Filipina Ubah


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Filipina Ubah

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  3. 3. <ul><li>Name: MYLENE M. MAZO </li></ul><ul><li>Country: Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Agency: Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) </li></ul>
  4. 4. COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY DAGUPAN EXTENSION OFFICE JOSEFINA B. BITONIO Acting Regional Director   EVELYN B. MUÑEZ Acting Asst. Regional Director                                                                                   O P E R A T I O N S   A D M I N I S T R A T I V E                                                                                                                                                   REGISTRATION LEGAL REGULATORY RESEARCH, INFORMATION & TRAINING PROJECT DEVELOPMENT & ASSISTANCE   PLANNING PERSONNEL/SUPPORT SERVICES FINANCE     IMELDA S. FRONDA Acting Chief VAN IAN F. ENRIQUEZ Legal Officer III FILIPINA H. PORIO Acting Chief JACQUELINE L. DE LEON Acting Chief MYLENE M. MAZO Acting Chief   EVELYN B. MUÑEZ Planning Officer EVELYN B. MUÑEZ Acting Chief JOVITA M. CUISON Chief Finance                   CONSTANCIA A. DE GUZMAN CDS II-Registration MARICEL G. RUEDAS CDS II-Legal LUCILA M. CACCAM Acting Asst. Chief   LUCILA M. CACCAM Acting Asst. Planning Officer AMOR T. VALDEZ Acting Admin Asst.                 MA. LENI MAGDALENA A. FIESTA HRM Assistant DELIA E. CALAGUIN Bookkeeper/Budget Officer               JOCELYN I. VASQUEZ Head-MIS ANA LISA O. PIMENTEL Cashier/Admin Officer I                 RONNIE T. BALOLONG Admin Asst. V           RENEE FAYE DG. CARIÑO Admin Aide IV                 MYLA C. LADEMORA Admin Aide IV           PEDRO DE GUZMAN Admin Aide IV                 RODRIGO G. FERRER Admin Aide IV           EFREN A. PACAT Admin Aide I         SUB-OFFICES                                                                     PANGASINAN LA UNION ILOCOS SUR ILOCOS NORTE IMELDA S. FRONDA Area Supervisor Dist. 1-3     FILIPINA H. PORIO Area Supervisor Dist. 4-6 MYLENE M. MAZO Area Supervisor JACQUELINE L. DE LEON Area Supervisor CORAZON A. MARTIN Senior CDS & Area Supervisor           MARCELA B. BUTAY PCDS ARNOLD F. OLOTEO PCDS & CDS II-District I (6 mun) TERESITA A. BUNOAN PCDS & CDS II-District 2 PRIMO B. RESPICIO CDS II-Distict 1           EDILBERTO G. UNSON CDS II-Distritct 1     MYLENE M. MAZO CDS II-Distritct 4 BERNIE C. MEMBRERE CDS II-Dist. 1 & Dist. 2 RAYMUND I. PILORIN CDS II-District 1 BOB LEONARD P. HOOVER CDS II-Distict 2       ARLENNE C. ESPINOZA CDS II-Distritct 2     MARCELA B. BUTAY CDS II-Distritct 5 LUCILA M. CACCAM CDS II-District 2 ( 7 Mun)     FILIPINA H. PORIO CDS II-Distritct 3     IMELDA S. FRONDA CDS II-Distritct 6
  5. 5. <ul><li>Duties and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attends weekly team coordination meeting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attends to walk-in clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides technical services to coops like advisory/consultancy, mentoring, cliniquing and others. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Process registration documents of new coops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process amendment documents of existing coops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process documents for the issuance of Certificate of Good Standing to coops </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Conducts Membership Trainings/ Seminars/Orientations to coops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts Strategic Planning and Development Seminars , Leadership & Management Trainings and other skills training/seminars for cooperatives. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Conducts monitoring of coops on Savings Mobilization and Capital Build-Up Programs and Business Transactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attends coop General Assemblies and Board of Directors meetings. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Delivers communications/invitations to concerned coops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishes and submits monthly reports </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Duties and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Advocacy and Development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of gender-balanced composition of coop board and core management team. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation/coordination of seminars for the enhancement skills of women in coop business/financial management and governance. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation/coordination of the conduct of skills/livelihood seminars on home-based/micro-enterprises beneficial to women and their families. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of product services through coop credit facilitation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of product services through coordination/facilitation of inter-trading/business matching activities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Credit and Livelihood facilitation and other financial services program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation of Savings Mobilization and Capital Build-up Programs and Business Transactions of coops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination/Facilitation of entrepreneurship, product development and marketing programs for coops. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Facilitates the administration of grants and subsidy funds for coops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates/facilitates the strengthening of linkages & collaboration with partner agencies and LGUs on coop development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates/monitors the Anti-Poverty Program/Project focused on the promotion of livelihood & employment program through cooperatives. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Population - 97,976,603 (July 2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Age structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0-14 years: 35.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-64 years: 60.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65 years and over: 4.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381) ( 2009 est.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Median age · total: 22.5 years · male: 22 years · female: 23 years (2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth rate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.957% (2009 est.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Birth rate 26.01 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Death rate 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Net migration rate -1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.) · country comparison to the world: 133 </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Urbanization · urban population: 65% of total population (2008) · rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Sex ratio </li></ul><ul><li>· at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female · under 15 years:;; 1.04 male(s)/female · 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female · 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female · total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Infant mortality rate · total: 20.56 deaths/1,000 live births · country comparison to the world: 104 · male: 23.17 deaths/1,000 live births · female: 17.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Life expectancy at birth · total population: 71.09 years · country comparison to the world: 133 · male: 68.17 years · female: 74.15 years (2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Total fertility rate 3.27 children born/woman (2009 est.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2003 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS - People living with HIV/AIDS 8,300 (2007 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS - deaths fewer than 200 (2007 est.) · country comparison to the world: 119 </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Major infectious diseases · degree of risk: high · food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever · vector borne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis · water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Nationality · noun: Filipino(s) · adjective: Philippine </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Religions Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census) </li></ul><ul><li>Languages Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Literacy · definition: age 15 and over can read and write · total population: 92.6% · male: 92.5% · female: 92.7% (2000 census) </li></ul><ul><li>School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) · total: 12 years · male: 11 years · female: 12 years (2006) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Education expenditures · 2.5% of GDP (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Source, unless otherwise specified: &quot;Philippines: People&quot;, CIA World Factbook, </li></ul><ul><li>https:// /library/publications/ </li></ul><ul><li> the-world- factbook/geos/RP.html#People , retrieved on 2009-07-15 </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,100 islands, with a land area of 30 million hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>As of the last census in May 2002, the population was 76,498,735 with an annual growth rate of 2.36 per cent. </li></ul><ul><li>Given this population growth rate the country is expected to double by 2029. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Most of the population is concentrated in the twenty largest islands, with about 56 per cent of the population residing in Luzon, 20.3 per cent in Central Philippines (or the Visayas Islands) and 23.7 per cent in Mindanao (or Southern Philippines). </li></ul><ul><li>About 55 per cent of the total population is categorized as urban . </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Continuous migration to highly urbanized centers has increased the number of urban dwellers looking for employment opportunities in the industry, commercial and service sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>In large cities like Metro Manila and Cebu, urban dwellers represent about 63 percent of the city’s population. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The poverty threshold countrywide is P13, 823 (USD 261) while that of Metropolitan Manila is P17, 713 (USD 335). The poverty incidence of the total population of the country is 39.5 per cent. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>About 20 of a total 79 provinces have populations over one million. According to the last survey (conducted in 2002), Bulacan, Cebu, Negros Occidental, Pangasinan and Cavite have provincial populations over 2 million. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>The Philippines weathered the Asian economic crisis posting an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) of 3.2 percent in 1999 after experiencing a slump of 0.5% in 1998 </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>The Philippines is hot and humid year-round. The weather pattern across the archipelago is complex, but can be roughly divided into the dry season (January to June) and the wet season (July to December). The average annual temperature is 25o C (77oF). </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Philippines </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The Philippines is a republic with a unitary presidential system. </li></ul><ul><li>The national government has three branches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the executive branch headed by the President; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the legislative branch; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the judicial branch. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>The executive branch consists of 26 cabinet secretariat and equivalent ranks in specialized agencies, the national bureaucracy and the military, of which the President is Commander in Chief. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The legislative branch or Congress is a two-chamber legislature. There are 24 senators </li></ul><ul><li>in the Philippine Senate, while there are 220 Congressmen or House Representatives. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, Regional Trial Courts and other special courts (i.e. juvenile, family or sharing courts). </li></ul><ul><li>Each branch of the national government is coequal to each other. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>For the purpose of administration and development planning, the Philippines is divided into 18 administrative regions. In each regional capital, the 26 departments of the national government have their regional offices. The political subdivisions of the nation state are: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>• 79 provinces; </li></ul><ul><li>• 115 cities; </li></ul><ul><li>• 1,425 municipalities; and </li></ul><ul><li>• 43,000 barangays. </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Country Reports on Local Government Systems: Philippines </li></ul>
  40. 41.
  41. 42.
  42. 43. <ul><li>The Philippines has a vast potential for aquaculture development. With the dwindling catch from coastal waters, the uncertainty of sustaining the present level of deep sea fisheries and the increased competition for fish resources in international waters leading to border conflicts, aquaculture remains the only hope for self-sufficiency in fish and for maintaining or even increasing the role of fish in food security. </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Aquaculture also is the most logical livelihood option for the small fisherfolk who can no longer catch enough fish even to feed themselves. As it is now the aquaculture industry in the Philippines is still mainly in the hands of the rich and the privileged. There is a real need to widen the ownership base of aquaculture production systems and make the industry one of the livelihood options in the rural area whether inland or coastal. </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Aquaculture in the Philippines has a long history and involves many species and culture systems. Rather than present the history in a strictly chronological order which would involve jumping from one species and one culture system to another, it is here presented by species in the chronological order of their respective introductions. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>For a very long time, aquaculture industry in the Philippines was virtually synonymous with milkfish culture. And for a very long time milkfish farming remained as a brackishwater operation watered purely by tide, and relying totally on natural-food and naturally occurring, and later, wild-caught seedstock. </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>The introduction of the marine cages has greatly expanded the range of culture systems under which milkfish is now being produced: brackishwater ponds, fishpens in freshwater lakes, fishpens in shallow bays, lake based cages whether fixed or floating, and sea-based cages. No other aquaculture species probably has a wider range of environment and culture systems under which it is being produced. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>The first exotic food fish with potential for aquaculture was introduced only in 1915 with the entry of the common carp. Since then several other freshwater fish species were introduced, including the giant gourami. The big head, silver carp and the Indian carps were also introduced in the 1967 to 1968. Carp and gourami continues to be reported from freshwater fishponds. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>The failure of freshwater fishponds to catch on is probably due to two factors. One, good agricultural land is considered too valuable to be dug up for fish culture. And, two, due to the abundance of marine catch and the island nature of the country, freshwater fish is still not as widely accepted as marine fish. There are areas where freshwater fish may be preferred but these are highly localized. Until now it is not rare to find Filipinos who refuse to eat freshwater fish. </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>The farming of oyster in the Philippines was said to have started as early as 1931. The most widespread mussel species in the Philippines is the brown mussel, Modiolus metcalfei . The bulk of oysters and mussels are sold live. A small amount may be shucked and sold shell-off either fresh or salted. </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>During recent years mussel and oyster farmers have been faced with the red tide problem. Due to several deaths in the past the government has a regular red tide monitoring program. Whenever the red tide organisms exceed a certain threshold level, a complete ban is imposed on the harvesting and sale of oysters, mussels and all other bivalves. </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>The failure of freshwater fishponds to catch on is probably due to two factors. One, good agricultural land is considered too valuable to be dug up for fish culture. And, two, due to the abundance of marine catch and the island nature of the country, freshwater fish is still not as widely accepted as marine fish. There are areas where freshwater fish may be preferred but these are highly localized. Until now it is not rare to find Filipinos who refuse to eat freshwater fish. </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>The culture of penaeid shrimps in brackishwater ponds is probably as old as the culture of milkfish since they always occur together especially when the fish farmers were still merely dependent on the entry of wild fry. Normally it will be a mixed harvest milkfish, the jumbo tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon ; the white shrimps P. indicus and P. merguiensis and perhaps the greasy-back shrimp, Metapenaeus ensis . </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Fueled by a booming Japanese market, large business concerns, many with no prior exposure to aquaculture, ventured into hatchery and grow-out operation. No other aquaculture species has so captured the interest of big business. The jumbo tiger became the Philippines top marine product export earning at its peak in 1992 some USD 300 million. </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Soon after, during the early 1990s, the ill effects of pushing production to the limits using high stocking densities led to diseases, mainly luminous vibriosis. Initially the diseases could be managed with the use of antibiotics. However with unmitigated use of wide spectrum antibiotics the disease bacteria developed resistance and no amount of antibiotics would work anymore. </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>The mud crab or mangrove crab, Scylla spp, like the penaeid shrimp is also one of the species that may be harvested together with milkfish in brackishwater ponds. One of the most recent method of growing crab that has emerged is mudcrab pen culture in a mangrove area. This method bears watching because it requires a very low investment and therefore can be promoted as a livelihood option for the coastal poor. </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>This is considered a “mangrove-friendly” aquaculture system in that it does not require the cutting of any mangrove trees or extensive excavation and dike construction. The biggest constraint to its full expansion is the supply of crab juveniles or seedstock locally called “crablets”. </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>Caulerpa . Seaweeds belonging to the genus Caulerpa (Class Chlorophyceae) are all eaten fresh in many parts of the Philippines as a tangy salad that goes well with seafood. Perhaps it is not surprising that of all the marine algae, Caulerpa , specifically C. lentillifera , is the first species to have been commercially cultivated. </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>Eucheuma. Eucheuma is also one of the marine algae used as human food but the local demand is never that high. It is as a source of the phytocolloid, carageenan that made Eucheuma have the huge global market. Carageenan has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>The success of Eucheuma farming in the Philippines has catapulted the country to become the world’s largest producer of carageenophyte seaweed. The nice thing about Eucheuma farming is that it is largely in the hands of small farmers. </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>Gracilaria. Like Caulerpa and Eucheuma the red algae Gracilaria is also eaten in the Philippines. However its biggest use is as a source of agar. However even earlier than that, some milkfish farmers around Manila Bay used to deliberately cultivate this seaweed in their ponds to serve as natural food for milkfish. </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>The technology for the culture of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii , was introduced to the Philippines during the 1970s. There were several sporadic attempts in the past to adapt the technology for its propagation but this never progressed beyond the research institution level. </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>While Macrobrachium is well accepted everywhere in the Philippines, there has never been an established market and large demand for the species. Lately the establishment of many upscale restaurants in the metropolitan areas which include a growing number of Thai restaurants, appear to have spurred renewed interest for the species. </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>The rabbitfish, Siganus spp, and the spadefish, Scatophagus argos is cultured to a limited extent in some brackishwater ponds, marine pens and cages in some parts of the Philippines. </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>Two species are considered faster growing than the other species. The two are S. guttatus and S. vermiculatus . Hatchery technology is well developed at least for S. guttatus . But the lack of demand from the grow-out industry has deterred its full commercialization. </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>Seabass had always been an occasional part of the harvest in brackishwater ponds. Naturally occurring fry often enters through the sluice gate and are considered predators of milkfish. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast the culture of serranid groupers, Epinephelus spp ., which came in later has taken hold due to a very strong export and domestic market. </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>The culture of seabass and groupers came relatively late to the Philippines compared to its neighbors like Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Hongkong. One possible reason for its late start is the fact the growing of seabass and grouper is dependent on a constant supply of low-cost trash fish for it to be viable. As mentioned earlier there is no trash fish as such in the Philippines since even the bycatch are eaten. </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>Thus, the aquaculture industry in the Philippines contributes to food security, employment and foreign exchange generation in no small way. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture is the only way for production to grow with the population. The vast expanse of the sea remains as the only frontier for aquaculture development. </li></ul>
  68. 69. <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Philippine Aquaculture </li></ul>
  69. 70.
  70. 71. <ul><li>Milkfish </li></ul><ul><li>Tilapia </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger Prawn </li></ul><ul><li>Mud Crab </li></ul><ul><li>Carp </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>g. Catfish </li></ul><ul><li>h. Seaweed </li></ul><ul><li>Seabass </li></ul><ul><li>Oyster </li></ul><ul><li>Mussel </li></ul><ul><li>Grouper </li></ul>
  71. 72. <ul><li>The following principles and guidelines for quality control technology are embodied in the Fisheries Administrative Order 214 which is known as the Code of Practice for Aquaculture. </li></ul>
  72. 73. <ul><li>1. Site selection/evaluation – potential sites for aquaculture shall be thoroughly evaluated by BFAR in consultation with DENR, LGU’s and NFARMC to ensure that ecological and social conditions are sustained and protected. </li></ul>
  73. 74. <ul><li>2. Farm design and construction – proven and accepted designs and construction procedures shall be adopted to overcome problems related to flood levels, storms, erosion, seepage, water intake and discharge points and encroachment on mangroves and wetlands as well as social impacts. </li></ul>
  74. 75. <ul><li>3. Water usage – a good environment within the pond system shall be influenced by the practices on water usage as well as pondwater quality management. </li></ul>
  75. 76. <ul><li>4. Water discharge and sludge/effluent management – there shall be emphasized increase awareness of proper waste management in the aquaculture industry that shall enhance the protection of coastal land resources. </li></ul>
  76. 77. <ul><li>5. Use of drugs, chemicals, potentially toxic pesticides and fertilizers – shall be practiced to foster awareness on the proper use of therapeutic agents and other chemicals without endangering food safety or threaten the environment. </li></ul>
  77. 78. <ul><li>6. Stock selection, stocking practices – these practices shall ensure increased production of good quality and disease-free stocks promoting profitable fish farming. </li></ul>
  78. 79. <ul><li>7. Feed, feed use and management – these practices shall be adopted to improve the efficiency of supplemental feeds and feed management in aquaculture and reduce nutrient pollution and the amount of waste entering the ponds. </li></ul>
  79. 80. <ul><li>8. Fish health management – these practices shall be complied with to provide effective management of fish health focusing on disease prevention rather than disease treatment, eventually reducing the incidence of diseases and protecting the natural fisheries. </li></ul>
  80. 81. <ul><li>9. Water quality monitoring – the programmed process of sampling, measurement and recording various water characteristics, often with the aim of assessing conformity with specified objectives. </li></ul>
  81. 82. <ul><li>10. Aquaculture data management – data management shall be properly coordinated with all agencies concerned to come up with a networking system to access aquaculture information. </li></ul>
  82. 83. <ul><li>11. Incentives – the formulation of incentives shall encourage compliance with the environment standards and shall promote sustainable management practices on aquaculture, i.e. eco-labeling, technical and market assistance, training on aquaculture technologies , etc. </li></ul>
  83. 84. <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Philippine Aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Fisheries Code 1998: Fisheries Administrative Orders, Rules and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>A Simple Guide to Water Quality Management in Fish Ponds </li></ul>
  84. 85.
  85. 86. <ul><li>Canned products – these products are best described as fish which has been processed and sealed hermetically in can containers. </li></ul><ul><li> The canned product is packed in fiberboard carton box and stored in a dry place. </li></ul>
  86. 87. <ul><li>2. Comminuted products – are products made fromminced meat and surimi. These product include fishball, fishburger, and native sausages. </li></ul><ul><li>The products are normally packed in polyethylene bag, palm leaf, polystyrene tray covered with wrapping film, vacuum pack or wrapped up at time of sale to consumers. </li></ul>
  87. 88. <ul><li>3. Cured products – they are generally processed by pickling or salting without drying and is known in the Philippines as Kench-style cured fish. </li></ul><ul><li>The cured product is usually packed in glass bottles, wooden boxes or plastic containers. </li></ul>
  88. 89. <ul><li>4. Dried products – these products are commonly described by most countries as salted dried product. </li></ul><ul><li>The dried are normally packed in polyethylene bags, hard cardboard boxes, wooden boxes, braided rattan/bamboo baskets, paper bags, sacks, barrels or containers during transportation, They are sometimes displayed in retail outlets without packaging. </li></ul>
  89. 90. <ul><li>5. Fermented products – these products are generally processed by the addition of salt to fish or shrimp or the liquefaction of fish, which is then allowed to ferment. Products results are fermented fish, fish paste or shrimp paste and fish sauce. </li></ul><ul><li>The fermented products are packed in glass bottles, jars or cans, polyethylene bags, glazed earthenware pots, bamboo baskets, tins, banana leaves or plastic boxes. </li></ul>
  90. 91. <ul><li>6. Fish meal – are used as animal feed and fertilizer. It is generally produced as a fish powder made from trash fish/trawl by-catch or from sardines. </li></ul><ul><li>The products are usually packed in gunny sack, kraft bag, jute bag, plastic or black linen sack. </li></ul>
  91. 92. <ul><li>7. Frozen products – these products are processed before they are quick frozen in blocks or individually. </li></ul><ul><li>The products are usually packed in polyethylene bags, cardboard boxes or small plastic trays. </li></ul>
  92. 93. <ul><li>8. Smoked product – these products are described as fish products preserved by smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>The products can be stored in polyethylene bags, wrapped with paper, packed in basket with banana leaves or newspaper. However, proper handling and packaging of the products should be improve due to the growth of molds and bacteria to the products. </li></ul>
  93. 94. <ul><li>9. Other fish products – include mainly crackers made from prawn, squid or fish; barbecued fish, prepared cuttlefish and seaweed e. g. agar, carrageenan. </li></ul><ul><li>These products are packed in airtight polyethylene or aluminum bags. </li></ul>
  94. 95. <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Asian Fish Products, 3 rd Edition, 1996 </li></ul>
  95. 97. <ul><li>The present fish distribution and marketing practices in the Philippines are dominated by the “Consignaciones” or private brokers. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two systems used by consignacions in the Philippines in brokering fish: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Tabang system </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Bulong system </li></ul>
  96. 98. <ul><li>In the Tabang system , the fish producer first informs the consignacion that the fish harvest will occur at a given date. The fish producer then provides the consignacion the size and quantity of the fish to be harvested and other relevant information related to the harvest. </li></ul>
  97. 99. <ul><li>After that, the consignacion tells the wholesalers and other potential buyers to come to the designated fish port or fish landing area where the harvested fish comes in. Once the fish arrives, the consignacion and the producer grade the product. </li></ul>
  98. 100. <ul><li>Another person who represents the owner of the fish port or fish landing is also usually present. After grading, the fish is then sold at an agreed price to the wholesalers and other fish buyers. </li></ul>
  99. 101. <ul><li>In the Bulong system, bidding of fish is done by the consignacion among the wholesalers and other potential buyers. In this system, the highest bidder wins the bid and gets to buy the fish. The consignacion seeks the highest possible price for the fish, unlike in the Tabang system where the price is pre-agreed without bidding. </li></ul>
  100. 102. <ul><li>Furthermore, in the Bulong system, the wholesalers and other buyers of the fish have to be physically present at the right time in the fish port or landing in order to make a bid. </li></ul>
  101. 103. <ul><li>The commission that the consignacion receives for brokering the sale varies but generally ranges from 5 to 10 percent of the sale price. </li></ul><ul><li>The fish port or landing owner also receives a payment for the use of the port which is usually computed based per kilo of fish sold. </li></ul>
  102. 104. <ul><li>Fish producers have complaining that they receive low price for the fish they produce. On the other hand, consumers are complaining that they pay a high price for the fish they buy. </li></ul>
  103. 105. <ul><li>The bulk of fish unloaded in fish ports or landing areas are sold in Metro Manila and the provinces. A significant portion is exported to other countries. </li></ul>
  104. 106. <ul><li>Many fish producers sell their fish in fresh form without the benefit of processing. Few of the producers also directly export their fish. </li></ul>
  105. 107. <ul><li>The fry and fingerling distribution and marketing channels are long and involve many producers, middlemen, buyers and other players. </li></ul><ul><li>The prices of fry and fingerlings have increasing demand in the market and limited supply. </li></ul>
  106. 108. <ul><li>Other marketing issues in the country includes: </li></ul><ul><li>- wholesomeness of the product; </li></ul><ul><li>- unpredictable availability; and, </li></ul><ul><li>- inadequate system for transporting produce to market centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>National Training Workshop on Aquaculture Economics and Farm Management: Fish Distribution and Marketing , Danilo C. Israel, Ph.D. </li></ul>
  107. 109.
  108. 110. <ul><li>1. Open access </li></ul><ul><li>2. Overfishing and excessive fishing pressure </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lack of management </li></ul><ul><li>4. Inappropriate, exploitation patterns </li></ul><ul><li>5. Post harvest loses </li></ul><ul><li>6. Lack of vigilant monitoring and warning system in place </li></ul>
  109. 111. <ul><li>7. Small and large scale fisheries conflict </li></ul><ul><li>8. Habitat degradation </li></ul><ul><li>9. Lack of research and information and inadequacy of technical and human resource capabilities, particularly among the managers and the agencies concerned in analyzing fisheries. </li></ul>
  110. 112. <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Philippine Aquaculture </li></ul>
  111. 114. <ul><li>1. Assistance in the promotion of production-intensifying but cost reducing technologies within ecological limits of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assistance in the improvement of production-marketing systems to become more efficient and more effective. </li></ul>
  112. 115. <ul><li>3. Assistance in the production of quality broodstock, seeds and fingerlings to be made available to fisherfolk at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Assistance in sourcing out funds to increase public investment particularly on post-harvest facilities. </li></ul>
  113. 116. <ul><li>5. Promotion of best practices in aquaculture of other countries on the conservation and protection of the country’s fisheries and aquatic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sponsor and conduct of research, trainings and information on technical and human resource capabilities, particularly among the managers and the agencies concerned in analyzing fisheries. </li></ul>
  114. 117.