HUMAN RESOURCEMANAGEMENTModule Leader : Shalu Maria PaulModule Tutor : Jerrin Elza
Orientation is the process ofbecoming familiar with a new place,organization, or complex process.
Orientation training is often given as partof bringing a new employee into aworkplace. The purpose of such orientation is toinform the new employee of procedures tobe followed and hazards to be avoided, aswell as of resources that are available.
(1) To gain employee commitment.(2) To reduce his or her anxiety.(3) To help him or her understandorganizations expectations.(4) To convey what he or she can expect fromthe job and the organization.
An induction or introduction programme should try to achievethe following objectives: To provide information about the organisation – itsstructure, products, rules and regulations, etc to the newemployee. To build up the new employee’s confidence in the organisationand in himself so that he may become an efficient employee. To promote a feeling of belonging and loyalty to theorganisation among new comers. To foster a close relationship between the new workers andthe old workers and supervisors. To bring about agreement between the organisational goalsand personal goals of the new employee.
To welcome a new employee. Provides essential information . Helps you get to know the employee and assesstraining needs. Create a Positive 1st Impression. Reduce turnover .
Training is an organised activity forincreasing the knowledge and skills of people fora definite purpose. It involves systematicprocedure for transferring technical know-how tothe employees so as to increase their knowledgeand skills for doing specific jobs with proficiency.
According to Edwin B . Flippo, “Training is the act ofincreasing the knowledge and skills of an employee fordoing a particular job”
To increase the knowledge of workers in doing specific jobs. To impart new skills among the workers systematically so that theylearn quickly. To bring about change in the attitudes of the workers towards fellowworkers, supervisors and the organisation. To improve overall performance of the organisation. To make the workers handle materials, machines and equipmentefficiently and thus to check wastage of time and resources. To reduce the number of accidents by providing safety training toworkers. To prepare workers for higher jobs by developing advanced skills inthem.
10Training DevelopmentIncreases jobskillsChanges attitudeFor impartingspecific skillsFor overalldevelopmentShort termperspectiveLong termperspectiveJob oriented innatureCareer oriented innatureRole of a traineris importantSelf developmentimportantTraining Vs. Development10
Induction or Orientation Training Job Training Apprenticeship Training Internship Training
12Why should training be imparted to Employees?1. Changing Technology2. Greater Productivity3. Stable Work Force4. Increased Safety5. Economical Operations6. Quick Learning7. Standardization of Procedures8. Less Supervision9. High Morale10. Preparation of future Managers11. Better Management12
1. Determining training needs 2. Selecting target group 3. Preparing trainers 4. Preparing training packages 5. Presentation 6. Performance 7. Follow up
14Design of a Training Programme14Identification of Training Needs• Organisational Analysis• Task Analysis• Human Resource AnalysisSetting Training ObjectivesOrganization of Training ProgrammeSelection of the TraineesTraining and InstructorTraining PeriodTraining Methods and MaterialEvaluation of Training Results
ON-THE-JOB TRAINING Coaching Under study Position Rotation
OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING. Special lecture cum-discussion Conference training Case study Sensitivity Training Special projects Committee Assignment VESTIBULE TRAINING
i. Increase in efficiency of workerii. Reduction in labour turnoveriii. Increase in disciplineiv. Reduction in wastage and therefore cost ofproductionv. Proper care of tools and equipmentsvi. Employee development in career termsvii. Overall efficiency in the company
1. Increase in efficiency of worker 2. Reduced supervision 3. Reduction in wastage 4. Less turnover of labour 5. Training helps new employees 6. Union management relations
1. Better career opportunities 2. High rewards 3. Increased motivation 4. Group efforts 5.Promotion
Evaluation involves the assessment of the effectiveness of thetraining programs. This assessment is done by collecting data on whether theparticipants were satisfied with the deliverables of the trainingprogram, whether they learned something from the training and are able toapply those skills at their workplace. There are different tools for assessment of a training programdepending upon the kind of training conducted.
Evaluation acts as a check to ensure that the training isable to fill the competency gaps within the organisationin a cost effective way. This is specially very important in wake of the fact theorganisations are trying to cut costs and increase globally.Some of the benefits of the training evaluation are asunder:
Evaluation ensures accountability - Training evaluation ensuresthat training programs comply with the competency gaps and thatthe deliverables are not compromised upon. Check the Cost - Evaluation ensures that the training programsare effective in improving the work quality, employeebehaviour, attitude and development of new skills within theemployee within a certain budget. Feedback to the Trainer / Training - Evaluation also acts as afeedback to the trainer or the facilitator and the entire trainingprocess. Since evaluation accesses individuals at the level of theirwork, it gets easier to understand the loopholes of the training andthe changes required in the training methodology.
TRAINING EVALUATION The process of examining a training program is calledtraining evaluation. Training evaluation cheks whethertraining has the desired effect. Training evaluation ensuresthat whether candidates are able to impliment their learningin their respective work places,or to the regular workroutines.
PURPOSE OF TRAINING EVALUATIONFeedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidatesby defining the objectives and linking it to learningoutcomes.Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationshipbetween acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge atthe work place, and training. Control: It helps in controlling the trainingprogram because if the training is not effective, then it canbe dealt with accordingly
Power : At times, the top management (higherauthoritative employee) uses the evaluative data tomanipulate it for their own benefits.Intervention: It helps in determining that whether theactual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.
Before Training: The learners skills and knowledge areassessed before the training program. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals. After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills andknowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness ofthe training.
The various methods of training evaluation are: Observation Questionnaire Interview Self diaries Self recording of specific incidents
Evaluation:Self-graded TestFeedbackEffectiveness ofTrainingThe degreewhich traineesare able to learnInstructorHow to measureeffectiveness of training1. Reactions2. Learning3. Job Behaviour4. ResultsObj., contents,methods – good or badThe extendedknowledge and skillImprovement in JB +attitude towards jobHighProductivity, Qualityimprovement reductioninCost, Accident, Labour Turnover, Absenteeism,Out come / Output
Management development consist of all activities by whichexecutives, learn to improve their behavior and performance. It is designed to improve the effectiveness of managers intheir present job and to prepare them for higher jobs infuture. It involve all those activities and programmes which havesubstantial influence on changing the capacity of theindividual to perform his present assignment better and in sodoing are likely to increase his potential for futuremanagement assignments.
The manager must have working knowledge of the newtechnology. Socio-cultural environment is changing at a fast speed. Themanagers must have up-to-date knowledge of the socio-cultural environment to understand the behavior of people. Frequent labor-management conflicts need trainedmanagers to bring industrial peace in the organization. To understand and meet the needs of consumers properly
A management development program is a programinitiated by a companys leadership to train and retrainmanagers within the companys structure. This programcan train employees in how to effectively manage otheremployees, gain product knowledge, learnnegotiating, business etiquette, and filling out company-issued documents. According to Ahuja and jain, ”MDP is a programmes bywhich managers acquire not only skills and competenciesin their present jobs but also capabilities for futuremanagerial tasks of increasing difficulty and task”
To increase the overall knowledge and conceptualand decision making skill of managers To improve the performance of managers in theirpresent position To introduce change in the organisation bydeveloping managers into change agents orfacilitators To provide opportunities to the managers for theircareer advancement
Under this method, the immediate superiorguides the subordinates about various ways andmethods and skills to do the job. It is important to note that the superior onlyguides and does not teach ,although he extendshis assistance whenever needed. Periodic feedback and evaluation are also thepart of coaching activity.
It consist of systematic and co-ordinated effortto transfer an executive from job to job or plantto plant. The executive is given all the normal duties andresponsibilities which go along with the job towhich he is transferred. Job rotation serves to curb the feeling ofsuperiority of one department over the others.
Under this method a committee is constituted andis assigned a subject to discuss and makerecommendations. The committee has assigned objectives andresponsibilities related to some aspect of theorganization. It will make a study of the problemand present its suggestions to the departmentalheads.
1)Special courses The executives may be required to attendspecial courses which are formally organized bythe enterprise with the help of experts fromprofessional institutions. It may be noted that only the big organizationscan send their executive to the managementdevelopment courses run by the managementinstitutes because the fee of these courses isvery high
A conference is a group meeting conductedaccording to an organized plan in which themembers seek to develop knowledge andunderstanding by obtaining a considerableparticipation It is an effective training device for persons inthe positions of both conference member andconference leader.
Is a technique used for human relations andleadership training. Its purpose is to givetrainees an opportunity to learn humanrelations skills through practice and to developinsight into one’s own behavior and its effectupon others.
A written problem or case is presented to a groupof trainees for analyze and solution or decisionmaking. Group members study the problem, then offer theirsolutions. Because of group participation groupmembers are able to get immediate reactions totheir ideas, as well as react to the ideas of others. Although groups are often led by a teacher ortrainer group session can be so informal that theyget off the track.
A comprehensiveapproach tomanaging effectiveperformancePerformanceManagementProcess(PMP)
1. Continuous Process of Identifying Measuring DevelopingThe performance of individuals and teamsand2. Aligning performance with Strategic Goals of theorganization .Performance Management
Performance Management◦ Strategic business considerations◦ Driven by line manager◦ Ongoing feedback So employee can improve performance
Performance Appraisal◦ Driven by HR◦ Assesses employee Strengths & Weaknesses◦ Once a year◦ Lacks ongoing feedback
Clarify definitions ofjobsuccess criteria Increase motivation to perform Increase self-esteem Enhance self-insight and development
Communicate supervisors views ofperformance more clearly. Managers gain insight about subordinates. Better and more timely differentiationbetween good and poor performers. Employees become more competent.
Clarify organizational goals . Facilitate organizational change. Fairer, more appropriate administrativeactions. Better protection from lawsuits.
Lowered self-esteem Employee burnout and job dissatisfaction Damaged relationships Use of false or misleading information
Increased turnover Decreased motivation to perform Unjustified demands on managers’resources Varying and unfair standards and ratings
Wasted time and money Unclear ratings system Emerging biases Increased risk of litigation
According to Newstrom, “It is the process of evaluatingthe performance of employees, sharing that informationwith them and searching for ways to improve theirperformance’’.
To fix the best salary For promotion, demotion, transfers etc To collect data To review the company policies & procedures To create & maintain a satisfactory level performanceamong employees To create clarification between superiors andsubordinates
1. Paired comparison2. Graphic Rating scales3. Forced choice Descriptionmethod4. Forced Distribution Method5. Checks lists6. Free essay method7. Critical Incidents8. Group Appraisal9. Field Review Method10.Confidential Report11.Ranking1. Assessment Center2. Appraisal by Results orManagement byObjectives3. Human AssetAccounting4. Behaviorally AnchoredRating scalesTraditional Methods Modern Methods
Career planning is the process by which one fixes careergoals and lays down the path of these goals. Its purpose isto provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life.From the organization point of view ,career planningmeans helping the employees to plan their careers in termsof their capacities within the context of organization’sneed. Career planning is not an event or an end initself, but a process of development of human resources.
To attract competent persons and to retain them in theorganization To provide suitable promotional opportunities to thepresent work force. To enable employees to develop and make them ready tomeet the future challenges. To correct mistake in employee placement. To improve motivation and morale of employees. To reduce employees dissatisfaction and turnover.
Preparation of human resources inventoryIdentifying individual career needsAnalyzing career opportunitiesMatching employees need with career opportunitiesFormulation and implementation of training and developmentReview of career plan
Helps the individuals have the knowledge of various careeropportunities ,his priorities,etc. It helps him select the career which is suitable to his lifestyle,preference,family environment, scope for selfdevelopment etc. It helps the organisation identify talented employees whocan be promoted Internal promotion,upgradation and transfer motivates theemployees ,boost up their morale and also result inincreased job satisfaction
It improve employees performance on the job by tappingtheir potential abilities and stimulating their personalgrowth. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitmentand creates a sense of belongingness and loyalty to theorganization. Each employees will await his turn of promotion ratherthan changing to another organization. This would loweremployee turnover.
It can become a reality only when opportunities for verticalmobility are available. It is not suitable for smallorganizations. Systematic career planning might become difficult due tofavoritism and nepotism in promotions,political interventionsin appointments etc. Some career do not have score for much advancement.Employee cannot get promotions despite their career plansdevelopment in such jobs.