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BLE Talk

An overview of Bluetooth Low Energy with emphasis on security.

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Using Bluetooth LE 
(For Good)
Who? 
• Donald Ness 
• Software Developer from 
Boulder, CO 
• Learned Bluetooth building 
wireless controls for robots 
• See Anarchy as a giant 
engineering project 
• IANAC
What is this talk about? 
• What is Bluetooth Low Energy? 
• Why does it matter? 
• How can we use it for good?
What is BLE? 
• New wireless scheme for low power devices 
• small size, small cost 
• same spectrum as WiFi, Bluetooth Classic 
• a.k.a. Bluetooth SMART 
• Subset of Bluetooth 4.0 spec since 2010
BLE vs Bluetooth Classic 
BLE Classic 
security broken key exchange* 
secure pairing protocol 
(ECDH) 
throughput 0.2 Mbit/s 2-3 Mbit/s 
range 10 - 30m 50 - 300m 
power consumption 0.01 to 0.5W 1W 
faster connection 0.1s 5s 
smaller size very small small 
lower cost ~$2 @ 5000 ~$7 @ 5000 
* unless done out-of-band. more on that soon.
Why does it matter? 
It is everywhere!
Ad

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BLE Talk

  • 1. Using Bluetooth LE (For Good)
  • 2. Who? • Donald Ness • Software Developer from Boulder, CO • Learned Bluetooth building wireless controls for robots • See Anarchy as a giant engineering project • IANAC
  • 3. What is this talk about? • What is Bluetooth Low Energy? • Why does it matter? • How can we use it for good?
  • 4. What is BLE? • New wireless scheme for low power devices • small size, small cost • same spectrum as WiFi, Bluetooth Classic • a.k.a. Bluetooth SMART • Subset of Bluetooth 4.0 spec since 2010
  • 5. BLE vs Bluetooth Classic BLE Classic security broken key exchange* secure pairing protocol (ECDH) throughput 0.2 Mbit/s 2-3 Mbit/s range 10 - 30m 50 - 300m power consumption 0.01 to 0.5W 1W faster connection 0.1s 5s smaller size very small small lower cost ~$2 @ 5000 ~$7 @ 5000 * unless done out-of-band. more on that soon.
  • 6. Why does it matter? It is everywhere!
  • 7. Why does it matter? • Low energy and small size ➡ Convenient devices that can fit on a keychain • Low cost and flexible development ➡ Good solution for DIY open source hardware
  • 8. A Safe Haven For Private Keys Problem: • 0-day exploits • backdoors in proprietary hardware • web wallets require third party trust • cold storage wallets are cumbersome Hardware wallets are best current solution, but • expensive! ~$120 • don’t work with mobile • require USB cables
  • 10. Protocol Stack GATT/GAP ATT L2CAP Link Layer PHY • generic attribute/access protocol • groups attributes into services • attribute protocol • bound to L2CAP • similar to SDP in BT Classic • logical link control and adaptation protocol • segments and assembles packets • optional QoS via retransmission + CRC • 3 advertising channels • 37 data channels • hop increment + interval negotiated • 2.4GHz ISM spectrum • GFSK RF modulation
  • 11. Security • 128-bit AES block cipher at link layer. Great! Right…? • PROBLEM: in-band key exchange is broken • Passive attack can snoop for LTK during pairing. • Active attack can force new LTK exchange and then snoop. • SOLUTION: use out-of-band key exchange • Simple Secure Pairing at application layer • Uses ECDH: ~5 sec on 8-bit CPU • For more info: http://lacklustre.net/bluetooth/
  • 12. Device Roles • Peripheral as Server • ex. a controller for an Aquaponics system • It advertises to Centrals • Central as Client • ex. a Smartphone • It connects to Peripherals
  • 13. Services and Characteristics • A Service is a collection of data and functions, or characteristics, associated with a peripheral. • ex. A service representing aquaponics sensors • A Characteristic represents a single aspect of a peripheral. It has properties which determine how it can be used (i.e. read, write) • ex. Temperature, pH level, oxygen level
  • 14. UUID • Services and Characteristics are identified by UUIDs • 16-bit defined by Bluetooth SIG • http://developer.bluetooth.org • 128-bit user defined
  • 15. Advertising Central Scan Scan Peripheral Adv Adv Adv Adv Adv Adv Adv Adv Adv • A peripheral broadcasts advertising packets to tell the world about itself: • A name • Some primary Service UUIDs • Transmit Power • Manufacturer Data • A central scans for advertising packets to find something to connect to.
  • 16. Characteristic Properties • Read • Write PDU C C C C • With Response (guaranteed write) • Without Response • Notify • Subscribe to a value and get events when value changes • Limitations • 20 byte limit for characteristics PDU C PDU C C C
  • 17. A Note on Beacons • Beacons are just specially formatted advertising packets, usually emitted at a fast interval (~20ms) • It allows proximity-based micro location using RSSI to determine distance. • iBeacons are Apple’s version: UUID (16 bytes) Best Buy Major ID (2 bytes) Store 101 Minor ID (2 bytes) TV Aisle
  • 19. Using Bluetooth LE Peripherals Sign Bitcoin Transactions • Store a private key (or a password-protected private key) safely in the flash memory of a microcontroller. • Send a transaction input via Bluetooth LE to the microcontroller. • Hash the input with our private key, and send it back to the central to complete the transaction.
  • 20. Other Uses • Signing messages with GPG key • Exchanging public keys in person • Replacing LED screens with BLE radios for hardware projects • Drop Safes • Many other things…?
  • 21. Software Stacks • Linux — BlueZ • Mac & iOS — CoreBluetooth • Chrome APIs • Node.js — noble/bleno
  • 22. Hardware • Popular Manufacturers • Nordic Semiconductor NRF51 • Packed with a ARM M0-cortex • Great development kit • Texas Instruments CC2640 • BlueGiga • BlueRadios • DIY • RedBearLab BLE Mini — $25 • RFDuino — $25 • Intel Edison SoC — $50
  • 23. Firmware • micro-ecc • https://github.com/kmackay/micro-ecc • ECDH and ECDSA for 8-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit processors. • nano-ecc • https://github.com/iSECPartners/nano-ecc • A very small ECC implementation for 8-bit microcontrollers