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  1. 1. Human Resource Management(Term Paper)[TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT]Including a study of the training & developmentpractices at InfosysSubmitted by:SaumyaChughBBS 2CRoll number 8115
  2. 2. Table of ContentsAcknowledgment 2Introduction 4Objectives of Training & Development 5Training & Development as a source of competitiveadvantage 6Orienting Employees 7Training 8Methods of Training (and development) 9Training Process 10Management Development 19Infosys 21Bibliography 271|Page
  3. 3. Acknowledgment I owe thanks to Ms.Neha and also extend my sincere gratitude for the excellent guidance and support provided by her in helping me to accomplish my project successfully. The classroom teachings provided by her were extremely beneficial and guided me on how to go about this project.2|Page
  4. 4. There is nothing training cannot do; Nothing is above its reach; It can turn bad morals to good, it can destroy bad principlesand recreate good ones; it can lift men to angelship. -Mark Twain3|Page
  5. 5. IntroductionIn the field of human resource management, Training and Development is the fieldconcerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individualsand groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, includingemployee development, human resource development, and learning and development.Training and development encompasses three main activities: Training, Education, andDevelopment.Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individualcurrently holds.Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in thefuture, and is evaluated against those jobs.Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing theindividual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almostimpossible to evaluate.The principal objective of training and development division is to ensure the availability of askilled and willing workforce to an organization.Training and Development is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness isreduced and learning or behavioural change takes place in structured format.Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performancedeficiencies; making employees stay long; minimized accidents, scraps and damage; andmeeting future employee needs.4|Page
  6. 6. Objectives of Training&DevelopmentThe fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by addingvalue to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people toenable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their naturalabilities. The particular objectives of training are to: o Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance o Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within o Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible.“Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember,involveme and I learn”- Benjamin Franklin5|Page
  7. 7. Training & Development as a Source of Competitive AdvantageCompanies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training anddevelopment programshelp remove performance deficiencies in employee.This is particularly true when: -The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. - The individuals involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. -Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviours. Employees become efficient after undergoing training Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization Growth renders stability to the workforce Lower turnover (trained employees tend to stay with the organization).Training makes the employees versatile in operations. All rounders can be transferred to anyjob. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Growth indicates prosperity, which is reflected inincreased profits from year to year.Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimizedthrough training. Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, and turnover can bereduced if employees are trained well.Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programs.Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or managementtrainees. They are absorbed after course completion. Training serves as an effective sourceof recruitment. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future.A companys training and development pays dividends to the employee and theorganization. Though no single training program yields all the benefits, the organizationwhich devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities andstrengthens its competitive edge. At the same time, the employees personal and careergoals are furthered, generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer.Ultimately, the objectives of the HR department are also furthered.6|Page
  8. 8. I. Orienting EmployeesCareful selection doesn’t guarantee that employees will perform effectively. Potential is onething, performance is another. Even high potential employees cannot do their jobseffectively if they do not know what to do or how to do it. Thus the process of trainingbegins with Orientation.PurposeEmployee orientation provides new employees with the basic background information theyneed to work in your company, such as information regarding company rules and practises.The Orientation should aim to accomplish the following:- The new employee should feel welcome/ at ease.- She/ he should understand the organisation in a broad sense.- Knowledge regarding the company’s policies and procedures-Clear about work and behaviour expectations.Orientation ProgramsTypically, orientation programs include the following:-Information regarding company history; its goals, missions and objectives.- Range of products and services offered by the firm, various production techniques andwork standards etc.-Company’s Organisation: It’s structure, hierarchy, flow of authority and accountability,roles of various departments.-Physical location of the various departments i.e the layout of the organisation.-Personnel Policies; information regarding programs for training and development,recruitment, selection, compensation etc.-Recreational/ alternative activities for employees-Rules and Regulations; Code of Conduct and Ethics-Safety regulations-Standing Orders-Counselling servicesNew employees should receive employee handbooks.7|Page
  9. 9. Employee Handbooksstate the policies and rules of the organisation. It helps the newemployees become familiar with the organisational dos and don’ts. Its content alsorepresents legally binding employee commitments. Therefore, employers often includedisclaimers. II. TrainingThe term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a resultof the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific usefulcompetencies. Training is a hallmark of good management and task managers often ignoreat their peril.The benefits of training can be summed up as: 1. Improves morale of employees Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction. The more satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to organizational success and the lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover. 2. Less supervision A well trained employee will be well acquainted with the job and will need less of supervision. Thus, there will be less wastage of time and efforts. 3. Fewer accidents Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required for doing a particular job. The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing accidents in job and the more proficient the employee becomes. 4. Chances of promotion Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training. They become more eligible for promotion. They become an asset for the organization. 5. Increased productivity Training improves efficiency and productivity of employees. Well trained employees show both quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are properly trained.8|Page
  10. 10. Methods of Training (and development)Training is generally imparted in two ways: 1. On the job training On the job training methods are those which are given to the employees within the everyday working of a concern. It is a simple and cost-effective training method. The employees can be well trained by using such training method. The employees are trained in actual working scenario. The motto of such training is “learning by doing.” Instances of such on-job training methods are job-rotation, coaching, temporary promotions, etc. 2. Off the job training Off the job training methods are those in which training is provided away from the actual working condition. It is generally used in case of new employees. Instances of off the job training methods are workshops, seminars, conferences, etc. Such method is costly and is effective if and only if large number of employees have to be trained within a short time period. Off the job training is also called as vestibule training, i.e. the employees are trained in a separate area( may be a hall, entrance, reception area etc. known as a vestibule) where the actual working conditions are duplicated.9|Page
  11. 11. On the Off the Job Job Vestibule Orientation Lecture training Special study Job-instruction Films training Television Apprentice Conference or training discussion Internships Case study and Role playing assistantships Simulation Job rotation Programmed Coaching instruction Laboratory training Training ProcessOrganizational objectivesAssessment of Training needsEstablishment of Training goalsDevising training programImplementation of training programEvaluation of results10 | P a g e
  12. 12. I.Organizational Objectives and StrategiesThe first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectivesand strategies. What business are we in right now? At what level of quality do we wish toprovide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only afteranswering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths andweaknesses of its human resources.II.Needs AssessmentNeeds assessment diagnosis presents problems and future challenges to be met throughtraining and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentageon turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources,organizations that implement training programs without conducting needs assessment maybe making errors.Needs assessment occurs at two levels- group and individual. An individual obviously needstraining when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there isperformance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill orknowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency caused byabsence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor jobdesign, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem.Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee.Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. It is necessary that theemployee be trained to acquire new skills. This will help him/her to progress in his or hercareer path. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle morechallenging tasks.Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers.Although job transfers are common as organizational personnel demands vary they do notnecessarily require elaborate training efforts. Employees commonlyrequire only anorientation to new facilities and jobs. Jobs have disappeared astechnology, foreigncompetition, and the forces of supply and demand arechanging the face of our industry.Benefits of need assessment: Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the traininggroup and the organizations. The organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programs. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs course inputs closer to11 | P a g e
  13. 13. the specific needs of the participants.III.Training and Development objectivesOnce training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established.Without clearly set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development programand, after it has been implemented there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness.Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable. This is easy where skills’ training isinvolved. Behavioural standards of expected results are necessary so that the program canbe effectively designed and results can be evaluated accordingly.IV. Designing Training and Development ProgramEvery training and development program must address certain vital issues: Who participates in the program? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques are to be used for training? What should be the level of training? What learning principles are needed? Where is the program conducted?Who are the trainers: Trainers should be selected on the basis of self-nomination,recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever is the basis, it isadvisable to have two or more target audience. For example, rank-and- file employees andtheir supervisors or by the HR department itself.Several people, including the following may conduct training and DevelopmentPrograms :1. Immediate supervisors2. Co-workers, as in buddy systems3. Members of the personnel staff4. Specialists in other parts of the company5. Outside consultants6. Industry associations and faculty members at universitiesV. Training MethodsA multitude of methods of training is used to train employees. Training methods arecategorized into two groups: on the job training and off-the job methods, as mentionedearlier.Let us now study each in detail.12 | P a g e
  14. 14. On the job trainingTraining that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal workstationof the trainee- although some instruction may be provided in a special training area on site -and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague spends significant time with atrainee to teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance.Advantages1. Tailor-made course content with use of REAL companysituations/examples.2. It is usually less expensive than off-job training.3. Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used.4. Trainees acclimatise more rapidly.Disadvantages1. Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time.2. Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices.3. A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may beproduced.4. Valuable equipment may be damaged.5. Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful,i.e. noisy, busy,confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers.Orientation Training:New employee orientation effectively integrates the new employee into your organization andassists with retention, motivation, job satisfaction, and quickly enabling each individual to becomecontributing members of the work team.Job instruction training:It is also called on the job training. It consists of 4 steps:-Prepare the learner-Demonstrate the task-Have the worker do the task-Follow through: Put the worker on the job, correcting and supporting as and whennecessary.Apprenticeship:A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination ofclassroom instruction and on the job training. The apprentice usually studies under thetutelage of the professional/ expert.13 | P a g e
  15. 15. Internships:Internship is a system of on-the-job training for white-collar jobs, similar to anapprenticeship. Interns are usually college or university students, but they can also be highschool students or post graduate adults seeking skills for a new career; they may also be asyoung as middle school students in some areas. Student internships provide opportunitiesfor students to gain experience in their field, determine if they have an interest in aparticular career, create a network of contacts, or gain school credit. Internships provideemployers with cheap or free labor for (typically) low-level tasks. Some interns findpermanent, paid employment with the companies in which they interned. Their value to thecompany may be increased by the fact that they need little to no training.Job rotation:It is a technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs in a plannedmanner. The objective is to expose the employees to different experiences and widervariety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and to cross-train them.Coaching:It is the practice of giving sufficient direction, instruction and training to a person or a grouppeople, so as to achieve some goals or even in developing specific skills. Though coaching isa system of providing training, the method of coaching differs from person to person, aim orgoals to be attained, and the areas needed. Still there are some common methods incoaching. Motivational speaking Seminars Workshops Supervised practiceOff the job trainingAdvantages 1. A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training. 2. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available. 3. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages. 4. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life. 5. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it ismore self-contained. 6. Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies.14 | P a g e
  16. 16. Disadvantages 1. Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment. 2. No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships. 3. Can be more expensive. * Everyone involved in the training should be informed well in advance of the training sessions. It is equally important that the persons delivering the training – whether in-job or off-job training - are well versed in what has to be achieved and the most suitable techniques to adopt.Vestibule Training:This training method attempts to duplicate on-the-job-situation in a company classroom.It is a classroom training that is oftenimparted with the help of the equipment and machines, which are identicalwith those in use in the place of work.This technique enables the traineesto concentrate on learning new skill rather than on performing on actualjob. This type of training is efficient to train semi-skilled personnel,particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind ofwork at the same time.Often used to train – bank tellers, inspectors,machine operators, typists etc.In this, training is generally given in theform of lectures, conferences, case studies, role-play etc.Demonstrations & Example:In this type of training method trainerdescribes and displays something, as & when he teaches an employee,how to do something by actually performing the activity himself & goingon explaining why & what he is doing. This method is very effective inteaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job thantell him or give him instruction about a particular job.This training isdone by combination with lectures, pictures, text materials etc. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructorto a large audience. The lecture is presumed to possess a considerabledepth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is thatis can be used for very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low.This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though itsapplication is restricted in training factory employees. Limitations of thelecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates theprinciple of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication. There is no feedback from the audience. Continued lecturing method can be made effective it if is combined with other methods of training. 15 | P a g e
  17. 17. Audio-visuals:Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, video- types and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training groups. But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience.Programmed Instruction (PI):This is method where training is offer without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine. PI involves: -Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner - Allowing the person to respond. - Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): This is an extension of the PI method. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee’s progress and needs. CAI training program can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. This training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, thus get training when they prefer. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. Simulations present likely problem situations and decision alternatives to the trainee. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study, role-playing and vestibule training.Conference: In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. It is a basic to most participative group centered methods of developments. This 16 | P a g e
  18. 18. emphasis on small group discussion, on organized subject matter and on the active participation of the members involved.Case Studies:This method is developed in 1800S At the Harvard LawSchool. The case study is based upon the belief that managerialcompetence can best be attained through the study, contemplation anddiscussion of concrete cases.When the trainees are given cases toanalyse, they are asked to identify the problem and recommend tentativesolution for it.The case study is primarily useful as a training techniquefor supervisors and is specially valuable as a technique of developingdiscussion-making skills, and for broadening the prospective of thetrainee. In case study method the trainee is expected to master the facts, shouldacquainted with the content of the case, define the objective sought indealing with the issues in the case, identify the problem, developalternative courses of action, define the controls needed to make the actioneffective and role play the action to test its effectiveness and findconditions that may limit it.Role Playing:In role-playing trainees act out the given role as they wouldbe in stage play.Two or more trainees are assigned parts to play beforethe nest of the class.Here role players are informed of a situation and ofthe respective roles they have to pay.Sometimes after the preliminaryplanning, the situation is acted out by the role players. This methodprimarily involves employee-employer relationship – Hiring, firing,VI. Evaluation Formal evaluation: uses observation, interviews, and surveys to monitor training while its going on.Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways: Reaction Knowledge Behavior AttitudesProductivity Reaction – of trainees, to the training program.Their opinions and feedback. Knowledge- Once the trainees are put back into the organisation they must be able to put their new skills to use effectively. Behaviour & Attitudes- The employees behaviour at the work place, job performance, efficiency level. 17 | P a g e
  19. 19. Productivity- Measures the employees performance and productivity in terms of the job.This is an effective measure to determine the effectiveness of training programs.18 | P a g e
  20. 20. Management DevelopmentManagement Development is described as the process from which potential managers learnand improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employingorganizations. The effectiveness of management is recognised as one of the determinants oforganisational success. Therefore, investment in management development can have adirect economic benefit to the organization. Executives are exposed to learningopportunities whilst doing their jobs, if this informal learning is used as a formal processthen it is regarded as management development. Managing includes activities of planning,organizing, leading and coordinating resources. A critical skill for anyone is the ability tomanage their own learning. The highly motivated, self-directed reader can gain a great dealof learning and other results from using the guidelines and materials in this library topic.Methods for management development:On the JobCoaching/Understudy: The trainee works directly with a senior manager who is responsiblefor the trainees coaching. The trainee directly gets a chance to learn the job and receiveconstant feedback and guidance.Job Rotation: Management trainees are moved from department to department to broadentheir understanding of the various parts of the business and to test their abilities. It givesthem a chance to develop wholly and determine their strengths and preferences and workon their weaknesses.Multiple Management:An artificial board of directors is created which allows themanagement trainees to work on their skills and enable them to learn how to deal withissues which managers may be expected to resolve.Committee Management: Involve executives in various projects and assignments within theorganisation to aid their decision making and problem solving skills and prepare them formanagerial tasks.Off the JobSensitivity Training:Is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably,which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioural flexibility. It requires traineesto unlearn old values and learn new ones. It aids in development of new thought and ideas. In thismethod, the trainer initiates the discussion in the unstructured group but does not assume aleadership role, instead assumes a rather passive role throughout. This method of training is alsoknown as ‘T- group’ training.Case Studies and Management Games are put to use under this training.19 | P a g e
  21. 21. Management Games: Managers compete by providing input and making decisionsregarding realistic but simulated situations. They help trainees develop problem solvingskills, leadership and team work.Role Playing: Trainees are required to assume varied roles and act out parts in a realisticmanagement situation. The aim is to develop trainees’ skills in the areas of leadership anddelegating.Special Courses/ Seminars: These are also organised to widen the trainees’ knowledge pooland increase their proficiencies in various management related fields. Special courses suchas Executive MBA’s can be undertaken by the trainees to gain more in depth knowledge anddevelop strategic, conceptual and leadership skills that are essential for all managers.Succession Planning It is a process through which senior level openings are planned for and eventually filled.Succession planning helps you develop multiple succession scenarios for any position withinyour organization. Easily develop succession plans that develop talent for future roles andmap development paths years in advance before the talent gap occurs. Also measureemployee retention risks and design development plans to challenge and promote yourtalent. The various programs undertaken for management development help identify andscreen potential managers and determine the suitability of each at various posts in theorganisation. Thus management development and succession planning can be viewed astwo inter related concepts. Succession planning increases the availability of experienced andcapable employees that are prepared to assume these roles as they become available.Clear objectives are critical to establishing effective succession planning. Identify those with the potential to assume greater responsibility in the organization. Provide critical development experiences to those that can move into key roles. (Management Development Programs) Engage the leadership in supporting the development of high-potential leaders. Build a database that can be used to make better staffing decisions for key jobs. Organisational Charts- Charts that not only reflect the current hierarchy of your organization (or specific business units), but also allow for modelling potential changes within the hierarchy. They help to understand the impact of personnel changes.20 | P a g e
  22. 22. InfosysInfosys Technologies Ltd. was started in 1981 by seven people with US$ 250. Today, it is aglobal leader in the "next generation" of IT and consulting with revenues of US$ 5.7 billion.Infosys defines,designs and delivers technology-enabled business solutions for Global 2000companies. Infosys also provides a complete range of services by leveraging our domain andbusiness expertise and strategic alliances with leading technology providers.Need assessmentAs explained earlier, the training process beings with an assessment of needs of the organisation soappropriate training can be imparted to the employees to increase efficiency and meet therequirements. The following is the analysis of needs at Infosys:Training Needs Analysis :There are three types of training need analysis done in Infosys: Organizational need analysis,Job need analysis, Person need analysis.Organizational Needs Analysis :This includes definition of Infosyss Short Term and Long Term Goals and objectives,analysis of the Human Resource requirements and availabilities and an assessment ofefficiency Indices.Job Needs Analysis :The specific content of present or anticipated jobs is examined through job analysis. Forexisting jobs, Information on the tasks to be performed (contained in job descriptions), theskills necessary to perform those tasks (drawn from job qualifications), the minimumacceptable standards (obtained from performance appraisals) are gathered. Thisinformation can then be used to ensure that training programs are job specific and useful.Person Needs Analysis :Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. The broader approachcompares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance.Based on the actual, current job performance of an employee; therefore, it can be used to21 | P a g e
  23. 23. determine training needs for the current job. The narrower approach compares anevaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiencylevel required for each skill. This helps to identify development needs for future jobs.A framework for continuous learning at Infosys is built around a number of focusedprograms for their employees. These range from major initiatives such as the InfosysLeadership Institute to various ongoing management development and personalimprovement programs. They complement a host of technology advancement and ongoingtraining options. The training plan provides a sequence of inputs as individuals grow throughtheir professional career. Commencing with a structured induction at the beginningtoleadership trainings while assuming senior responsibilities. Training and developmentinitiatives are available at each milestone and cover the following- Technical training by Education & Research department: Entry-level technical training program, which is for a duration of 14 weeks. This program has been certified by educationists as being equivalent to a BS program in the US. The Education & Research (E&R) department at Infosys offers a variety of training programs on a regular basis for Middle level employees as well. Quality Process Training: Infosys has a strong focus on quality processes and methodologies. This training is tailored to the role that one is playing ie. Software Engineer, Programr Analyst, Project Managers etc Personal Effectiveness and Managerial Programs: Programs to enhance the managerial capabilities and leadership abilities, to enable better customer satisfaction, achieve organizational vision and create high performing multicultural teams. ILI: The Infosys Leadership System: The Infosys Leadership System (ILS) and the Infosys Leadership Institute (ILI) address the issue of sustained growth in general and creates a formal and committed system for developing leadership capabilities in Infoscions. The most significant attribute of the Infosys leadership development model is its partnership approach with the other groups in Infosys and the ownership of the entire process by the top management in what is termed as the ‘Internal Synergy Model’. ILI is based at a world-class physical infrastructure, in Mysore, India. So how does Infosys groom its future leaders? The process is long-drawn, meticulous, and in consonance with the companys stated vision: To be a globally22 | P a g e
  24. 24. respected corporation that provides best-of-breed business solutions, leveraging technology, delivered by best-in-class people. This is where the Infosys Leadership Institute at the companys Mysore campus comes into the picture. The 162,000 square feet structure, built at the cost of Rs 41.1 crore (Rs 411 million), is where the next generation of Infosys leaders is being primed. Infosys also encourages employees to go in for further part time and distance education programs with fee reimbursement subject to eligibility criteria laid down by the policy.There is a three-tier mentoring process at InfosysTier-1 of the Infosys Management Council, which consists of the companys board ofdirectors, mentors Tier-2 leaders who in turn guide the Tier-3 group.About 45 executives are a part of the companys Tier-1 of the management council. Andeach of the leaders undergoes exhaustive and sustained training through the companyspersonal development program -- PDP.Infosys training programs are designed to enable company professionals enhance their skillsets in tune with their respective roles.The management council is an advisory body that takes strategic decisions on thecompanys businesses and was set up by N R Narayana Murthy, with the idea of building anoutfit that is built to last and is ably geared to handle the uncertainties of a global market,the high and lows of business cycles, and to power the company towards strong growth inthe future.Encouragement from the top management plays a vital role and young Infoscions are urgedto give vent to their creative talent and come up with their ideas and plans.The faculty at the ILI has in a note spelt out the rationale behind the institute and chartedout the manner in which it operates.The ILI was set up in 2001 to prepare Infosys to manage its exceptional growth; to prepareits executives to handle the external and internal business environment; and throughthought leadership create better customer value.The leadership development program at Infosys takes after similar processes followed bymany global mega corps. It has been refined to suit the particular needs of Infosys and istermed as the nine pillars for leadership development in Infosys.23 | P a g e
  25. 25. These nine pillars form the backbone of the PDP and each leader can choose from thesepillars for personal development. Depending upon the individuals need to grow and thecompanys sensitivity to these needs, every (short-listed) individual is groomed to lead thecompany in the future.The chosen few -- 400 of the 58,409 employees -- identified as high potential Infoscionsundergo a three-year leadership journey that includes training, actionising personaldevelopment program, interacting with other participants, understanding the companybetter and resolving real business issues.The nine pillars for leadership development:1. 360 degree feedbackThis is the mechanism through which the company gathers data about an individualsperformance and abilities. This information is collected from coworkers, including peers,subordinates, managers and customers. Personal development plans are prepared on thebasis of this feedback. Then, each of these individuals is assigned an ILI faculty member tohelp prepare the PDP and to follow it.2. Development assignmentsIdentified high potential Infoscions are trained at various functions of the company throughjob rotations and cross-functional assignments. This helps employees to acquire newleadership skills outside their own areas of expertise and experience.3. Infosys Culture workshopsThese workshops are designed to fortify the Infosys culture amongst the participants, helpinstil better communication skills through sustained interaction amongst themselves, andidentify with the values and processes involved in leadership development.4. Development relationshipsThis includes one-on-one interaction in actual on-the-job work climate and leads to bettersharing of knowledge and camaraderie amongst individuals. Mentoring forms an integralpart of this exercise.5. Leadership skills trainingThe Leaders Teach Series are workshops that the companys Tier-1 members, includingNarayana Murthy and NandanNilekani (CEO and MD), hold to acclimatise the next rung withleadership roles and to groom them through their own rich experience.24 | P a g e
  26. 26. 6. Feedback intensive programsThese are akin to 360 degree feedback, but based on formal and informal feedback fromemployees that an individual interacts with.7. Systemic process learningThis helps individuals to gain an overall view of the company and its diverse and complexsystems, business, operations and processes. It is a continuous process and helps improvethe individual and also the systems.8. Action learningThis exercise constitutes solving real problems in real-time conditions, but as a team.9. Community empathyThe company stresses the need to give back to society through involvement in variousdevelopmental, educational and social causes. This program helps nurture a socialconscience amongst its leaders.25 | P a g e
  27. 27. ConclusionBasis Training DevelopmentDefinition Means imparting skills and knowledge Means the growth of an employee in all for doing a particular job. respectsSkills It imparts job specific skills. It shapes attitudes and imparts technical, human and conceptual skills.Purpose Is concerned with maintaining and Executive development seeks to improving current job performance. It develop competence and skills for has a short term perspective. future performance thus it has a long term perspective.Use It is used in the sense of impsrting It is associated with the overall growth specific skills among the operative of the executives. Depth of knowledge workers and employees. gained is very wide.Orientation Is job centred in nature. Is career centred in nature.Methods Is imparted through on the job methods It is based more on off the job training such as coaching, job rotation etc. methods such as lectures, conferences, seminars etc.Initiative The boss takes initiative for imparting The individual takes initiative himself knowledge and training to subordinates for his own growth and development. to enhance their productivity. 26 | P a g e
  28. 28. Bibliography Human resource management (eleventh edition) o Gary Dessler, BijuVarkkey www.infosys.com27 | P a g e