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How practising open research can benefit you
2019/20
e: research@library.leeds.ac.uk
t: 0113 343 8956
Learning outcomes
By the end of the session you will:
• Have an understanding of the principles of Open Research
• Understand open licences and how they apply to publications, data and
software
• Be able to apply key tools and techniques to increase the visibility of
yourself and your research, including repositories, ORCID, social media and
altmetrics
• Describe the different ways of making research and data available open
access
Who are you?
• Staff or PGR?
• Faculty?
3
https://www.menti.com/
Please enter the code
67 74 67
Researcher Development Framework
https://www.vitae.ac.uk/vitae-publications/rdf-related/information-literacy-lens-on-the-vitae-researcher-
development-framework-rdf-apr-2012.pdf
Understands:
• Scholarly communications in all
their forms & the different means
of disseminating research results,
including open access
• The importance of info/data
sharing to maximise opportunity
for collaborative research
Is able to:
• Use different forms & styles of
communication and to network
accordingly
• Make us of a wide range of media
and comms technologies for
networking, info/data sharing and
promotion of research presence
• Engage with & develop a personal
profile in relevant scholarly
communities
What do you understand by “Open Research”?
https://www.menti.com/
Please enter the code
31 23 3
Why do research?
OR
(Not mutually exclusive!)
What is Open Research?
Open Science is the practice of science in such
a way that others can collaborate and
contribute, where research data, lab notes
and other research processes are freely
available, under terms that enable reuse,
redistribution and reproduction of the
research and its underlying data and methods.
https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/foster-
taxonomy/open-science-definition
We prefer the term “open research” to be more
inclusive of the humanities.
The same principles apply.
Open Science facets as a beehive
Open Access (publications)
Gold Open Access
• Free to read on publisher
website
• Alternative funding models
(e.g. Open Library of the
Humanities)
• Payment of Article Processing
Charges (APC) to a publisher
• University may pay APC if you
are funded by COAF or RCUK
http://library.leeds.ac.uk/open
-access-funding
• Paper should also be added to
Publications Database
Green Open Access
• Paper published in subscription
journal
• Log in to the University’s
Publications Database using your
IT username and password and
add your research outputs
(author accepted manuscript)
https://publications.leeds.ac.uk
• No cost involved
• Library checks, adds it to the
institutional repository (White
Rose Research Online) and applies
any embargoes
Preprints
• Version that precedes formal
peer review
• Preprint servers in a range of
disciplines
• Does not (usually) preclude
later formal publication
• Arxiv (1991)
• BioRxiv
• ChemRxiv
• PsyArxiv
e.g. Elsevier, not universal Not universal. Caveats applyRequired by UKRI
A note on Plan S
Hybrid model
• subscription access but gives
authors an option to pay to
make articles open access
• attracts criticism for charging
authors and subscribers at
the same time
• “double dipping”
• Plan S does not support
publication in hybrid journals
• Publications published under an open
license (CC-BY)
• Full and immediate access at the point of
publication
• Funders won’t pay APCs for Hybrid
journals (journals that charge both for
subscription and publication costs)
• Green OA is compliant as long as
publications are made openly available at
the point of publication (zero embargo)
https://library.leeds.ac.uk/info/14061/open_access/8/open_access_explained/4
Open Data
“as open as possible, as closed as necessary”
• Publicly-funded research data are a public good, produced in the public interest
• Publicly-funded research data should be openly available to the maximum extent
possible
• A data management plan should exist
• Software and code
• Wellcome Trust - Data, software and materials management and sharing policy
• “Output management plan”
10
Horizon 2020
• REF 2021 Open Access Policy (UKRI)
• EPSRC policy framework on research data
• Data, software and materials management and
sharing policy (Wellcome Trust)
• University of Leeds publication policy
• Research data management policy
The policy burden
Benefit 1
Who is most likely to reuse
your data in the future?
12
Benefit 1
Self-interest
Who is most likely to reuse your data in the future?
Retain access to your own material when you move institution
13
Putting more of your work and data in the public domain is central to open science and increases ECRs’
opportunities for acknowledgment, exchange, collaboration, and advancement.
• Allen, C. and Mehler, D. (2019). Open science challenges, benefits and tips in early career and
beyond. PLOS Biology, 17(5), p.e3000246. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000246
Challenges
• Challenge 1: Restrictions on flexibility (e.g. registered reports*)
• Challenge 2: The time cost
• Challenge 3: Incentive structure isn’t in place yet
* Empirical article in which the methods and proposed analyses are registered and reviewed prior to research
being conducted – designed to minimise bias
14
Overall, we believe open methods are worthwhile, positive, necessary, and inevitable but can come at a
cost that ECRs would do well to consider.
• Allen, C. and Mehler, D. (2019). Open science challenges, benefits and tips in early career and
beyond. PLOS Biology, 17(5), p.e3000246. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000246
Transparent and reproducible research
15
Evaluating the replicability of social science experiments
in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0399-z
Ensuring that analyses and methodology are fully transparent throughout the
research lifecycle means you can better contribute to science and research,
saving time and enabling others to check your results.
• several high profile social science
studies could not be independently
replicated
• similar issues identified in psychology
and biomedical science
https://the-turing-way.netlify.com/reproducibility/03/definitions.html
Exercise
A researcher in your School has published a highly cited research paper.
A professor at another institution has reported that she cannot
replicate the reported research findings.
• What information and documentation would be needed for your
colleague to demonstrate how their findings can be replicated?”
UKRNLeeds
• UK Reproducibility Network
• http://ukrn.org
• ReproducibiliTea
• Resources and reading list
• https://osf.io/3qrj6/wiki/home/
• ReproducibiliTea at Leeds
• http://bit.ly/ReproducibiliTea
• Twitter - #UKRNLeeds
Infrastructure
• Repositories
• institutional
• 3rd party
• https://www.re3data.org/
• Persistent identifiers (PIDs)
• DOI
• ORCID - https://orcid.org/
• Social media
• Twitter*
• Blogs
• Mendeley*
• ResearchGate*
18
“digital collections capturing and preserving the intellectual
output of a single or multi-university community”
SPARC 2006
* Is proprietary infrastructure properly ‘open’?
Infrastructure
• Repositories
• institutional
• 3rd party
• Persistent identifiers (PIDs)
• DOI
• ORCID - https://orcid.org/
• Social media
• Twitter*
• Blogs
• Mendeley*
• ResearchGate*
19
PIDs eliminate ambiguity; the metadata associated with them
describes what something is, helps you find it, and lets you
know how to use and reuse it.
FREYA project
* Is proprietary infrastructure properly ‘open’?
Other tools
• Altmetric*
• Academia.edu*
• ScienceOpen -
https://www.scienceopen.com/
• Open Science Framework -
https://osf.io/
• Kudos -
https://growkudos.com/
• Wikimedia -
https://www.wikimedia.org/
20
101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication
* Is proprietary infrastructure properly ‘open’?
Benefit 2
Be the change you want to see
By helping to change academic culture you benefit everyone
If your group isn’t doing it, initiate the discussion – impress
your peers!
21
Open licences – Creative commons
• “Some rights reserved”
• Enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction
• Legal code / human and machine readable
No rights reserved
Attribution (CC-BY)
Attribution ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)
Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND)
Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC
BY-NC-SA)
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC
BY-NC-ND)
Software
• Make your code citable
• Github/Zenodo
• https://guides.github.com/activities/citable-code/
• Open Software License 3.0 (OSL-3.0)
• https://opensource.org/licenses/OSL-3.0
• GNU General Public Licence v3.0
• https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.en.html
• MIT Licence
• https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
23
Benefit 3
Open should be the default, not the
exception
Faster dissemination and impact (but make sure you talk to your
collaborators)
Research data has intrinsic value and will have an impact in itself and
through increased citation
24
An example
25
• https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.09.010
• http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/121665/
• https://doi.org/10.5518/252
• https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2949-5353
• https://twitter.com/JirenXu
• https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PEATMAP.jpg
• https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q58417726
An example
Altmetrics
To track the online attention for a specific piece of research
Altmetric.com needs:
An output (journal
article, dataset etc)
An identifier attached to
the output (DOI)
Mentions in a
source we track
The global commons
Benefit 4
Innovation thrives on collaboration
Wider reach, wider impact (outside academia).
Interdisciplinary research is the future – help your work reach others
29
Jack Andraka
• Invented a new type of sensor for early-stage pancreatic cancer
screening
• Grand prize at Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (2012)
I had no access to any information that wasn’t on the Internet. I was able to
educate myself using Google and Wikipedia. These resources can empower
not only patients, but researchers like me who do not have access to
university libraries or classrooms. I was able to learn the basics and then dig
deeper as questions arose. I was able to access research from many fields
and then connect the dots to create my new sensor.
Teen cancer researcher Jack Andraka discusses open access in science,
stagnation in medicine
30
• Open access (publications)
• Funder policies
• Journal policies
• Preprints
• Open research data
• Researcher attitudes
• Funder policies
• Research data repositories
• Open code
• Github / Zenodo (DOI)
• Software licences
• Open scholarly comms
• Open peer review
• Networks
• Use of altmetrics
Bringing it all together
Self-interest
• Who is most likely to reuse your data in
the future?
Be the change you want to see
• Initiate the discussion – impress your
peers!
Open should be the default, not the
exception
• Faster dissemination and impact
Innovation thrives on collaboration
• Wider reach, wider impact (outside
academia)
Bringing it all together
Further information and support
Researcher support webpages: https://library.leeds.ac.uk/researcher
• Raising research visibility
• Open access
• Endnote
• Bibliometrics
• Literature searching
• Research data management
Email us: research@library.leeds.ac.uk
Call us: 0113 343 0583
Workshops
• Data management essentials: PGRs and research staff
• EndNote training webinar: For anyone who wants to learn the basics of EndNote
• Increase your research visibility: PGRs
• Increase your research visibility: Research staff
• Literature searching for your research project: PGRs and research staff
• Safeguarding sensitive data: for your research degree: PGRs
• Safeguarding sensitive data: for research staff: Research staff
• How practicing Open Research can benefit you: PGRs and research staff
• Finding open content for your research: PGRs and research staff
• Using Symplectic to increase the visibility of your research outputs: PGRs & research staff
• Introduction to bibliometrics for research staff: Suitable for research staff
• Publishing your PhD as a monograph: Suitable for PGRs and research staff
• Shut up and write: Suitable for PGRs and research staff
For more information and to book: http://bit.ly/376Ua7L

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How practising open research can benefit you

  • 1. How practising open research can benefit you 2019/20 e: research@library.leeds.ac.uk t: 0113 343 8956
  • 2. Learning outcomes By the end of the session you will: • Have an understanding of the principles of Open Research • Understand open licences and how they apply to publications, data and software • Be able to apply key tools and techniques to increase the visibility of yourself and your research, including repositories, ORCID, social media and altmetrics • Describe the different ways of making research and data available open access
  • 3. Who are you? • Staff or PGR? • Faculty? 3 https://www.menti.com/ Please enter the code 67 74 67
  • 4. Researcher Development Framework https://www.vitae.ac.uk/vitae-publications/rdf-related/information-literacy-lens-on-the-vitae-researcher- development-framework-rdf-apr-2012.pdf Understands: • Scholarly communications in all their forms & the different means of disseminating research results, including open access • The importance of info/data sharing to maximise opportunity for collaborative research Is able to: • Use different forms & styles of communication and to network accordingly • Make us of a wide range of media and comms technologies for networking, info/data sharing and promotion of research presence • Engage with & develop a personal profile in relevant scholarly communities
  • 5. What do you understand by “Open Research”? https://www.menti.com/ Please enter the code 31 23 3
  • 6. Why do research? OR (Not mutually exclusive!)
  • 7. What is Open Research? Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods. https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/foster- taxonomy/open-science-definition We prefer the term “open research” to be more inclusive of the humanities. The same principles apply. Open Science facets as a beehive
  • 8. Open Access (publications) Gold Open Access • Free to read on publisher website • Alternative funding models (e.g. Open Library of the Humanities) • Payment of Article Processing Charges (APC) to a publisher • University may pay APC if you are funded by COAF or RCUK http://library.leeds.ac.uk/open -access-funding • Paper should also be added to Publications Database Green Open Access • Paper published in subscription journal • Log in to the University’s Publications Database using your IT username and password and add your research outputs (author accepted manuscript) https://publications.leeds.ac.uk • No cost involved • Library checks, adds it to the institutional repository (White Rose Research Online) and applies any embargoes Preprints • Version that precedes formal peer review • Preprint servers in a range of disciplines • Does not (usually) preclude later formal publication • Arxiv (1991) • BioRxiv • ChemRxiv • PsyArxiv e.g. Elsevier, not universal Not universal. Caveats applyRequired by UKRI
  • 9. A note on Plan S Hybrid model • subscription access but gives authors an option to pay to make articles open access • attracts criticism for charging authors and subscribers at the same time • “double dipping” • Plan S does not support publication in hybrid journals • Publications published under an open license (CC-BY) • Full and immediate access at the point of publication • Funders won’t pay APCs for Hybrid journals (journals that charge both for subscription and publication costs) • Green OA is compliant as long as publications are made openly available at the point of publication (zero embargo) https://library.leeds.ac.uk/info/14061/open_access/8/open_access_explained/4
  • 10. Open Data “as open as possible, as closed as necessary” • Publicly-funded research data are a public good, produced in the public interest • Publicly-funded research data should be openly available to the maximum extent possible • A data management plan should exist • Software and code • Wellcome Trust - Data, software and materials management and sharing policy • “Output management plan” 10 Horizon 2020
  • 11. • REF 2021 Open Access Policy (UKRI) • EPSRC policy framework on research data • Data, software and materials management and sharing policy (Wellcome Trust) • University of Leeds publication policy • Research data management policy The policy burden
  • 12. Benefit 1 Who is most likely to reuse your data in the future? 12
  • 13. Benefit 1 Self-interest Who is most likely to reuse your data in the future? Retain access to your own material when you move institution 13 Putting more of your work and data in the public domain is central to open science and increases ECRs’ opportunities for acknowledgment, exchange, collaboration, and advancement. • Allen, C. and Mehler, D. (2019). Open science challenges, benefits and tips in early career and beyond. PLOS Biology, 17(5), p.e3000246. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000246
  • 14. Challenges • Challenge 1: Restrictions on flexibility (e.g. registered reports*) • Challenge 2: The time cost • Challenge 3: Incentive structure isn’t in place yet * Empirical article in which the methods and proposed analyses are registered and reviewed prior to research being conducted – designed to minimise bias 14 Overall, we believe open methods are worthwhile, positive, necessary, and inevitable but can come at a cost that ECRs would do well to consider. • Allen, C. and Mehler, D. (2019). Open science challenges, benefits and tips in early career and beyond. PLOS Biology, 17(5), p.e3000246. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000246
  • 15. Transparent and reproducible research 15 Evaluating the replicability of social science experiments in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0399-z Ensuring that analyses and methodology are fully transparent throughout the research lifecycle means you can better contribute to science and research, saving time and enabling others to check your results. • several high profile social science studies could not be independently replicated • similar issues identified in psychology and biomedical science https://the-turing-way.netlify.com/reproducibility/03/definitions.html
  • 16. Exercise A researcher in your School has published a highly cited research paper. A professor at another institution has reported that she cannot replicate the reported research findings. • What information and documentation would be needed for your colleague to demonstrate how their findings can be replicated?”
  • 17. UKRNLeeds • UK Reproducibility Network • http://ukrn.org • ReproducibiliTea • Resources and reading list • https://osf.io/3qrj6/wiki/home/ • ReproducibiliTea at Leeds • http://bit.ly/ReproducibiliTea • Twitter - #UKRNLeeds
  • 18. Infrastructure • Repositories • institutional • 3rd party • https://www.re3data.org/ • Persistent identifiers (PIDs) • DOI • ORCID - https://orcid.org/ • Social media • Twitter* • Blogs • Mendeley* • ResearchGate* 18 “digital collections capturing and preserving the intellectual output of a single or multi-university community” SPARC 2006 * Is proprietary infrastructure properly ‘open’?
  • 19. Infrastructure • Repositories • institutional • 3rd party • Persistent identifiers (PIDs) • DOI • ORCID - https://orcid.org/ • Social media • Twitter* • Blogs • Mendeley* • ResearchGate* 19 PIDs eliminate ambiguity; the metadata associated with them describes what something is, helps you find it, and lets you know how to use and reuse it. FREYA project * Is proprietary infrastructure properly ‘open’?
  • 20. Other tools • Altmetric* • Academia.edu* • ScienceOpen - https://www.scienceopen.com/ • Open Science Framework - https://osf.io/ • Kudos - https://growkudos.com/ • Wikimedia - https://www.wikimedia.org/ 20 101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication * Is proprietary infrastructure properly ‘open’?
  • 21. Benefit 2 Be the change you want to see By helping to change academic culture you benefit everyone If your group isn’t doing it, initiate the discussion – impress your peers! 21
  • 22. Open licences – Creative commons • “Some rights reserved” • Enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction • Legal code / human and machine readable No rights reserved Attribution (CC-BY) Attribution ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND) Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
  • 23. Software • Make your code citable • Github/Zenodo • https://guides.github.com/activities/citable-code/ • Open Software License 3.0 (OSL-3.0) • https://opensource.org/licenses/OSL-3.0 • GNU General Public Licence v3.0 • https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.en.html • MIT Licence • https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT 23
  • 24. Benefit 3 Open should be the default, not the exception Faster dissemination and impact (but make sure you talk to your collaborators) Research data has intrinsic value and will have an impact in itself and through increased citation 24
  • 25. An example 25 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.09.010 • http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/121665/ • https://doi.org/10.5518/252 • https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2949-5353 • https://twitter.com/JirenXu • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PEATMAP.jpg • https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q58417726
  • 27. Altmetrics To track the online attention for a specific piece of research Altmetric.com needs: An output (journal article, dataset etc) An identifier attached to the output (DOI) Mentions in a source we track
  • 29. Benefit 4 Innovation thrives on collaboration Wider reach, wider impact (outside academia). Interdisciplinary research is the future – help your work reach others 29
  • 30. Jack Andraka • Invented a new type of sensor for early-stage pancreatic cancer screening • Grand prize at Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (2012) I had no access to any information that wasn’t on the Internet. I was able to educate myself using Google and Wikipedia. These resources can empower not only patients, but researchers like me who do not have access to university libraries or classrooms. I was able to learn the basics and then dig deeper as questions arose. I was able to access research from many fields and then connect the dots to create my new sensor. Teen cancer researcher Jack Andraka discusses open access in science, stagnation in medicine 30
  • 31. • Open access (publications) • Funder policies • Journal policies • Preprints • Open research data • Researcher attitudes • Funder policies • Research data repositories • Open code • Github / Zenodo (DOI) • Software licences • Open scholarly comms • Open peer review • Networks • Use of altmetrics Bringing it all together
  • 32. Self-interest • Who is most likely to reuse your data in the future? Be the change you want to see • Initiate the discussion – impress your peers! Open should be the default, not the exception • Faster dissemination and impact Innovation thrives on collaboration • Wider reach, wider impact (outside academia) Bringing it all together
  • 33. Further information and support Researcher support webpages: https://library.leeds.ac.uk/researcher • Raising research visibility • Open access • Endnote • Bibliometrics • Literature searching • Research data management Email us: research@library.leeds.ac.uk Call us: 0113 343 0583
  • 34. Workshops • Data management essentials: PGRs and research staff • EndNote training webinar: For anyone who wants to learn the basics of EndNote • Increase your research visibility: PGRs • Increase your research visibility: Research staff • Literature searching for your research project: PGRs and research staff • Safeguarding sensitive data: for your research degree: PGRs • Safeguarding sensitive data: for research staff: Research staff • How practicing Open Research can benefit you: PGRs and research staff • Finding open content for your research: PGRs and research staff • Using Symplectic to increase the visibility of your research outputs: PGRs & research staff • Introduction to bibliometrics for research staff: Suitable for research staff • Publishing your PhD as a monograph: Suitable for PGRs and research staff • Shut up and write: Suitable for PGRs and research staff For more information and to book: http://bit.ly/376Ua7L

Editor's Notes

  1. Handout? Briefly explain that we have mapped our workshops to the Researcher Development Framework – Info lit lens. It maybe something that they want to have a look at to help them identify any areas where they may feel they need to develop their skills.
  2. Opening up your data is just one element of a wider philosophy and practice of ‘open science’ – or ‘open scholarship’ #openscience - making scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society New research methods – Big Data management and analysis Societal engagement – citizen science, include society in scientific discussion OA to research and underlying data, transparency of research processes Collaboration – data sharing based collaboration, social media in research
  3. Plan S is an initiative to speed up the transition to Open Access, where funded research is available immediately in OA journals and on platforms. It is led by a consortium (cOAlition S) of 23 funders, supported by the European Commission and the European Research Council. Plan S is due to come into force from 1 January 2021. Academic publishing industry has profit margins to rival Google, Apple and Amazon In 2017, Elsevier’s annual profits exceeded £900 million Globally, the academic publishing industry is valued at over £19 billion Unsustainable journal business models Outrageous system; researchers provide work, funders and universities foot the bill. Then universities/funders then have to pay colossal fees to publish & pay for access! Hybrid Journals: some articles are OA and other content is only accessible via subscriptions. So many universities and funders have to pay twice for Library subscriptions and APCs. As publishers’ income increases from APCs, many fail to adjust subscription prices. This is known as “Double Dipping”. At Leeds, in 2017/18 an average APC for Hybrid cost approx. £2,100 Pure Gold APC average cost £1684.
  4. All the Research Councils have data management expectations and there is a major data pilot as part of the European Horizon 2020 programme. Much research is publicly funded. The Research Councils’ statement on data emphasises “Publicly funded research data are a public good, produced in the public interest, which should be made openly available with as few restrictions as possible in a timely and responsible manner that does not harm intellectual property.” [RCUK Common Principles on Data Policy, www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/datapolicy/] Many Universities have data management policies (not just in the UK). The Leeds data policy is online at http://researchdata.leeds.ac.uk/management-policy Some journal publishers expect the data underpinning published papers to be available – it may be a condition of acceptance (e.g. Nature, PLoS) The move towards improving data management and data sharing is international.
  5. ensure return on public money - not just policies for policy sake!
  6. Hard distinction between confirmatory and exploratory research i.e. sto developing an experiment and start collecting data
  7. For transparency and as part of good scholarly practice, you should think about whether and how another researcher could reproduce your finding using the same method and your shared data. Read the linked material for a definition of key terms used in discussion of reproducibility and replicability. A 2018 paper published in Nature Human Behaviour found that a significant number of high profile social science studies could not be independently replicated. Similar issues have been identified in psychology and biomedical science. To ensure that research is transparent and reproducible, data and code underlying a research output should be available to rerun analyses. Ensuring that analyses and methodology are fully transparent throughout the research lifecycle means you can better contribute to science and research, saving time and enabling others to check your results. Other researchers can easily build on your results or reuse your data, code and methodology for their own independent analyses. Another benefit is that negative results can be shared so that other researchers do not needlessly repeat your work.
  8. Suppose a researchers publishes their work but someone accuses them of falsifying or misrepresenting the data in some way. How could the researcher show that they generated the data how and when they said they did.
  9. There is a lot of sensitivity – particularly in some disciplines – about difficulties in reproducing findings published in the scholarly literature. The UK Reproducibility Network is one response to the ‘reproducibility crisis’. It started in Bristol but there are ‘nodes’ at several Universities, including the University of Leeds. The UKRN has also encouraged something called ReproducibiliTea – which is a journal club aimed at PGRs and Early Career Researchers. The network meets monthly to discuss topics around reproducible research. Meetings are held on EBL Level 13.
  10. Proper use of PIDs supports: Discovery of resources Citation and reuse Collaboration across facilities, disciplines, institutions, and countries Credit - people and facilities can be reliably associated and acknowledged Evaluation of impact through citation tracking Trust and verification - accurate identification builds trust Privacy - accurate identification allows privacy preferences to be supported Efficiency and scalability - through increased interoperability Innovation The main benefits of using PIDs vary across different communities - based on the groupings for the Knowledge Hub we have summarised them below. For researchers the main benefit of PIDs are the discoverability and profile building opportunities offered. It is also easier to gain credits for work undertaken in an unambiguous way. For librarians and repository managers the longevity and trustworthy nature of PIDs is a large benefit as well as the opportunity of assessment. For developers PIDs make it easier to interoperate across systems, their trustworthy nature and metadata requirements make this interoperability easier. For funders and policy makers PIDs make it easier to track research outputs and understand the relationships between researchers and different types of research outputs. For publishers PIDs improve the trustworthiness of their resources, and provide an interoperable framework across published research.
  11. This is a list of our services, more information on the website