Introduction Socialization, training and development are all used to help new employees adapt to their new organizations and become fully productive. Ideally, employees will understand and accept the behaviors desired by the organization, and will be able to attain their own goals by exhibiting these behaviors. The Insider-Outsider Passage Socialization A process of adaptation to a new work role. Adjustments must be made whenever individuals change jobs The most profound adjustment occurs when an individual first enters an organization.The assumptions of employee socialization: Socialization strongly influences employee performance and organizational stability Provides information on how to do the job and ensuring organizational fit. New members suffer from anxiety, which motivates them to learn the values and norms of the organization.The assumptions of employee socialization: Socialization is influenced by subtle and less subtle statements and behaviors exhibited by colleagues, management, employees, clients and others.
Individuals adjust to new situations in remarkably similar ways. All new employees go through a settling-in period.The Socialization Process Pre arrival stage: Individuals arrive with a set of values, attitudes and expectations which they have developed from previous experience and the selection process. The Socialization Process Encounter stage: Individuals discover how well their expectations match realities within the organization. Where differences exist, socialization occurs to imbue or encourage the employee with the organization’s standards.The Socialization Process Metamorphosis stage: Individuals have adapted to the organization, feel accepted and know what is expected of them.
The Insider-Outsider Passage A Socialization Process Copyright@Asasuzzaman 9 Orientation may be done by the supervisor, the HRM staff or some combination. Formal or informal, depending on the size of the organization. Covers such things as: The organization’s objectives History Philosophy Procedures Rules HRM policies and benefits Fellow employees
Orientation may be done by the supervisor, the HRM staff or some combination. Formal or informal, depending on the size of the organization. Covers such things as: The organization’s objectives History Philosophy Procedures Rules HRM policies and benefits Fellow employeesThe CEO’s Role in Orientation Senior management are often visible during the new employee orientation process. CEOs can: Welcome employees. Provide a vision for the company. Introduce company culture -- what matters. Convey that the company cares about employees. Allay some new employee anxieties and help them to feel good about their job choice.HRM’s Role in Orientation
Coordinating Role: HRM instructs new employees when and where to report; provides information about benefits choices. Participant Role: HRM offers its assistance for future employee needs (career guidance, training, etc.). Training and Development Generally, training involves the development or strengthening of three main aspects: knowledge, skills and attitudes. Usually these three aspects have to be taken together. All of them need to be addressed, if a person is to develop himself/herself to contribute effectively to a group or organization to which S/he belongs. So training is about enabling people to gain knowledge, to practice their skills and to shape their attitudes. Definitions Employee training A learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanentchange in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on thejob. According to Rue and Byars, “Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules of attitudes to increase the performance of employees.” From Gray Dessler’s point of view, “Training is the process of teaching new employees or present employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs.” Definitions Employee training
A learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanentchange in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on thejob. According to Rue and Byars, “Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules of attitudes to increase the performance of employees.” From Gray Dessler’s point of view, “Training is the process of teaching new employees or present employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs.” Definitions Employee training A learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanentchange in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on thejob. According to Rue and Byars, “Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules of attitudes to increase the performance of employees.” From Gray Dessler’s point of view, “Training is the process of teaching new employees or present employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs.” Employee development Any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. Management development is viewed as a means of bringing managers up to speed on fundamental management skills
such as the basics of finance and marketing and techniques for supervising employees. Future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. Training and Development Training = Altering behavior Development = Increasing knowledge Learning = Permanent change in behavior Purpose of Training and Development Creating a pool of available and adequate replacement for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology. Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team. Expansion adequate human resources for expansion into new programs Results or Outcomes Increased quality and quantity of work performance Decrease accidents Increase knowledge, skills attitudes Decrease costs of management Decrease absenteeism and turnover rates
Increase job satisfaction - production Increase job satisfaction and morale among employees. Increased employee motivation. Increase efficiencies in process. Increase capability to adopt new technologies and products. Reduced employees turnover. Importance of training Benefits of Training to the Organization1. Better performance2. Reduced Cost of performance3. Less supervision4. Long term stability and flexibility5.Good human Relation Benefits of training to employees1. Advancement in careers2. Increased productivity3. Safety4. High Morale5. Opportunity for Promotion Areas of training
Organization provide training to their employees in the following areas: 1. Company policies and procedures 2. Specific skills 3. Human Relations 4. Problem solving 5. Managerial and supervisory skills 6. Apprentice training Difference between training and development.1. Training aims to improve current skills and behavior whereasdevelopment aims to increase abilities in relation to some futurepositions or jobs usually at managerial level. 2. In training, the focus is solely on the current job; in development, thefocus is both on the current job and jobs that employees will hold in thefuture.3. The scope of training is on individual employees, while the scope ofdevelopment is on the entire work group or organization.. 4. Training is job-specific and addresses particular performance anddeficits or problems, while development is concerned with the workforce’s skills and versatility.3. The scope of training is on individual employees, while the scope ofdevelopment is on the entire work group or organization..
4. Training is job-specific and addresses particular performance anddeficits or problems, while development is concerned with the workforce’s skills and versatility.5. Training tends to focus on immediate organizational needs, whiledevelopment tends to focus on long-term requirements. 6. Training strongly influences present performance levels, whiledevelopment pays off in terms of more capable and flexible humanresources in the long run. What is training needs assessment (TNA)? A need is not a want or a desire. It is a gap between “what is” and “what ought to be”. Needs assessment is used for identifying gaps and to provide information for a decision on whether the gaps could be addressed through training. The assessment is part of a planning process focusing on identifying and solving performance problems. These performance problems may be related to knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Why should we conduct a training needs assessment? The primary purpose of the training needs assessment is to ensure that there is a need for training and to identify the nature of what a training programme should contain. A training needs assessment provides the information needed for developing a training plan that is based on the learning needs of the participants. It increases the relevance of the training and the commitment of the learners, as they are involved in the preparation of the training design that reflects their expressed needs.
Thus, it helps to foster a rapport between the facilitators and the participants. The facilitators can acquire basic knowledge of the strengths and limitations of the participants and the learners can become partners in analyzing their own learning needs. To determine whether training is needed To determine causes of poor performance To determine content and scope of training To determine desired training outcomes To provide a basis of measurement To gain management support Steps in the Needs Assessment Process Step One: Identify Problem Needs Determine organizational context Perform gap analysis Set objectives Step Two: Determine Design of Needs Analysis Establish method selection criteria Assess advantages and disadvantages for methodsStep Three: Collect Data Conduct interviews Administer questionnaires and surveys Review documents
Observe people at workStep Four: Analyze Data Conduct qualitative analysis or Conduct Quantitative Analysis? Determine solutions/recommendationsStep Five: Provide Feedback Write report and make oral presentation Determine next step – Training needed?Step Six: Develop Action Plan Once this formal needs assessment process is completed the information is used as the basis for training design, development and evaluation. However you must continue to assess the attitudes, knowledge and skill level of participants prior to each session. Different audiences may have different needs. This can be done both through a basic questionnaire sent just prior to a specific training event and also during the welcome time of each session. On-the-job training methods Job Rotation Apprenticeships or Coaching Action learning Off-the-job training methods Classroom lectures Company school
Video-conferencing Role playing Case study. Behavior Modeling On-the-job training methods Job rotation: involves moving employees to various positions in theorganization to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities. It means moving management trainees from department todepartment to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business.The trainee may spend several months in each department. This helpsnot only broaden his experience but also discover the jobs he prefers. Helearns the business by actually doing it, whether it involves sales,production, finance or some other function. Apprenticeship training: Apprenticeship training is a system in which an employee is given instruction by more experienced employee or employees in all the practical and theoretical aspects of the work required in a skilled occupation craft or trade.
Off-the-job training methods Class room training: Class room training is the most familiar off- the –training method. It is a lecturing method of training useful for quickly imparting information to large groups with little or no knowledge of the subject. Video presentation: Television, films and slides presentation are similar to lectures and are very useful to train the new incumbents. Company School: Many big companies have their own schools for managers. (Motorola, McDonald’s) Company schools educate both current and potential managers in the corporate culture, management philosophy and skills and methods of doing business.
Case study: A business school teaching method in which students do in-depth analysis of real life companies. It presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem. The person analysis the case in private, diagnoses the problem, and presents his findings and solution in a discussion with others trainees. Role playing: Participants adopt the role of a particular manager placed in a specific situation. For instance, a manager who has to give a negative performance review to an employees. The aim is to create a realistic situation and then have the trainees assume the parts or roles of specific persons in that situation Behavior Modeling: It involves showing trainees the right model way of doing something, letting each person practice the right way to do it, and then providing feedback regarding each trainee’s performance. In this technique of training, the trainees are first shown good management techniques are first shown good management techniques in a film, are then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor.