Introduction to Open Access Robert Perret Savvy Skills for Researchers October 2011 University of Idaho
What is Open Access?• Free of charge(to the reader)• Free of most copyright and licensing restrictions• Online• Digital• Immediate (No delays or embargoes)• Full-text
What is Open Access?• Simply removing the price barrier is not sufficient• Tolerating “fair use” is not sufficient
What is Open Access?• Per the Bethesda and Berlin statements, to be OA the copyright holder must consent in advance to let users copy, use, print, index, distribute, transmit and display the work publically, as well as to make and transmit derivative works• Essentially the only right retained under OA is the right to proper attribution of authorship
History of Open Access www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/ARPANET.html• 1969 – Steve Crocker sends a “Request for Comment” on his paper about IMP software across ARPANet.
http://s3.media.squarespace.com/production/650702/7578546/wp- content/uploads/2009/12/1174631634_faad3aaea7_thumb.jpg• 1971 First email sent by engineer Ray Tomlinson
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Te-Va/Transactinides.html• 1974 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center begins cataloging electronic pre-print literature
http://echo.gmu.edu/node/5147• 1979 USENET created• 1981 JANET and BITNET
http://www.photosfan.com/images/ealy-home-computer-pcs.jpg• 1983 – ARPAnet switches protocols from NCP to TCP/IP. Generally considered to be the birth of the Internet.
http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/large/c6289-25a.jpg• 1985 The White House issues National Security Decisions Directive 189 stating that “to the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research remain unrestricted.”
http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTwj- H3pjRpNmynksyoAj5QdDVUFejpl7VixKcvrBarVU367JEw• 1987 Syracuse University launches New Horizons in Adult Education, the first free, online peer-reviewed journal
emeraldinsight.com• 1990 Hytelnet, the first online hypertext internet directory
www.guardian.co.uk• 1990 CERN scientist Tim Berners-Lee creates the first web client and server
http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/17257797fb4c1f67145f388dd39519a4_1M.png• 1994 National Academy Press provides free full-text versions of all its books online. They find that free online copies actually drive the sales of print versions.
http://web.archive.org/web/19970126045828/http://www.archive.org/• 1996 Computer scientist Brewster Kahle launches the Internet Archive
http://web.archive.org/web/19980113191222/http://slashdot.org/• 1997 Undergrad Rob Malda launches “Slashdot”, widely considered to be the first blog
http://web.archive.org/web/20000229093412/http://www.openarchives.org/• 1999 Open Archives Initiative launched
http://web.archive.org/web/20010727112808/http://www.wikipedia.org/• 2001 Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales launches Wikipedia
http://www.researchinformation.info/rimarapr05oaister.html• 2002 OAIster launched by University of Michigan
http://web.archive.org/web/20110628180027/http://creativecommons.org/• 2002 Stanford law professor Lawrence Lessig launches the Creative Commons system
http://web.archive.org/web/20030214235014/http://www.doaj.org/• 2003 The Directory of Open Access Journals launches
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/bethesda.htm• 2003 Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing released
http://web.archive.org/web/20110722063241/http://books.google.com/• 2004 Google Scholar and Google Books
http://blogs.library.ualberta.ca/libnews/wp- content/uploads/2008/10/oad_120x240.jpg• 2008 First International Open Access Day
http://web.archive.org/web/20070114162346/http://www.wikileaks.org/index.html• 2009 Wikileaks created
http://web.archive.org/web/20090315183941/http://www.openaccessweek.org/• 2009 First International Open Access Week
What OA is intended to do• Block plagiarism and misrepresentation• Impedes commercial re-use• Authorizes and facilitates legitimate scholarship
What OA is not intended to do• Legitimize vigilante behavior (wikileaks)• Facilitate expropriating• Encouraging infringing• Justify piracy
What OA isn’t• OA is not the same as universal access. OA does not address: – Filtering and censorship barriers – Language barriers – Handicap access – Connectivity barriers
OA Credibility• The value, rigor, and integrity of peer review is independent of the price or medium of a journal• The same procedures, standards, and even the same reviewers and editors can be used
Journal vs. Repository• OA journals have the ability to maintain the same standards and practices as traditional peer- reviewed journals• Repositories do not have a quality-control function, merely a preservation/access function• Repositories can also contain theses, dissertations, course materials, data files, audio and video files, institutional records, and digitalized special collections
OA “Business Model”• In the traditional publisher paradigm, authors write, reviewers review, and editors edit without direct compensation.• All of this is supported by research institutions.• Publishers package the writing and then sell the product back to the research institutions that created the writing in the first place.
OA “Business Model”• Academics write and edit for impact and career advancement, not (directly) profit, so OA is compatible and even advantageous• Institutions are already paying for published research (twice) with diminishing returns on access• Supporting the system by paying once upfront instead of on an ongoing basis is advantageous for institutions in the long run• Large institutions will publish more articles and bear more cost, but will be buying the same prestige and impact they are already buying at a lower cost, with greater access for everyone, including themselves
Reduced cost• OA reduces the cost of scholarly publishing by: – Eliminating print – Eliminating subscription management – Eliminating DRM – Reducing legal expenses – Reducing marketing costs by relying on social media and search engines
Mitigated costs• Some OA resources offset costs by: – Author/publication fee – Advertising – Add-ons – Auxiliary Services
Need for Open Access Journal costs outpace inflation by 400% since the 1980s! Quantity of scholarly information is growing while access is disappearing!
Advantages to institution• Broader access to resources• Lower-cost in the long-run• Facilitates text and data mining• Increases author visibility and impact• Advances mission to share knowledge
OA and public funding• Open Access publishing is now often required to receive public funding, except for classified military research, patentable discoveries, and research that generates royalties
Open Access Fund• Pool of money set aside by an institution or other research-sponsoring entity specifically to defray or cover OA journal processing fees• Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, MIT, and UC Berkeley
Advantages for authors• Wider audience and greater impact than subscription journals (Studies vary by discipline and journal, but 2011 studies showed an increase of citation between 130%- 740%. Looking at the past several years, it seems safe to say that OA publishing easily doubles the number of citations in most cases.) http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html
Advantages for journals/publishers• Increased visibility may attracts: – Submissions – Advertisers – Readers – Citations• May be combined with subscription strategies
Open Access Availability• Estimated 4200 open access peer-reviewed journals• Directory of Open Access Journals is a great resource• It has been estimated that about 20% of scholarly papers are published OA http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation- biblio.html
Open Access vs. Creative Commons• Creative Commons is a standardized system for indicating that an author has granted permissive rights to a work• OA and CC are not the same thing• However, sufficiently permissive CC licenses may be compatible with OA• Similar impetus
Author Permission• Be aware that if you have already transferred copyright to a publisher, you must now seek permission for OA publication, even repository storage
Green OA• However, many publishers provide blanket permission for Green OA, or placing any pre- publication draft in an OA repository• This can include drafts that have been through the peer review process – anything up until you sign the contract on the final proof• Project SHERPA is an online clearinghouse for publishing agreements – including Green OA
Resources• www.righttoresearch.org• www.doaj.org• http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/• Effect on Impact Factor bibliography
Citations• Björk, B.-C., Welling, P., Laakso, M., Majlender, P., Hedlund, T., & Guðnason, G. (2010). Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009. PLoS ONE, 5(6), e11273. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011273• Eyal Amiran. (2010). The Open Access Debate. symploke, 18(1- 2), 251-260.• Jacobs, N. (2006). Open access key strategic, technical and : economic aspects. Oxford: Chandos.• Laakso, M., Welling, P., Bukvova, H., Nyman, L., Björk, B.-C., & Hedlund, T. (2011). The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e20961. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020961• Willinsky, J. (2006). The access principle the case for open access : to research and scholarship. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press.