic review. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 23(4), 348-65. doi: 10.1080/08946566.2011.608048  Fulmer, T. (2003). Elder abuse and neglect assessment. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 29(6), 4-5.  National Center on Elder Abuse. (2010). How to answer those tough questions about elder abuse. Retrieved from http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/Ncearoot/Main_Site/pdf/publication/HowToAnswerToughQuestionsAboutElderAbuse_final. pdf  National Center on Elder Abuse. (2011). Frequently asked questions: What is elder abuse? Retrieved from http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/Main_Site/FAQ/Questions.aspx  The National Center on Elder Abuse. (1998). The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study. Retrieved from http://aoa.gov/AoA_Programs/Elder_Rights/Elder_Abuse/docs/ABuseReport_Full.pdf  National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2011). Elder abuse prevention. Retrieved from http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=34018  National Research Council Panel to Review Risk and Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect. (2003). Elder mistreatment: Abuse, neglect and exploitation in an aging America. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309084342  Ploeg, J., Fear, J., Hutchison, B., MacMillan, H., & Bolan, G. (2009). A systematic review of interventions for elder abuse. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 21(3), 187-210. doi: 10.1080/08946560902997181  Reis, M., & Nahmiash, D. (1998). Validation of the indicators of abuse (IOA) screen. The Gerontologist, 38(4), 471- 480.  Thornton, M., & Travis, S. S. (2003). Analysis of the reliability of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index. The Journal of Gerontology, Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(2), S129-S132.

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