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Co-located RFID Systems Unite!

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The reality today is that with BLE we have active RFID in our pockets and our wrists, and, with the growing success of RAIN and the proliferation of NFC, we have passive RFID on an increasing number of the objects with which we interact.
This presentation focuses on the potential for, and strategies around, combining physically co-located RFID systems for real-world applications and includes a tutorial on the open source software developed at reelyActive to combine multiple active/passive technologies for RFID, RTLS and M2M applications. Presented at IEEE RFID 2019 in Phoenix.

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Co-located RFID Systems Unite!

  1. 1. Co-located RFID Systems Unite! IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  2. 2. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen This (8:30am!!!) Workshop will focus on the potential for, and strategies around, combining physically co-located RFID systems for real-world applications.
  3. 3. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Let’s wake up to... a Polarising Example ...to which we can all relate.
  4. 4. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen RFID Systems Co-located in a Retail Store
  5. 5. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen The IEEE engineer in me says that we can “advance such technology for the benefit of humanity.” The [insert title here] in me has serious reservations about who will benefit from the highly exploitable potential of such technology.
  6. 6. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Now that we’re all awake... a bit of History ...should add some context.
  7. 7. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Back to the past...
  8. 8. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen The Internet of Things A presentation by Kevin Ashton to
  9. 9. We need to empower computers with their own means of gathering information, so they can see, hear and smell the world for themselves, in all its random glory. RFID and sensor technology enable computers to observe, identify and understand the world—without the limitations of human-entered data. — Kevin Ashton That 'Internet of Things' Thing RFID Journal, 2009 IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  10. 10. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Back to the Future...
  11. 11. 15 Billion / Year 4 Billion / Year IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  12. 12. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Today, just about everything is in place for computers to gather information about people, products and places interacting in the physical world in which we live. —without the need for human-entered data.
  13. 13. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen The engineer in us wonders... How do we do it? So let’s get to it!
  14. 14. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen What commonalities of passive and active RFID systems can we use to our advantage?
  15. 15. Radio DecodingRadio Decoding IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Different processes, but common properties, for each radio decoding Passive Reader Active Reader Passive Tag Power sourced from reader Active Tag Power sourced independently
  16. 16. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Each radio decoding includes: ➔ unique transmitter (tag) identifier ➔ unique receiver (reader) identifier ➔ RSSI (signal strength) ➔ timestamp
  17. 17. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Passive Reader Active Reader Transmitter ID Receiver ID RSSI Time 11:22:33:44:55:66 aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff -81dBm 12:34:56 99:88:77:66:55:44 aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff -72dBm 12:34:55 21203d2a916e8... 00-1b-c5-09-4... -96dBm 12:34:56 5490:8256:4169... 00-1b-c5-09-4... -64dBm 12:34:57 ... ... ... ... Real-time “table of occupants” Index
  18. 18. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Passive Reader Active Reader Transmitter ID Receiver ID RSSI Time 11:22:33:44:55:66 aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff -81dBm 12:34:56 99:88:77:66:55:44 aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff -72dBm 12:34:55 21203d2a916e8... 00-1b-c5-09-4... -96dBm 12:34:56 5490:8256:4169... 00-1b-c5-09-4... -64dBm 12:34:57 ... ... ... ... Computers understand what/where/when? What? Where? When?
  19. 19. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen What if multiple readers simultaneously decode the same tag? How does this affect “where”?
  20. 20. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen aa Receiver ID RSSI bb:bb:bb:bb:bb:bb -72dBm cc:cc:cc:cc:cc:cc -83dBm aa:aa:aa:aa:aa:aa -91dBm ... ... “RSSI Signature” ccbb Order by decreasing RSSI, assuming strongest is closest
  21. 21. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Some tags might be decoded more frequently than required? How does this affect “when”?
  22. 22. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen t 0s 1s 2s 3s Transmissions/Decodings often occur in bursts RSSI
  23. 23. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen aa Receiver ID RSSI Decs. bb:bb:bb:bb:bb:bb -72dBm 7 cc:cc:cc:cc:cc:cc -83dBm 7 aa:aa:aa:aa:aa:aa -91dBm 5 ... ... ... “RSSI Signature” with number of decodings ccbb RSSI becomes AVERAGE of all decodings in given time period x 5 x 7 x 7
  24. 24. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Some tags might include a payload? How does this affect “what”? Could this introduce “how”?
  25. 25. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen BLE offers 31 bytes of usable payload*† † Refer to Jeff’s 2017 IEEE RFID tutorial “BLE as Active RFID” * Bluetooth 5.0 adds provisions for even larger payloads iBeacon: ➔ 128-bit UUID ➔ 16-bit Major ➔ 16-bit Minor Eddystone: ➔ Short URL ➔ 128-bit identifier ➔ Battery/Temp/... Vendor-proprietary: ➔ 3-axis acceleration ➔ Temp/Humidity ➔ Identifiers... Many, many, many payloads can be observed, some observing open standards, but typically not.
  26. 26. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Plenty of payloads with RAIN! Source: What is RAIN RFID? p. 42
  27. 27. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen And if we put it all together?
  28. 28. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen A standardised radio decoding Transmitter ID RSSI Signature Payloads Time 11:22:33:44:55:66 [ { bb:bb:bb:bb:bb:bb, -72dBm, 7 }, ... [ 02ab1234..., 9143ce2f... ] 12:34:56 What? Where? When? How? An iPhone Clothing item In or near Aisle 7 In or near Aisle 7 AirPlay, AirDrop SKU: 123456 Now Now
  29. 29. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen At reelyActive, we created an open standard called raddec as an open source library. github.com/reelyactive/raddec
  30. 30. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  31. 31. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen At reelyActive, we created open source software called barnowl as middleware. github.com/reelyactive/barnowl
  32. 32. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen (raddec)
  33. 33. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen What’s a real-world application of barnowl and the raddec library?
  34. 34. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Hardware-agnostic asset tracking What is where? Tags from Vendor A Readers from Vendor B Open source software Database Application developer Application logic
  35. 35. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Tracking air movers with BLE beacons
  36. 36. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Client-Product-Interaction observation Collaboration with: Photo: Samad Rostampour
  37. 37. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen What about the payloads and the sensor data and identifiers they contain?
  38. 38. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen At reelyActive, we created an open source library called advlib, also published at IEEE IoT 2015. github.com/reelyactive/advlib
  39. 39. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  40. 40. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Transmitter ID RSSI Signature Payloads Time 11:22:33:44:55:66 [ { bb:bb:bb:bb:bb:bb, -72dBm, 7 }, ... [ 02ab1234..., 9143ce2f... ] 12:34:56 advlib acceleration: [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 ], batteryPercent: 100, companyName: "Apple, Inc.", companyIdentifierCode: "004c", complete16BitUUIDs: "feed" temperature: 22.859375, txPower: "0dBm", url: "https://www.ieee.org/"
  41. 41. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen 1. Who should be responsible for integrating open standards into libraries such as advlib? 2. What are the consequences of integrating closed standards into libraries such as advlib?
  42. 42. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Aren’t payload properties like sensor data dynamic whereas payload properties like identifiers are static?
  43. 43. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen acceleration: [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 ], batteryPercent: 100, companyName: "Apple, Inc.", companyIdentifierCode: "004c", complete16BitUUIDs: "feed" temperature: 22.859375, txPower: "0dBm", url: "https://www.ieee.org/"* Static & Dynamic payload properties Dynamic Static * URL is a powerful concept that we’ll return to later...
  44. 44. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen What’s a real-world application with dynamic sensor data from barnowl, raddec and advlib?
  45. 45. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Workplace Environmental Monitoring What are the temperature, humidity and ambient light levels whenever a workplace incident occurs? Is there a correlation?
  46. 46. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Seat Occupancy Change in acceleration? Change in occupancy. Decrease in RSSI? Likely occupancy. Increase in RSSI? Likely vacancy.
  47. 47. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Putting it all together... What did we create? And is it IoT?
  48. 48. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Hardware-agnostic application interface Open source software static raddec dynamic RFID Use Case Auto-ID RTLS Use Case Real-time location systems M2M Use Case Real-time sensing, etc. Any tag or transmitter Any reader or receiver Any application
  49. 49. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen static RFID: who/what is present? R EPC UUID companyName URL T R tag / transmitter reader / receiver RSSI T Digital Twin
  50. 50. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen raddec RTLS: where are the occupants? R T R tag / transmitter reader / receiver RSSI T T TR R known position known position known position
  51. 51. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen M2M: how are the occupants? R T R tag / transmitter reader / receiver RSSI T T TR R dynamic 21°C 69% R.H. In motion Low battery
  52. 52. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen This combination of who/what is where/how is what we call hyperlocal context, and it can be encoded using web standards.
  53. 53. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  54. 54. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Tens of billions of devices can be identified, located and understood by computers, without the need for human-entered data, in real-time and in any physical space.
  55. 55. Imagine real-time physical-world search... Where is the nearest available... conference room (3 options) salesperson (7 options) electrical outlet with USB (4 options) ...more places ...more people ...more things IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen
  56. 56. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen But what if co-located RFID readers exist in parallel silos? (Which is often the case)
  57. 57. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Passive Reader Active Reader Each RFID system has its own independent hyperlocal context.
  58. 58. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Passive Reader Active Reader My hyperlocal context is available at: hlc.vendor-a.com My hyperlocal context is available at: vendor-b.com/hlc Discovery
  59. 59. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Passive Reader Active Reader Discovery Exchange
  60. 60. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen More at: www.reelyactive.com/science/ Open source software via: reelyactive.github.io
  61. 61. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Now we ask ourselves... How should we do it? ...knowing one can only delay the inevitable.
  62. 62. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen WHOSE DATA IS IT ANYWAY?
  63. 63. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Data is the pollution problem of the information age, and protecting privacy is the environmental challenge. Almost all computers produce information. It stays around, festering. How we deal with it—how we contain it and how we dispose of it—is central to the health of our information economy. Just as we look back today at the early decades of the industrial age and wonder how our ancestors could have ignored pollution in their rush to build an industrial world, our grandchildren will look back at us during these early decades of the information age and judge us on how we addressed the challenge of data collection and misuse. We should try to make them proud. —Bruce Schneier Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect your Data and Control your World
  64. 64. Remuneration Data IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Data Broker RFID System Digital Micro-Transaction Physical Presence reelyactive.com/blog/archives/579 Broker Model
  65. 65. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen reelyactive.com/blog/archives/1329 Social Media Model
  66. 66. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen How to increase public consciousness and promote informed adoption?
  67. 67. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen Art installations accessible to all... Présences Périphériques: www.reelyactive.com/art/
  68. 68. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen ...visceral experiences of RFID prevalence GeneraBLE open source software: github.com/reelyactive/generable
  69. 69. IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen In summary: ➔ ~20 Billion radio-identifiable devices shipping annually! ➔ Computers can observe occupants of physical spaces ➔ Web-standard representation of hyperlocal context ➔ Potential for exchange among co-located RFID systems ➔ Data ownership and responsibility? ➔ How do we foster widespread informed debate?
  70. 70. Co-located RFID Systems Unite! IEEE RFID 2019 Jeffrey Dungen For questions contact: Jeffrey Dungen, co-founder & CEO jeff@reelyactive.com | @reelyActive

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