Socio-Political Environment of the Philippines during the Spanish Regime
In the 15th century, Philippines was invaded by Spain and reigned over the Philippines for 333 years, from 1565 to 1898. Their coming changed our history because of THREE REASONS:1. Through Spain, we became CATHOLIC.2. We got new and more advanced culture from Europe and Mexico.3. But for the first time, WE LOST OUR FREEDOM or INDEPENDENCE.
Spain established ONE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT in the Philippines. Many independent barangays of ourancestors disappeared. One government aloneruled most of the country. Thus, for the first timein history, we became united as one nation called“FILIPINAS”. The rest of the world came to knowour country by that name.
Since Spain was far from thecountry, the Spanish kingruled the Islands through theviceroy of Mexico, which wasthen another Spanish colony. KING OF SPAINVICEROY OF MEXICO PHILIPPINES
When Mexico regained its freedom in 1821, the Spanishking ruled the Philippines through a Governor General. KING OF SPAIN GOVERNOR GENERAL PHILIPPINES
KING OF SPAIN THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH THE JUDICIAL BRANCH (Governor General) (Royal Audencia, Residencia, Lower Courts, Governor-General) PROVINCIAL MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT CITY GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT CORRIGIMIENTO AYUNTAMIENTO ALCALDIA (Corregidor) (Cabildo) (Alcalde Mayor)PUEBLOS OR TOWNS CABILDO (Gobernadorcillos) City Council •ALCALDE •REGIDORES BARRIOS •AGUACIL MAYOR(Cabeza de Barangay) •ESCRIBANDO BARRIOS (Cabeza de Barangay)
THE POLITICAL STRUCTURE Spain established a centralized colonialgovernment in the Philippines that was composedof a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT and the LOCALGOVERNMENTS that administered provinces,cities, towns and municipalities.NATIONAL GOVERNMENT: maintained peace and order collected taxes built schools and other public works
THE GOVERNOR GENERALThe Kings representative and the highest-ranking official in the Philippines.He had GREAT POWERS. He had the power toappoint and dismiss public officials, except thosepersonally chosen by the King. He was thecommander in chief of the colonial armed forces.He was also the president of the Royal Audencia.(Like the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court today)
There were 115 Spanish Governor-Generals in our country.The first one was Miguel Lopezde Legazpi (1565-1572) andthe last was Diego de los Rios(1898) Diego de los Rios Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
The Governor General and other governmentofficials had so much power that it wascommonly abused.To investigate the abuses, there werebodies created: THE RESIDENCIA THE VISITA THE ROYAL AUDENCIA
THE RESIDENCIAThis was a special judicial court that investigatesthe performance of a Governor General who wasabout to be replaced. The Residencia, of which the incoming Governor General was usually a member, submitted a report of its findings to the King.
THE VISITAThe Council of the Indies in Spain sent agovernment official called the VISITADORGENERAL to observe conditions in the colony.The Visitador Generalreported his findingsdirectly to the king.
The highest court in the land during the Spanish times. THE ROYAL AUDENCIA
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT The Spaniards created Local Government Units (LGU) for the provinces. There were two types of local government units: ALCALDIA CORRIGIMIENTO Alcalde Mayor CorregidorThough they were paid a small salary, they enjoyedprivileges such as the INDULTO DE COMERCIOor the right to participate in the GALLEONTRADE.
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT The ALCADIA, led by the Alcalde Mayor governed the provinces.DUTIES OF THE ALCALDE MAYOR: They represented the Spanish king and theGovernor-General They managed the day-to-day operations ofthe provincial government Implemented laws and supervised thecollection of taxes
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTThe CORREGIMIENTO, headed byCorregidor governed the provinces thatwere not yet entirely under Spanishcontrol.
THE CITY GOVERNMENTLarger towns became citiescalled AYUNTAMIENTO. It became the center oftrade and industry.The ayuntamiento had a city councilcalled the CABILDOCABILDO is composed of: ALCALDE (MAYOR) REGIDORES (COUNCILLORS) ALGUACIL MAYOR (POLICE CHIEF) ESCRIBANDO (SECRETARY)
THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTEach province was divided into several towns orpueblos headed by GOBERNADORDCILLOS(Little Governor)MAIN DUTIES: Efficient governance and taxcollection.FOUR LIEUTENANTS AIDED THE GOVERNARDORCILLO:the Teniente Mayor (chief lieutenant),the Teniente de Policia (police lieutenant),the Teniente de Sementeras (lieutenant of the fields)the Teniente de Ganados (lieutenant of the livestock)
GOBERNADORDCILLOS They had SMALL SALARIES but were exempted from PAYING TAXES. QUALIFICATIONS: Any NATIVE or CHINESE MEZTIZO 25 years old Literate in ORAL or WRITTEN SPANISH Cabeza de Barangay for 4 years Ex: Emilio Aguinaldo
CABEZA DE BARANGAY (Barrio Administrator or Barangay Captain) Responsible for the peace and order of the barrio Recruited men for public worksQUALIFICATIONS: Cabezas should be literate in Spanish. Have good moral character and property. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor.