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Bones, muscles and joints

Bones muscles and joints

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Bones, muscles and joints

  1. 1. Presented by Abhilasha chaudhary
  2. 2.  Bone is one-third connective tissue.  It is impregnated with calcium salt.
  3. 3. Bones give shape and support to the body, and resist any forms of stress.
  4. 4.  Provides attachment of muscles, tendons, ligaments.
  5. 5.  The skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage protect brain, spinal cord and thoracic and some abdominal viscera, respectively.
  6. 6.  Bone marrow manufactures blood cells.
  7. 7.  Bone marrow contains reticulo endothelial cell which are phagocytic…
  8. 8.  Bone stores 97% of the body calcium and phosphorus.
  9. 9.  According to shape  Developmental bones  Regional classification  Structural classification
  10. 10. ACCORDING TO SHAPE:-  LONG BONES: Each long bone has an elongated shaft (diaphysis) and two expanded ends(epiphysis). Eg.humerus, femur
  11. 11.  SHORT BONES: There shape is usually cuboid, or scaphoid. E.g. tarsal and carpal bones
  12. 12.  FLAT BONES: Resemble shallow plates and form boundaries of certain body cavities.eg-bones in vault of the skull, sternum, ribs and scapula.
  13. 13.  IRREGULAR BONES: Bones that is irregular in structure. E.g.- hip bone and bones in the base of the skull or sphenoid and first and second cervical vertebrae.
  14. 14.  SESAMOID BONES: These are bony nodules found embedded in the tendons or joint capsules.
  15. 15.  Generally not present in our body.  Formed due to non fusion of epiphysis.  Appearance of extra ossification centres .
  16. 16.  Axial skeleton  Appendicular skeleton
  17. 17.  Includes skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage.
  18. 18.  Includes bones of the limbs e.g pectoral girdle, free upper limb and pelvic girdle, free lower limb.
  19. 19. COMPACT BONE  Dense in texture .  Extremely rigid.  Developed in the cortex of long bones. CANCELLOUS OR SPONGY OR TRABECULAR BONE  Open in texture  Made up of a meshwork or trabeculae between which are marrow containing spaces.
  20. 20.  Epiphysis  Diaphysis  Metaphysis
  21. 21. ARTERIAL SUPPLY: The arterial supply of a long bone is derived from:  Nutrient artery:  Periosteal arteries:  Epiphyseal arteries:  Metaphysical arteries:
  22. 22.  AXIAL SKELTON  Cranial Bones(8)  Parietal (2)  Temporal (2)  Frontal (1)  Occipital (1)  Ethmoid (1)  Sphenoid (1)
  23. 23.  Facial Bones(14)  Maxilla (2)  Zygomatic (2)  Mandible (1)  Nasal (2)  Palatine (2)  Inferior nasal concha (2)  Lacrimal (2)  Vomer (1)
  24. 24.  Auditory Ossicles(6)  Malleus (2)  Incus (2)  Stapes (2)
  25. 25.  Hyoid (1)
  26. 26.  Vertebral Column(26)  Cervical vertebrae (7)  Thoracic vertebrae (12)  Lumbar vertebrae (5)  Sacrum (1)  Coccyx (1)
  27. 27.  Thoracic Cage(25)  Sternum (1)  Ribs (24)
  28. 28.  Pectoral girdles  Clavicle (2)  Scapula (2)
  29. 29.  Upper Extremity  Humerus (2)  Radius (2)  Ulna (2)  Carpals (16)  Metacarpals (10)  Phalanges (28)
  30. 30.  Pelvic Girdle  Coxal, innominate, or hip bones (2)
  31. 31.  Lower Extremity  Femur (2)  Tibia (2)  Fibula (2)  Patella (2)  Tarsals (14)  Metatarsals (10)  Phalanges (28)
  32. 32. JOINTS
  33. 33.  Joint is a junction between two or more bones or cartilage. It is a device to permit movements.
  34. 34.  CHARACTERSTICS OF JOINTS  Articular surfaces are covered with hyaline(articular) cartilage.  Between the articular surfaces there is a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid.  Joint is surrounded by fibrous joint capsule lined by synovial membrane.
  35. 35. Structural classification Functional classification Regional classification According to no. of articulating bones Fibrous joints Synarthrosis Skull type Simple joint Cartilaginous joints Amphirthrosis Vertebral type Composed joint Synovial joints Diarthrosis Limb type Complex joint
  36. 36. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATI ON Fibrous joint Cartilaginious joint Synovial joint
  37. 37. FIBROUS JOINTS
  38. 38.  Bones are joined by fibrous tissue.  Joints are either immovable or permit a slight degree of movement.  These can be grouped in the following three subtypes.  Sutures  Syndesmosis  Gomphosis
  39. 39. Sutures:  Immovable  Found in skull
  40. 40. Syndesmosis:-  The bones are connected by the interosseous ligament. E.g.inferior tibiofibularjoint.
  41. 41. Gomphosis(peg and socket joint  e.g. root of the tooth in its bony socket.
  42. 42. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS:
  43. 43. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS:  In this type of joints the bones are joined by cartilage.  These are of the following two types:  Primary cartilaginous joints (synchondrosis, or hyaline cartilage joints.  Secondary cartilaginous joints(Symphyses or fibrocartilaginous joints):
  44. 44. Primary cartilaginous joints (synchondrosis, or hyaline cartilage joints):  Bones are united by a plate of hyaline cartilage so that the joint is immovable and strong.  e.g. Joint between epiphysis and diaphysis of a growing long bone, Sternocoastal joint
  45. 45. Secondarycartilaginous joints(Symphyses or fibrocartilaginous joints):  Articular surfaces are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage and united by a disc of fibrocartilage.  Permanent and persist throughout life. E.g.symphysis pubis, interverterbral joints.
  46. 46. SYNOVIAL JOINTS
  47. 47.  Synovial joints are most evolved, and therefore, most mobile type of joints. Classification of synovial joints and their movements:-
  48. 48.  PLANE SYNOVIAL JOINTS:  Articular surfaces are more or less flat (plane)  Permit gliding movements (translations) in various directions  E.g.Intercarpal joints, Intertarsal joints.
  49. 49.  HINGE JOINT:  Articular surfaces are pulley- shaped.  There are strong collateral ligaments.  Movements are permitted in one plane around a transverse axis.  Allows flexion and extension  .E.g.elbow joint, Ankle joint
  50. 50.  PIVOT (TROCHOID) JOINTS:  Articular surfaces comprise a central bony pivot (peg) surrounded by an osteoligamentous ring.  Movements are permitted in one plane around a vertical axis.  Allows pronation and supination  E.g. Superior and inferior radio of ulnar joints
  51. 51.  BALL AND SOCKET(SPHEROIDAL) JOINTS:  Articular surfaces include a globular head (male surface) fitting into a cup shaped socket(female surface).  Movements occur around an indefinite number of axes which have common center.
  52. 52.  Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction all occur quite freely. E.g. Shoulder joint, Hip joint.
  53. 53.  ELLIPSOID JOINTS:  Articular surfaces include an oval, convex, male surface fitting into an elliptical, concave female surface.  Free movements are permitted around both the axis, flexion and extension around the transverse axis, and abduction and adduction .  E.g.wrist joint,
  54. 54.  SADDLE JOINTS:  Articular surfaces are reciprocally concave.  Movements are similar to those permitted by and ellipsoid joint, with addition of some rotation(conjunct rotation) .  E.g.carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
  55. 55. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION (ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF MOBILITY)
  56. 56.  Fixed or immovable joints  Articular surfaces are joined by tough fibrous tissue  e.g sutures of the skull.
  57. 57.  Slight movement is possible.  A pad of cartilage lies between the bones surfaces, and there are fibrous ligaments to hold the bones surfaces,. e.g. the intervertebral discs between the bodies of the vertebrae
  58. 58.  Freely moveable joints  The ligaments are of elastic connective tissue.  Eg .all synovial joints
  59. 59. REGIONAL CLASSIFICATION
  60. 60. Skull type  Immovable
  61. 61. Vertebral type  Slightly movable
  62. 62. Limb type  Freely movable.
  63. 63. ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF ARTICULATING BONES:-
  64. 64.  Only two bones takes part in formation of joints, e.g. interphalangeal joints.
  65. 65.  More than two bones take parts in the formation of joints. e.g. elbow joint, wrist joint.
  66. 66. when joint cavity is divided into two by an intra-articular disc eg.Tempromandibular joint and sternoclavicular joint.
  67. 67. MUSCLES
  68. 68.  Muscles are group of specialised contractile cells, also called “FIBRES”. Its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs
  69. 69.  Skeletal muscle  Cardiac muscle  Smooth muscle
  70. 70.  LOCATION:-Usually attached to the bones of the skeleton.e.g muscles of limb
  71. 71.  CHARACTERISTICS:-  Attached by tendons to bones.  Multinucleated  Striated- have stripes, banding.  Voluntary movement of skeletal parts.
  72. 72.  FUNCTION:  Movement of the skeleton eg. movement of limbs, fingers, toes, neck, etc.  Movement of tissues of facial expression. e.g. ability to smile and to frown.
  73. 73.  LOCATION:- Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs, vessels, respiratory pathway.
  74. 74.  Function:  Digestive system- to move food along the gastrointestinal tract .  Regulating the diameter of blood vessels and parts of respiratory tract.
  75. 75.  LOCATION:-Found only in the heart
  76. 76.  CHARACTERISTICS:-  Striations  Branching cells  Involuntary muscles  Usually has a single nucleus, but can have more than one.
  77. 77.  Function:  Pumping of blood through the heart: Alternate contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle.
  78. 78.  Muscle fibers  Epimysium  Fascicles  Perimysium  Endomysium.  Tendon Skeletal muscle fiber (cell) endomysium perimysium Skeletal muscle Surrounded by epimysium epimysium
  79. 79.  Muscles are the organs that move body parts. Your muscular system does lots of important jobs. It helps you move, pumps your blood, helps you digest food and even helps you breathe.
  80. 80. 1) Compare different types of muscles. 2)Classify different types of joints.
  81. 81.  Khurana Indu and Arushi. Texbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses and Allied Health Sciences. 1 edition. CBC publishers; 121-35.  Derrickson Bryan H., Tortora Gerard S. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 12 edition; vol-1. Asia 2009; 302-28.  Wilson and Ross. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. 10 editions. Published by Elsevier.2009; 415-25.

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Bones muscles and joints

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