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Page 185 At a minimum, new employees usually receive either printed or Internet-based employee handbooks. These explain things like working hours, performance reviews, getting on the payroll, and vacations. Under certain conditions, the courts may find that your employee handbook’s contents represent legally binding Don’t underestimate orientation’s importance. Without basic information on things like rules and policies, new employees may make time-consuming or even dangerous errors. Their performance—and the firm’s—will suffer. Furthermore, orientation is not just about rules. It’s also about making the new person feel welcome and at home and part of the team, all potentially important if you want him or her to be productive. A successful orientation should accomplish four main things: The new employee should feel welcome and at ease; he or she should understand the organization in a broad sense (its past, present, culture, and vision of the future), as well as key facts such as policies and procedures; the employee should be clear about what is expected in terms or work and behavior; and the person should have begun the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s ways of acting and doing things.
Page 197 Many firms opt for prepackaged training programs. A sampling helps illustrate the wide range of programs available, as well as what global training programs actually involve. Executive Etiquette for Global Transactions: The program prepares managers for conducting business globally by training them in business etiquette in other cultures. Cross-Cultural Technology Transfer: This program shows how cultural values affect perceptions of technology and technical learnings. International Protocol and Presentation: This program shows the correct way to handle people with tact and diplomacy in countries around the world. Business Basics for the Foreign Executive: This program covers negotiating cross-culturally, working with U.S. clients, making presentations, writing for U.S. business, and using the phone in the United States. Language training: Language training delivered by certified instructors, usually determined by the learner’s needs rather than by the requirements of a predetermined curriculum or textbook.
Page 202 Diversity Training With an increasingly diverse workforce, more firms are implementing diversity training programs. As an HR officer for one firm put it, “We’re trying to create a better sensitivity among our supervisors about the issues and challenges women and minorities face in pursuing their careers.”96 Diversity training aims to create better cross-cultural sensitivity, with the aim of fostering more harmonious working relationships among a firm’s employees. Results include: improving interpersonal skills; understanding and valuing cultural differences; improving technical skills; socializing employees into the corporate culture; reducing stress; indoctrinating new workers into the U.S. work ethic; mentoring; improving English proficiency; improving basic math skills; and improving bilingual skills for English-speaking employees.
Page 204 General management development process consists of assessing the company’s strategic needs appraising the managers’ performance developing the managers
Page 205 Job Rotation Job rotation means moving management trainees from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business and to test their abilities. The trainee—often a recent college graduate—may spend several months in each department. The person may just be an observer in each department, but more commonly gets fully involved in its operations. Coaching/Understudy Approach Here the trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the trainee’s coaching. Normally, the understudy relieves the executive of certain responsibilities, giving the trainee a chance to learn the job. Action Learning Action learning programs give managers and others released time to work full time on projects, analyzing an solving problems in departments other than their own.116 Trainees meet periodically in four- or five-person project groups to discuss their findings. Several trainees may work together as a project group, or compare notes and discuss each other’s projects.
Page 206 The Case Study Method As most everyone knows, the case study method presents a trainee with a written description of an organizational problem. The person then analyzes the case, diagnoses the problem, and presents his or her findings and solutions in a discussion with other trainees. Management Games With computerized or CD-ROM-basedmanagement games, trainees are divided into five- or six-person groups, each of which competes with the others in a simulated marketplace. Each group typically must decide, for example, (1) how much to spend on advertising, (2) how much to produce, (3) how much inventory to maintain, and (4) how many of which product to produce. Usually the game itself compresses a two- or three-year period into days, weeks, or months. Outside Seminars Many companies and universities offer Web-based and traditional management development seminars and conferences. University-Related Programs Many universities provide executive education and continuing education programs in leadership, supervision, and the like. These also range from 1- to 4-day programs to executive development programs lasting one to four months. An increasing number of these are offered online. Role Playing The aim of role playing is to create a realistic situation and then have the trainees assume the parts (or roles ) of specific persons in that situation. Behavior Modeling Behavior modeling involves (1) showing trainees the right (or “model”) way of doing something, (2) letting trainees practice that way, and then (3) giving feedback on the trainees’ performance. In-house development centers needn’t produce all (or most) of their own training and development programs. In fact, employers are increasingly collaborating with academic institutions, training and development program providers, and Web-based educational portals to create packages of programs and materials appropriate to their employees’ needs.
Types Of Trainig1
TYPES OF TRA I N I NG IN ORGANIZATIONS J.MICHAEL SAMMANASU JIM
TRA I N I NG <ul><li>Training is typically part of the Human Resource Development . </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Human Resource department is to improve the organization’s effectiveness by providing employees with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will improve their current or future job performance. </li></ul>
TRAINING <ul><ul><ul><li>Training is an “opportunity” for learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Described as” providing the conditions in which people can learn effectively”. To learn is “ to gain knowledge, skill and ability” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training cause learning, as a result of learning development occurs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
Objectives of Training <ul><li>Training activities and businesses objectives are related each other as links. With the effective training program, organization easily catches their objectives. Training activities has some general objectives. They are; </li></ul><ul><li>Orienting new employee to the organization and their job </li></ul><ul><li>Helping employees perform their current jobs well </li></ul><ul><li>Helping employees qualify for the future jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping employees informed </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for personal development </li></ul>
Effective training produces many benefits for both employees and organization overall. <ul><li>For the employees training creates; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater job satisfaction and morale among employees: employees take more satisfaction in a job when they know how to do it well. If they are not sure what to do or how to do it properly, they can become frustrated and dissatisfied with their work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved self-esteem: the combination of job satisfaction and peer acceptance leads to improved self-esteem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to advance in the organization: employees who demonstrate excellent performance at one level in an organization often have the opportunity to advance to other levels of responsibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased employee motivation </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>For the organization, training causes; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased productivity: employees who know how to perform their jobs are more effective and more productive than those who learn through error and trial are. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher levels of customer satisfaction: employees are able to take care of customers properly and have better skills for solving customer-related problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality: standards are met when people know what the organization expects from them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased innovation in strategies and products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced employee turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced company image </li></ul></ul>
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS <ul><li>WHY conducting training need analysis ? </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the chances that the time and money spent on training would be spent wisely </li></ul><ul><li>Determines the benchmark for evaluation of training </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the motivation of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an essential component in the implementation of the strategic plan </li></ul><ul><li>Allows trainer to present logical explanation, at the start of training about what is not happening now( but should be) on the job, and how the training will be useful </li></ul><ul><li>For most types of training, need analysis will increase the relevance effectiveness of training. </li></ul>
Methods of Conducting Need Analysis <ul><li>Advisory Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Job Description and Job Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Work Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisals: </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Exit Interviews: </li></ul>
TRAINING METHODS TRAINING COGNITIVE METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING
Cognitive Methods <ul><li>Cognitive methods provide verbal or written information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, or provide the rules for how to do something. These stimulate learning through their impact on cognitive processes and are associated most closely with changes in knowledge and attitudes. These types of methods can also be called as off-the-job training methods. </li></ul>
Behavioral Methods <ul><li>Behavioral methods allow trainee to practice behaviour in real or simulated fashion. They stimulate learning through behaviour an are best for skill development and attitude change. These methods can be called as on-the-job training methods. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thus either behavioural or cognitive learning methods can effectively be used to change attitudes, though they do so through different means. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive methods are best for knowledge development and behavioural methods for skill development . The decision about what approach to take to training depend on several factors that include </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of funding available for training, </li></ul><ul><li>specificity and complexity of the knowledge and skills needed, </li></ul><ul><li>timeliness of training needed, and the capacity and </li></ul><ul><li>motivation of the learner. </li></ul>
To be effective, training method should <ul><li>Motivate the trainee to improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for active participation by the trainee </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage positive transfer from training to job </li></ul><ul><li>Provide timely feedback on the trainee’s performance </li></ul><ul><li>Be structured from simple to specific problems </li></ul>
Orientation <ul><li>Orientation is the formal introduction of the new employees to the organization and to the job. Orientation answers “what” questions new employees have on the first day of the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation is a specific type of training which is given to the new employee </li></ul>
Why Orientation Is Important <ul><li>Orientation explains basics – often provided in an employee handbook </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and policies are often discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Makes new employee feel at ease </li></ul><ul><li>Describes the organization – the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Defines expected work behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Socializes new employee in company’s ways </li></ul>
COGNITIVE METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS <ul><li>The Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Based Training </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibule Training: Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Business Games </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul>
The Lecture <ul><li>The lecture is best used to create a general understanding of a topic or to influence attitudes through education about a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>T he most common form of off-the-job training is the oral presentation of information to an audience </li></ul>
Computer Based Training <ul><li>Computer based training can be defined as that any training that occurs through the use of computer. </li></ul><ul><li>E- Learning new ways of delivering training programs are constantly being developed in the attempts to match the high speed at which businesses are moving. One of the new methods of delivering training programs is with online . </li></ul>
Vestibule Training : Simulation <ul><li>Vestibule Training involves the virtual duplication of work environment in an off-site setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation exercises place the trainee in an artificial environment that closely imitates actual working conditions where the trainer demonstrates on the same kind of machine and using the same procedures that trainees will use on the job. </li></ul>
Business Games <ul><li>B usiness games are another form of simulations that attempt to indicate the way in an industry, company, or subunit of company functions. Generally, they are based on a set of relationships, rules, and principles derived from the theory or research. </li></ul><ul><li>In this type of training, participants learn how to deal with a variety of issues in a simulated business environment. Trainees are provided with information describing a situation and are asked to make decisions about what to do. (e.g., develop leadership skills , strengthen executive and upper management skills ) </li></ul>
Case Studies <ul><li>D etail s of series of events, either real or hypothetical, which take place in a business environment. </li></ul><ul><li>When this method of training used, participants asked to sort through data provided in the case to identify the principal issues and then propose solutions to these issues </li></ul>
Role Playing <ul><li>The purpose of this method is to give participants a chance to experience such situations in a controlled setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees are provided with a description of the context usually a topic area, a general description of a situation, a description of their roles, and the problem they each face. </li></ul>
Each of the formats has particular types of skills for, which is most appropriate. <ul><li>Vestibule training obviously is best at teaching people how to work with equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Business games are best for developing business decision-making skills and for exploring and solving complex problems </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies are most appropriate for developing analytic skills, higher-level principles, and complex problem-solving strategies.its focus is more on the “what to do”(strategic knowledge) than on the “how to get it done”(skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Role plays provide a good vehicle for developing interpersonal skills and personal insight, allowing trainees to practice interacting with others and receiving feedback </li></ul>
BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING <ul><li>On-the-job training places employees in actual work situation and makes them immediately productive. </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job training involve learning by doing, relies on demonstration and coaching. </li></ul><ul><li>This form helps particularly to develop the occupational skills necessary to manage an organization, to fully understand the organization’s products and services and how they are developed and carried out. </li></ul>
BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING <ul><li>Job Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship Training </li></ul><ul><li>I nternship </li></ul>
Job Rotation <ul><li>Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent job rotation program can decrease the training cost while also increasing the impact of training, because job rotation is a hands on experience. Make individuals more self-motivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to communicate effectively and better understanding of strategic issues. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the possible problems with the rotation programs will be the cost, because job rotation increase amount of management time to spent on lower level employees. </li></ul>
Coaching <ul><li>Coaching is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge, skills and work performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development, and often includes working one-on-one with the learner to conduct a needs assessment, set major goals to accomplish, develop an action plan, and support the learner to accomplish the plan. </li></ul>
Apprenticeship Training <ul><li>Apprenticeship is another form of on-the-job training, is one of the oldest forms of training. Apprenticeship are designed to provide planned, practical instruction over a significant time span. Apprenticeship were the major approach to learning a craft. </li></ul>
Internship <ul><li>Internship are opportunities for students to get real world experience, often during summer vacations as a part of fulfilling requirements for degree programs. Internship are offered usually by organization to college students wanting to find work experience. The internship offer precious, real life job experience and the organization often get skilled, highly dedicated service. </li></ul>
<ul><li>On-the-job training is clearly useful method for skill development, since trainees implementing their knowledge in the actual job conditions. Transfer of training naturally occurs. Because employees getting on-the-job training are actually working, not being trained in classroom, it has clear cost advantages, if it is done effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity will be lower during the training, because neither the trainee nor the trainer will be producing full capacity. But it is real that on-the-job training method is really cost effective method over simulations, games and computer based training modules. </li></ul>
Training For Special Purposes <ul><li>Global business training samples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive etiquette for global transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural technology transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International protocol and presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business basics for the foreign executive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language training </li></ul>
Training For Special Purposes <ul><li>Diversity training </li></ul><ul><li>Better cross-cultural sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Results examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving technical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul></ul>
Lifelong Learning <ul><li>Lifelong learning provides continuing training from basic remedial skills to advanced decision-making techniques throughout an employee’s career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New & old skills alike are learned & updated continuously </li></ul></ul>
Managerial Development <ul><li>Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills with an aim to enhance the future performance of the company itself </li></ul>
Managerial On-the-job Training <ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching/understudy approach </li></ul>
Managerial Off-the-job Training <ul><li>The case study method </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars </li></ul><ul><li>University programs </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>In house development </li></ul>