Introtruction to hrd

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Introtruction to hrd

  1. 1. Introduction to Human Resources Development Chapter 1CH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 1
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives• Define HRD• Relate development of HRD• Distinguish between HRD and HRM• Identify & describe major HRD functions• Describe how HRD links with corporate goals and strategies• Recognize various competencies of an HRD professional• Cite contemporary challenges• Identify major phases of HRD processCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 2
  3. 3. Defining Human Resource Development (HRD)• “…a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.”• Learning is the core of all HRD effortsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 3
  4. 4. HRD Activities in the Workplace• Should start with employee joining organization• Should continue throughout employment• Must be responsive to work and job changes• Must reflect corporate goals and strategiesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 4
  5. 5. Progressions towards HRD Development - 1• Apprentice training programs – Apprentice – Yeoman – Master – GuildsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 5
  6. 6. Progressions towards HRD Development - 2• Vocational education programs – 1809 – DeWitt Clinton founds first manual school in NY – 1917 – Smith-Hughes Act (World War-I)• Factory Schools – Needed engineers, machinists and skilled mechanics – Had to develop their own--shorter and more narrowly focused than apprenticeshipsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 6
  7. 7. Training for Skilled and Semi- Skilled Workers• Needed for production lines (Ford)• Demand for military goods (WW-I)• Job Instruction Training (JIT) based at first on – Show – Tell – Do – CheckCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 7
  8. 8. The Human Relations Movement• Factory system sometimes abused workers• “Human relations” advocated more humane working conditionsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 8
  9. 9. Establishment of the Training Profession• World War II required massive retooling for military goods• Training Within Industry was developed• Many companies developed own TWI programs• 1942: American Society of Training Directors formed – Intent was to standardize training professionCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 9
  10. 10. Emergence of HRD• T&D expanded to encompass – coaching and counseling – Group Process Facilitation – Problem solving• ASTD becomes American Society for Training and Development• Move to high performance work systemsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 10
  11. 11. Human Resource Management (HRM) and HRD• HRM: The effective selection and utilization of employees to best achieve – The goals and strategies of the organization – The goals and needs of the individualCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 11
  12. 12. Organization Chart of Large HRM Divisions• Figure 1-1 Vice President Human Resource Management EEO Officer HR Research and Staffing Employee Relations HRD Compensation and Plannin g Director Director Director Director Benefits DirectorCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 12
  13. 13. Primary HRM Functions• Obtaining employees• Maintaining employees• Developing employeesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 13
  14. 14. Secondary HRM Functions• Human resource planning• Equal employment opportunity• Staffing (recruitment and selection)• Compensation and benefits• Employee (labor) relations• Health, safety and security• HRD activitiesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 14
  15. 15. Other HRM Functions• Organizational design• Performance management and appraisal systems• Research and information systemsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 15
  16. 16. Line vs Staff Authority• Authority to make decisions and use resources• Line Authority: – Given to line managers and units directly responsible for production of goods and services• Staff Authority – Given to units that advise and consult line units• Generally, line authority supersedes staff authorityCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 16
  17. 17. Primary HRD Functions• Training and development (T&D)• Organizational development (OD)• Career developmentCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 17
  18. 18. Training & Development (T&D)• Changing or improving the employees – Knowledge – Skills – Attitudes• Training – Provides skills & knowledge to job or task• Development – Prepares for future employment needsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 18
  19. 19. T&D Activities• Start when employee joins organization• Continues throughout employment and careerCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 19
  20. 20. Specific T&D Activities• Employee orientation• Skills and technical training• Coaching• CounselingCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 20
  21. 21. Coaching• Employees learn unit’s values and norms• Establish working relationships• Learn how to function in their jobsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 21
  22. 22. Counseling• Help employees deal with personal problems – Substance abuse – Stress management – Smoking cessation – Fitness, nutrition, weight management – Etc.CH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 22
  23. 23. Management Training and Development• To ensure managers and supervisors have the KSAs needed to be effective – Supervisory training – Job rotation – Seminars – College/university coursesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 23
  24. 24. Organizational Development (OD)• Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and its employees through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts – Macro changes affecting entire organization – Micro changes affecting individuals, small groups & teams• In OD, the HRD professional works as a “change agent” to facilitate the change processCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 24
  25. 25. Career Development• Ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes and tasks• Career Planning: Assessing individuals skills and abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan• Career Management: Taking necessary steps to achieve that planCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 25
  26. 26. The New Learning and Performance Wheel• Business strategy is at hub• Upper right spokes depict traditional HRM functions• Lower right spokes depict other functions driving performance• Left side is expanded view of HRDCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 26
  27. 27. The New Learning and Performance Wheel• Figure 1-2 The New Learning and Performance Wheel usi ness Performan i ng B ce Dri v Tradi t i onal Hu Selection, Staffing, & Job Design ma n Mea s Re fit so Ben e urc surin ms Ma e ste na & g& E Di Sy M gin sc at ion Kn ana ns ipl g n ti o tio th e valu ine ow gi n la pens Re ma le g s s Le dg O ee ating line or e rag a rn oy Com Inf ni Im pl cip za t ion in g prov ing tio Em gni e Dis & ec o Fu Hum na r R l bo s& nct anP La ard g an d Perfor manc erf ion Facilita orm by Tech R ew tin anc t ed Ch ange g Organizatio e ch & Develo pment r no Suppo nal Resea r logy Business Strategy ning & Tale nt Cu stome Caree P lan r r Se rvices t Manag emen earni n Dis ce L ng t ribu Marketing & Public Relations chi g n tio Coa ni Ot he n ar pla Le Ope rk r g g Org Wo n in nin Fin sig an ration ra i an ce De gT iza t io s/Pro rin na ve Le lD li isc du ct De ga ipl s l S ale ine s ion SOURCE: Davis, P., Naughton, J., & Rothwell, W. (2004). New roles and new competencies for the profession. T&D, 58(4), 26-36CH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 27
  28. 28. Strategic Management and HRD• Strategic Management includes – Strategy formulation – Strategy implementation – ControlCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 28
  29. 29. Strategic Management Activities• Assess viability of current mission, objectives, strategies, policies, programs, technology, workforce and other resources• Monitor and assess external environment for threats and opportunities• Identify strategic factors that need to be changed or updatesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 29
  30. 30. Alignment of the Organization• Management practices• Organizational structure• Human resource systems• Other work practices & systemsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 30
  31. 31. A Major HRD Challenge• To play a more strategic role in the functioning of their organization – Participate directly in strategic management – Provide education and training in concepts and methods of strategic management and planning – Providing training to all employees that is aligned with goals and strategiesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 31
  32. 32. HRD Strategy• Contribute ideas, information and recommendations• Ensure HRD strategy is consistent with corporate strategies• Provide education and training to support corporate strategies• Ensure all training is linked to goals and strategies of organizationCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 32
  33. 33. Role of Supervisors in HRD• HRD implementation• Orientation• Training• Coaching• Career development• Identifying training needsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 33
  34. 34. Organizational Structure of HRD Function• Figure 1-3 Director Human Resource Development HRD Research and Program Developer Evaluation Specialist Management Skills Organization Career Development Training Development Development Specialist Administrator Specialist Counselor On-the-Job Training Safety Trainer Sales Trainer CoordinatorCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 34
  35. 35. Sample HRD Organization Chart• Figure 1-4 Vice President Human Resource Development Assistant Vice President District Training Manager, Manager, Customer Manager, Safety Management/Executive Sales Training Training Development Manager, Manager, Store Management Manager, Driver Support Services Training Training Manager, Manager, Training Manager, Organization Development Facilities and Facilities and and Change Equipment Equipment Manager, Research, Planning, and EvaluationCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 35
  36. 36. Competency• Mastery of a skillCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 36
  37. 37. HRD Manager Competencies• A non-exclusive list• Personal• Interpersonal• Business/ManagementCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 37
  38. 38. The 2004 ASTD Competency Model• Fig 1-5 L e a r n in g S tra te g is t B u s in e s s P a rtn e r P ro fe s - P r o je c t s io n a l M anager S p e c ia lis t D e s ig n in g L e a r n in g Im p r o v in g H u m a n P e r f o r m a n c e D e liv e r in g T r a in in g M e a s u r in g a n d E v a lu a tin g F a c ilita tin g O r g a n iz a tio n a l C h a n g e M a n a g in g t h e L e a r n in g F u n c t io n C o a c h in g M a n a g in g O r g a n iz a tio n a l K n o w le d g e C a r e e r P l a n n i n g a n d T a le n t M a n a g e m e n t A r e a s o f E x p e r tis e : S u p p o r te d b y T e c h n o lo g y • In te rp e rs o n a l • B u s in e s s /M a n a g e m e n t • P e rs o n a l > B u ild in g T r u s t > A n a ly z in g N e e d s a n d > D e m o n s t r a t in g > C o m m u n ic a t in g E f f e c t iv e ly P r o p o s in g S o lu t io n s A d a p t a b il i t y > In flu e n c in g S ta k e h o ld e r s > A p p ly in g B u s in e s s A c u m e n > M o d e li n g P e r s o n a l > L e v e r a g in g D iv e r s it y > D r iv in g R e s u lt s D e v e lo p m e n t > N e t w o r k in g a n d P a r t n e r in g > P l a n n in g a n d I m p l e m e n t in g A s s ig n m e n t s > T h i n k i n g S t r a t e g i c a ll y C o m p e t e n c ie s • C o m p e t e n c ie s • C o m p e t e n c ie s SOURCE: Davis, P., Naughton, J., & Rothwell, W. (2004). New roles and new competencies for the profesion. T&D, 58(4), 26-36CH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 38
  39. 39. The HRD Executive Manager• Formerly “Training Director,” sometimes the “Chief Learning Officer”• Integrates HRD with goals and strategies of organization• Assumes leadership role in executive development• Promotes value of HRD functionsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 39
  40. 40. Major Tasks of HRD Manager• Promoting HRD as means of ensuring employees have competencies to meet current and future job needs• Establishing link between HRD performance and organizational effectiveness• Developing measures of HRD effectiveness tied to profitCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 40
  41. 41. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals - 1• HR Strategic Advisor- – Strategic planning for training and education – Outputs • HR strategic Plans • Strategic planning education & training programsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 41
  42. 42. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals - 2• HR Systems Designer and Developer- – Assists management in organizational HR design and development• Outputs – HR program designs – Intervention strategies – Implementation of HR programsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 42
  43. 43. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 3• Organization Change Agent- – Design and implementation of change strategies• Outputs – More efficient work teams – Quality management – Intervention strategies – Change reportsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 43
  44. 44. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 4• Organizational Design Consultant- – Advises on work system design and implementation of change• Outputs – Intervention strategies – Alternative work designs – ImplementationCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 44
  45. 45. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 5• Learning Program Specialist – Instructional Designer – Develops and designs appropriate learning programs – Prepares materials and training aids• Outputs – Program objectives – Lesson plans – Intervention strategiesCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 45
  46. 46. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 6• Instructor/facilitator – Presents materials and leads and facilitates structured learning experiences• Outputs – Selection of appropriate methods and techniques – Actual HRD program itselfCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 46
  47. 47. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 7• Individual Development and Career Counselor – Assists employees in assessing competencies and goals• Outputs – Individual assessment sessions – Workshop facilitation – Career guidanceCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 47
  48. 48. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 8• Performance Consultant – Advises on appropriate interventions to improve individual and group performance• Outputs – Intervention strategies – Coaching design – ImplementationCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 48
  49. 49. Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals – 9• Researcher – Assesses HRD programs and practices to determine overall effectiveness• Outputs – Research Designs – Research Findings and Recommendations – ReportsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 49
  50. 50. Certification and Education for HRD Professionals• To increase credibility of HRD filed• ASTD began “Certified Professional in Learning and Performance” program – 150 item multiple choice test – Submission of “Work Project” – Described on ASTD websiteCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 50
  51. 51. HRM Certifications• Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) – Professional in Human Resources (PHR) • 225 item multiple choice exam, 17% are HRD related – Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR) • 225 item multiple choice exam, 17% are HRD related – Global Professional in Human Resources GPHR) • 165 M/C items, 14% HRD related• Must pass test and have at least 2 years exempt-level HR work experienceCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 51
  52. 52. Emerging Workplace Trends - 1• 1. Drastic times, drastic measures: Uncertain economic conditions force organizations to reconsider how they can grow and be profitable.• 2. Blurred lines—life or work? New organizational structures are changing the nature of work for employees and HRD professionals.• 3. Small world and shrinking: Global communication technology is changing the way people connect and communicate.• 4. New faces, new expectations: Diversity in the workplace continues to rise.SOURCE: Davis, P., Naughton, J., & Rothwell, W. (2004). New roles and new competencies for the profession. T&D, 58(4), April, 26–36. Copyright © April 2004 from T+DCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 52
  53. 53. Emerging Workplace Trends - 2• 5. Work be nimble, work be quick: The accelerated pace of change requires more adaptable employees and nimbler organizations.• 6. Security alert! Concerns about security and about the ability of governments to provide protection have increased individual anxiety levels worldwide.• 7. Life and work in the e-lane: Technology, especially the Internet, is transforming the way people work and live.• 8. A higher ethical bar: Ethical lapses at the highest levels in large organizations have shaken employees’ loyalty, trust, and sense of security.SOURCE: Davis, P., Naughton, J., & Rothwell, W. (2004). New roles and new competencies for the profession. T&D, 58(4), April, 26–36. Copyright © April 2004 from T+DCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 53
  54. 54. Six Challenges for HRD• Increasing workforce diversity• Eliminating the skills gap• Meeting need for lifelong learning• Facilitating organizational learning• Addressing ethicsCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 54
  55. 55. A Framework for the HRD Process• Needs Assessment• Design• Implementation• EvaluationCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 55
  56. 56. ASTD Code of Ethics• Recognize individual rights • Maintain confident-iality and and dignities integrity• Develop human potential • Support peers• Provide highest level of quality • Behave ethically and honestly• Comply with laws and • Improve public understanding copyrights of HRD• Keep up-to-date in HRD • Honestly reveal qualifications and abilities • Contribute to continued growth of the profession PARAPHRASED from American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), ASTD Certification Institute, November 2005. Accessed on June 5, 2007 at: http:/www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/5DBEF5A-EC0E-4C5C-9FA5- 4DD47C19A4A8/8544/CodeofEthics.pdfCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 56
  57. 57. Training and HRD Process Model• Fig 1-7 Assessment Design Implementation Evaluation Assess needs Prioritize Define Select needs objectives evaluation criteria Develop lesson plan Determine evaluation design Develop/acquire materials Conduct Deliver the Select evaluation HRD progr am trainer/leader of program or inter vention or inter vention Select methods and techniques Interpret results Schedule the program/interventionCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 57
  58. 58. Needs Assessment• Establish priorities for expending HRD resources• Define specific training and HRD objectives• Establish evaluation criteriaCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 58
  59. 59. Design Phase• Define objectives• Develop lesson plan• Develop/acquire materials• Select trainer/leader• Select methods/techniques• SchedulingCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 59
  60. 60. Implementation Phase• Deliver program as designed• Create atmosphere that promotes learning• Resolving emergent problems as they occurCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 60
  61. 61. Evaluation Phase• Must be able to quantify results of trainings and determine impact on “bottom line”• Evaluate participant reaction• Evaluate how much was learned• Evaluate transferability of learning to workplace• Evaluate if program contributes to organization’s effectivenessCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 61
  62. 62. Use of Evaluation Data• Whether or not to continue use of program or vendor• Whether or not to offer in the future• Budgeting and resource allocation• Using alternative methods to solving problem(s)CH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 62
  63. 63. Emerging Workplace Issues - 1• Drastic times, drastic measures: Uncertain economic conditions force organizations to reconsider how they can grow and be profitable.• Blurred lines—life or work? New organizational structures are changing the nature of work for employees and HRD professionals.• Small world and shrinking: Global communication technology is changing the way people connect and communicate.• New faces, new expectations: Diversity in the workplace continues to rise.SOURCE: Davis, P., Naughton, J., & Rothwell, W. (2004). New roles and new competencies for the profession. T&D, 58(4), April, 26–36. Copyright © April 2004 from T+DCH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 63
  64. 64. Emerging Workplace Issues - 2• Work be nimble, work be quick: The accelerated pace of change requires more adaptable employees and nimbler organizations.• Security alert! Concerns about security and about the ability of governments to provide protection have increased individual anxiety levels worldwide.• Life and work in the e-lane: Technology, especially the Internet, is transforming the way people work and live.• A higher ethical bar: Ethical lapses at the highest levels in large organizations have shaken employees’ loyalty, trust, and sense of security.CH-1 Copyright 2008 Werner, et al 64

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