Skeletal disorders

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skeletal disorders

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Skeletal disorders

  1. 1. SKELETAL DISORDERS
  2. 2. SKELE Fractures - breakage ofT a bone, this breakageAL may be complete orD incomplete.ISORDERS
  3. 3. S Types of FracturesKE 1.Simple A clean break of the boneL with little or no break in theE overlying skin.TA 2.Greenstick An incomplete breakL of the bone in which part of theDI outer shell (cortex) remains intact.S This occurs particularly inO children, who have more flexibleR bones than adults.DE 3.Compound (also known asR "Open") A broken bone that piercesS the overlying skin.
  4. 4. SK 4.Cominuted A fracture in which theE bone is broken into more than twoL pieces. A crushing force is usuallyE responsible and there is extensive injuryT to surrounding soft tissues is common.AL 5.Impacted A fracture in which theD bones involved are driven into eachI other.SO 6.Complicated A broken bone that also involves damage to other organs - inR addition to broken Bone(s) and possiblyD also broken skin. An example is aE broken rib that punctures a lung.RS
  5. 5. SKELETALDISORDERS
  6. 6. SK Kyphosis Excessive outward curvatureE of the spine, causing hunching of theL back.ETALDISORDERS
  7. 7. SKELETALDISORDERS
  8. 8. SK Lordosis Inward curvature of the spine.E Some lordosis in the lumbar and cervicalL regions of the spine is normal.E Exaggerated lordosis may occur inT adolescence - possibly as a result ofA faulty posture, or due to disease affectingL the vertebrae and spinal muscles.DISORDERS
  9. 9. SK Scoliosis Lateral (sideways)E deviation of the spine.L Scoliosis may be caused byET congenital or acquiredA abnormalities of theL vertebrae, muscles, and/orD nerves.IS Treatment may involve theO use of spinal braces and, inR cases of severe deformity.D surgical correction by fusion orE osteotomy.RS
  10. 10. SKELETALDISORDERS
  11. 11. SK ArthritisE Over 200 diseases may causeL arthritis, including:ET Swelling, warmth, redness of theA overlying skin, pain, restriction ofL motion.DI Inflammation of one or moreS joints.ORDERS
  12. 12. SKELETALDISORDERS
  13. 13. SKE Bone CancerLE Bone cancer may occurTA as a secondary cancerL from, forD example, prostate cancerISOR Damage to stem cellsD (the cause of leukaemia).ERS
  14. 14. SKELETALDISORDERS
  15. 15. SKELETALDISORDERS
  16. 16. SKE GoutLETA Gout is caused by a defect inL uric acid balance in theD metabolism - resulting in anIS excess of the acid and its saltsO (urates) which then accumulateR in the bloodstream andD joints, respectively.ERS
  17. 17. SKELETALDISORDERS
  18. 18. SK OsteoporosisEL Infection, injury and synovitis canE cause localized osteoporosis ofT adjacent bone.ALD Generalised osteoporosis isI common in the elderly, and inS women often follows theO menopause. It is also a feature ofR Cushings disease and prolongedD steroid therapy.ERS
  19. 19. SKELETALDISORDERS
  20. 20. SK RicketsEL Rickets is a childhood condition caused by insufficient vitamin D and CalciumETALDISORDERS
  21. 21. SKELETALDISORDERS

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