A project report on training and development in sahara india

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A project report on training and development in sahara india

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A project report on training and development in sahara india

  1. 1. SYNOPSIS OF THE REPORTTRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures thatrandomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structuredformat. It is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge toimprove the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. Therefore, training is a key tooptimizing utilization human intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skills.There are four phases of training in Sahara India-Training need analysis, Training design,Training implementation and Training evaluation. Training evaluation is the mostimportant part of training process which refers to activities aimed at finding out theeffectiveness of training programme after they are conducted, against the objective forwhich such programmes were organized. Training evaluation techniques give us solutionto answer questions like where was the capability level of learners before the programmeand where is it now, what was intended to be achieved by particular programme andwhere is really achieved now, and what is the monitory value of training outcome againstthe cost incurred for conducting the training programme. The key issues involve staffingpolicies selecting and retaining talented employee, training and development whilstencouraging employees to be innovative and creative, culture barriers, and legal framework. Sahara India Pariwar provides soft skill development training to their employees.But still they need to work on providing product/process development training. Toevaluate the training program, questionnaire is the most popular method in Sahara India.Training initiatives and programs have become a priority for Human Resources. Asbusiness markets change due to an increase in technology initiatives, companies need tospend more time and money on training employees. In today’s business climateemployee development is critical to corporate success and organizations are investingmore in their employees training and development needs. Page 1
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES OF STUDYThe main objective of the study is first to gain some practical knowledge regarding thefunctioning of MNC’s and other organizations which is very necessary to fullyunderstand the primary functions & hence it fulfill the purpose of the Summer Internshipunder MBA course.The other objectives were:1. To study the Importance of Training and Development.2. To study the roles of Training and development Programme.3. To study the process and functions of training.4. To explore the methodology and types of training provided to the employees in an organization.5. To study the purpose, process, principle, functions of the post training evaluation.6. To study the different types of methods/techniques used to evaluate the training.7. To study the level of evaluation.8. To study the relevance of the post training evaluation/feedback for the employee as well as for an organization.9. To know the challenges in training and development faced by an organization. Page 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER ITHEORETICAL PRESENTATION OF THE TOPICINTRODUCTION OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Page 3
  4. 4. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures thatrandomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structuredformat.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEFINEDIt is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge to improve theefficiency and effectiveness of organization. It is concerned with improving the existingskills and exploring the potential skills of the individual i.e. upgrading the employees’skills and extending their knowledge. Therefore, training is a key to optimizingutilization human intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skillsTraining and Development referred to as:• Acquisition and sharpening of employees capabilities that is required to performvarious obligations, tasks and functions.• Developing the employee’s capabilities so that they may be able to discover theirpotential and exploit them to full their own and organizational development purpose.• Developing an organizational culture where superior-subordinate relationship, teamwork, and collaboration among different sub units are strong and contribute toorganizational wealth, dynamism and pride to the employees.Development defined Page 4
  5. 5. It helps the individual handle future responsibilities, with less emphasis on present jobduties.Introduction of trainingIt is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills,concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance ofemployees.INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTAny training and development programme must contain inputs which enable theparticipants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look intothe distant future.Skills: Training is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operatemachines, and use other equipments with least damage and scrap. This is a basic skillwithout which the operator will not be able to function. Employees, particularlysupervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills.Education: The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop asense of reasoning and judgment.Development: It is less skill-oriented but stresses on knowledge. Knowledge aboutbusiness environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specificindustry analysis is useful for better management of a company.Ethics: There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training anddevelopment programme. Ethical attitude help managements make better decisions Page 5
  6. 6. which are in the interests of the public, the employees and in the long term-the companyitself.Attitudinal Changes: Attitude represents feelings and beliefs of individuals towardsothers. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudeneed to be converting into positive attitude. Attitude must be changed so that employeesfeel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derivesatisfaction from their jobs and the work environment.Decision making and problem solving skills: It focus on methods and techniquesfor making organization decision-making and solving work related problems.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVESThe principal objective of training and development division is to make sure theavailability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that,there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.Individual objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which inturn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective bybringing individual effectiveness.Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable tothe organization’s needs. Page 6
  7. 7. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsibleto the needs and challenges of the society.IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTIt helps to develop human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.• Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of theemployees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn withinthe employees.• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improvethe organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learningculture within the organization.• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positiveperception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings fromleaders, subordinates, and peers.• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work andwork-life.• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating thehealthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so thatindividual goals aligns with organizational goal. Page 7
  8. 8. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health andsafety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the workforce.• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and morepositive attitudes towards profit orientation.• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization getsmore effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding andcarrying out organizational policies• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty,better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps inoptimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achievethe organizational goals as well as their individual goals.• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to providean opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technicaland behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personalgrowth.• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employee Page 8
  9. 9. MODELS OF TRAININGTraining is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing& sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is atransforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the formof knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).THE TRAINING SYSTEMThe three model of training are:1. System Model2. Instructional System Development Model3. Transitional modelSYSTEM MODEL TRAININGThe system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis tomake further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helpingemployee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in SystemModel of training are as follows:1. ANALYZE and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job,employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimatingtraining cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis ofwhich actual performance would be evaluated. Page 9
  10. 10. 2. DESIGN and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developingobjectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring thecontents 3. DEVELOP- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. IMPLEMENTING is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. EVALUATING each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices Page 10
  11. 11. TRANSITIONAL MODELTransitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describesthe vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which trainingmodel i.e. inner loop is executed.VISION – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve afterthe defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization seesitself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringingsome internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines.MISSION – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the positionin the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate,inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization.The mission statementtells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by thecustomers, employees, and all other stakeholders.VALUES – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. Itreflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of currentindustry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility,excellent customer service, etc Page 11
  12. 12. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This modelconsiders the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping thesethree things in mind and then the training model is further implementedINSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (ISD) MODELInstructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concernedwith the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on thebasis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the definedobjectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining anddeveloping the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for Page 12
  13. 13. the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional SystemDevelopment model comprises of five stages:1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, andtarget audience analysis.2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome,instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training,types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainerand the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content,sequencing of content, etc3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material.It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, Page 13
  14. 14. workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the traineeincluding handouts of summary.4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arrangingspeakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking,and other training accessories.5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the trainingprogram has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phaseconsists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendmentsto any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. Italso highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire trainingprogram. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Page 14
  15. 15. PROCESS OF TRAINING TRAINING NEED TRAINING ANALYSIS DESIGN TRAINING PROCESS TRAINING TRAINING EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATI ONTRAINING NEED ANALYSIS (TNA)/TRAINING NEEDIDENTIFICATION (TNI)An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effectivetraining. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gapbetween what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Page 15
  16. 16. Training Need arises at three levels: • Organizational level • Individual level • Operational levelCorporate need and training need are interdependent because the organizationperformance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and itssubgroup.Organizational level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses onstrategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internalenvironment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, andweaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing theSWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths Page 16
  17. 17. can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced byidentifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited bybalancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of thecompany requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR developsstrategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge,Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level.Individual level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and everyindividual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether anemployee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If thedifference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to bepositive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence canalso be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individualneed are:• Appraisal and performance review• Peer appraisal• Competency assessments• Subordinate appraisal• Client feedback• Customer feedback• Self-assessment or self-appraisalOperational level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the workthat is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information onwhether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information Page 17
  18. 18. through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking theclosed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keepchanging over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analystalso gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be requiredin the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.Benefits of need assessmentTraining programs are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. There aremany benefits of need assessment:1. Trainers may be informed about the broader need of the trainees.2. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees.3. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities, which make the training programs easier to sell to line managers.TRAINING-DESIGNThe design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear trainingobjective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achievedby the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at theend of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical,interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. Page 18
  19. 19. The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and theirprofiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of theimportant factors that affect training design.Cost of training – It is one of the most important considerations in designing a trainingprogramme. A training programme involves cost of different types. These may be in theform of direct expenses incurred in training, cost of training material to be provided,arrangement of physical facilities and refreshment, etc. Besides these expenses theorganization has to bear indirect cost in the form of loss of production during trainingperiod. Ideally, a training programme must be able to generate more revenues than thecost involved.Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings,positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorablenothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong. Page 19
  20. 20. TRAINING-DESIGNTrainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational backgroundof trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of theprogram.Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainertranslates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority listof about what must be included, what could be included. Page 20
  21. 21. Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to bedelivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics andmodules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:• From simple to complex• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance• From known to unknown• From specific to general• Dependent relationshipTraining tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training programbecomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methodsor techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:• Trainees’ background• Time allocated• Style preference of trainer• Level of competence of trainer• Availability of facilities and resources, etc Page 21
  22. 22. Support facilities – IT can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The variousrequirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:• Time• Accommodation, facilities and their availability• Furnishings and equipments• Budget• Design of the training, etcTRAINING IMPLEMENTATIONTo put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is calledtraining implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the systembecause one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the besttraining program will fail due to one wrong action. Training implementation can besegregated into:• Practical administrative arrangements• Carrying out of the trainingOnce the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented.Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation Page 22
  23. 23. phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the mostimportant factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept inmind while implementing training program:The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content.Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set groundsbefore meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with coursecontent and is flexible in his approach.Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successfultraining program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classroomsshould not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring peopletogether both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should beallocated to every participant.Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainercan establish good rapport with trainees by:• Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments• Encouraging informal conversation• Remembering their first name• Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another• Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions• Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed• Getting to class before the arrival of learners• Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time Page 23
  24. 24. • Using familiar examples• Varying his instructional techniques• Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog downReviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very importantto review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of theprogram, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how theprogram will run. The following information needs to be included:• Kinds of training activities• Schedule• Setting group norms• Housekeeping arrangements• Flow of the program• Handling problematic situationsIn general programme implementation involves action on the following lines:• Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.• Scheduling the training programme.• Conducting the programme.• Monitoring the progress of the trainees. Page 24
  25. 25. TRAINING EVALUATIONThe process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Trainingevaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluationensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respectiveworkplaces, or to the regular work routines.Purposes of Training EvaluationThe five main purposes of training evaluation are:Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives andlinking it to learning outcomes.Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transferof knowledge at the work place, and training Page 25
  26. 26. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is noteffective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses theevaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned withthe expected outcomes.Functions of evaluation:There are basically two functions of evaluation:1. Qualitative evaluations is an assessment process how well did we do? Page 26
  27. 27. 2. Quantitative evaluation is an assessment process that answers the question How much did we do?Principles of Training Evaluation:Training need should be identified and reviewed concurrently with the business andpersonal development plan process.a) Evaluation must be continuous.b) Evaluation must be specific.c) Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards.d) There should be correlation to the needs of the business and the individual.e) Organizational, group and individual level training need should be identified and evaluated.f) Techniques of evaluation should be appropriate.g) The evaluation function should be in place before the training takes place.h) The outcome of evaluation should be used to inform the business and training process.Need of evaluation of Training:Training cost can be significant in any business. Most organizations are prepared to incurthese cost because they expect that their business to benefit from employees developmentand progress. Whether business has benefited can be assessed by evaluation training.There are basically four parties involved in evaluating the result of any training. Trainer,Trainee, Training and Development department and Line Manager. Page 27
  28. 28. • The Trainee wants to confirm that the course has met personal expectations and satisfied any learning objectives set by the T & D department at the beginning of the programme.• The Trainer concern is to ensure that the training that has been provided is effective or not.• Training and Development want to know whether the course has made the best use of the resources available.• The Line manager will be seeking reassurance that the time hat trainee has spent in attending training results in to value and how deficiency in knowledge and skill redressed. The problem for many organizations is not so much why training should be evaluated but how. Most of the organizations overlook evaluation because financial benefits are difficult to describe in concrete terms. The process of evaluation is central to its effectiveness and helps to ensure that:• Whether training budget is well spent• To judge the performance of employee as individual and team.• To establish culture of continuous learning and improvement. PROCESS OF TRAINING EVALUATION Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style Page 28
  29. 29. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usuallyconsist of short tests at regular intervals.After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed againto measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whethertraining has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.Techniques of evaluationThe various methods of training evaluation are:• Observation• Questionnaire• Interview• Self diaries• Self recording of specific incidentsWHAT TO EVALUATE/LEVEL OF EVALUATIONDonald Kirkpatrick developed four level models to assess training effectiveness.According to him evaluation always begins with level first and should move throughother levels in sequence. Page 29
  30. 30. • Reaction Level: The purpose is to measure the individual reaction to the training activity. The benefit of Reaction level evaluation is to improve Training and Development activity efficiency and effectiveness.• Learning Level: The basic purpose is to measure the learning transfer achieved by the training and development activity. Another purpose is to determine to what extent the individual increased their knowledge, skills and changed their attitudes by applying quantitative or qualitative assessment methods• Behavior Level: The basic purpose is to measure changes in behavior of the individual as a result of the training and development activity and how well the enhancement of knowledge, skill, attitudes has prepared than for their role.• Result Level: The purpose is to measure the contribution of training and development to the achievement of the business/operational goals. Page 30
  31. 31. CHAPTER IIORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE OF THE COMPANY Page 31
  32. 32. COMPANY‘S PROFILESahara India- a corporate, which believe that quality, is never an accident it is a result ofplanning, team work and a commitment of excellence. Sahara India Pariwar is a multi-business conglomerate with diversified business interest that includes finance, real estate,media & entertainment, tourism & hospitality, and service & trading. Sahara India PariwarYear 2005, headquarter in 1978 in Gorakhpur, India lucknow IndiaWorkers 3 9.10 lackDependents 15 45.50 lackAsset 2000 Over 50,000 croreEstablishments 1 1707 No Trade union No ownerImportant points• The employees at Sahara India Pariwar greet each other by saying “Sahara Pranam”• Every year, republic day and independence day is celebrated as Bharat Parv ( national festival) and Sahara India Pariwar celebrates it as the biggest event of the pariwar( family).• Sahara India Pariwar has been the official sponsors of the Indian cricket team and Indian hockey team. Page 32
  33. 33. • Sahara India Pariwar in often referred as the world’s largest family• 910,000 workers/ employees and no trade union• Its five star hostel ‘Sahara Star’ near Mumbai airport has the world’s largest pillar less clear-to-sky dome of its kind• Holds the Guinness world record for planning 125,256 trees by 1400 volunteers in 6 hours and 35 minutes 0n 5th June 1988 at amby vally city• Hold the record in India for 25%-50% hike in the gross salary of all of its employees at one go.• Conducts mass marriage ceremony of 101 underprivileged girls every year• Subrato Roy Sahara is also referred as “Saharasri” Profit Sharing SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR OVERVIEW Page 33
  34. 34. Sahara India Pariwar is a major entity on the corporate scene having diversifiedbusiness interests that include Finance, Infrastructure & Housing, Media &Entertainment, Consumer Products, Manufacturing, and Services & Trading.Quality is our essence and we, at Sahara India Pariwar , have always stressed on theQualitative aspect. Consequently in this run for quality, quantity has always pursued us.We look forward to reaching the zenith and reaffirm our commitment to the process ofsound nation-building.CORE COMMITMENTS - OUR STRENGTH• Emotion• Discipline• Duty• No discrimination• Quality• Give respect• Self-respect• Truth• Collective Materialism• Religion• Absolute Honesty Page 34
  35. 35. WhatA commitment of Sahara India Pariwar to the genuine needs and rights of anybody &everybody - Be it to a depositor, newspaper reader, consumer.... all business associatesand Sahara India Family Members.NeedIndia needs effective consumer protection and protection of workers genuine rights.There are various agencies, promising protection & action. But no external body canprovide justice unless the company becomes QUALITY CONSCIOUS WITHSTRICTLY NO DISCRIMINATION POLICY AND JUSTICE CONSCIOUSNESS asits very dominating nature.MottoWe not only believe but practice NO DISCRIMINATION, JUSTICE & HIGHQUALITY - means enthusiastic, productive performance of duty "KARTAVYA towardsthe consumer, workers genuine satisfaction.AimTo provide justice - be it a matter of the tiniest imperfection or injustice in ourCOMMITMENT - products or services. direct or indirect, short term or long term.WhereKindly rush your grievances/suggestions or any queries related to Sahara India Pariwar tothe nearest Sahara establishment and/or to: Page 35
  36. 36. Response Will Never Be Delayed And Justice Will Never Be Denied BUSINESS ENTITIES SAHARA INDIA PARIWA R Infrastructure Media and Consumer Services and Finance Manufacturing and housing entertainment products Trading. Page 36
  37. 37. CHAPTER IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY Page 37
  38. 38. DATA COLLECTIONData collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing andcollecting business data - for example as part of a process improvement or similarproject.Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is oftenformalized through a data collection Plan which often contains the following activity. 1. Pre collection activity – Agree goals, target data, definitions, methods 2. Collection – data collection 3. Present Findings – usually involves some form of sorting analysis and/or presentation.There are two methods of data collection which are discussed below: DATA COLLECTION PRIMARY DATA SECONDARY DATA (Data collection techniques)QUESTIONNAIRE INTERVIEW EXTERNAL INTERNET INTERNAL SOURCE SOURCE Unstructure Page 38
  39. 39. PRIMARY DATAIn primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviewsand questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you andyour research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it.I have tried to collect the data using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. Thekey point here is that the data collected is unique and research and, no one else hasaccess to it. It is done to get the real scenario and to get the original data of present.DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUEQuestionnaire:Questionnaire are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and oftenrequire many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. The featuresincluded in questionnaire are:• Theme and covering letter• Instruction for completion• Types of questions• LengthInterview:This technique is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons andmotivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or behavior. The interview was done byasking a general question. I encourage the respondent to talk freely. I have used an Page 39
  40. 40. unstructured format, the subsequent direction of the interview being determined by therespondent’s initial reply, and come to know what is its initial problem is.SAMPLING METHODOLOGYSampling technique:Initially, a rough draft was prepared keeping in mind the objective of the research. Apilot study was done in order to know the accuracy of the questionnaire. The finalquestionnaire was arrived only after certain important changes were done. Thus mysampling came out to be judgmental and continent.Sampling Unit:The respondents who were asked to fill out questionnaires are the sampling units. Thesecomprise of kartavyayogis of corporate HR,S ahara India Pariwar , who had attended thepersonality development workshop.Sampling Size: 20 SECONDARY DATAAll methods of data collection can supply quantitative data (numbers, statistics orfinancial) or qualitative data (usually words or text). Quantitative data may often bepresented in tabular or graphical form. Secondary data is data that has already beencollected by someone else for a different purpose to yours. Page 40
  41. 41. Need of using secondary data1. Data is of use in the collection of primary data.2. They are one of the cheapest and easiest means of access to information.3. Secondary data may actually provided enough information to resolve the problem being investigated.4. Secondary data can be a valuable source of new ideas that can be explored later through primary research.Limitation of secondary data1. May be outdated.2. No control over data collection.3. May not be reported in the required form.4. May not be reported in the required form.5. May not be very accurate.6. Collection for some other purpose. Page 41
  42. 42. DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Page 42
  43. 43. ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY DATA T& D FUNCTIONS IN SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR TEAM-HEAD TNI Training calander Training budget Training feedback Training manuals Approvals/concept paper PDW CCT-2009 CCT Networking TEAM TEAM TEAM MEMBER3 MEMBER 1 MEMBER 2 TEAM Training MEMBER4IT support Module design initiativeProject/Summer Module Internal Library mgmttraining development External BooksInduction Internal TNI Concept Journalmanual/ppt External TNI Development NewspaperPD e-manual Product/Process Write-ups& Dak(In/out)CCT-2009 Training Briefing databaseTraining feedback Oorja Training Recordor Project/Summer Evaluation Maintenance evaluation training PD e-manual Admin followAdmin task HRIS support Oorja UpDatabase Best HR Project/summe Bulletin/Boardmanagement practices r training managementMIS-T&D Bulletin/Board Management Page 43
  44. 44. The major activities performed by the Training and Developing function in Sahara IndiaPariwar are as follows:(1) Training needs identification/ assessment: From employees through interviews,questionnaires, etc. and secondly through HOD recommendation. TNI IN SAHARA INDIA PARIWA R HOD TNI RECMMEND EXERCISE/SU ATION RVEY(2) Training (Internal/External): Training depends upon its scope, whether needs ofthe training can be met within the organization or whether has to be taken to anenvironment outside the organization.(3) Certified corporate trainer: Certified corporate trainers are the employees of thecompany itself. It is their voluntary involvement. If they feel like in their service tenurethat they can, for some time, train the employees of the company on the base of their Page 44
  45. 45. experience, then send in their CVs and on approval by the respective authority, becomecertified corporate trainers.(4) Types of training given in Sahara India Pariwar: • Induction/Orientation training • Soft skill development training • Project trainingINDUCTION/ORIENTATION TRAININGThese terms are interchangeably used to give a friendly welcome to the new employeesas members of the organization so also to introduce the new employee with the availableinstallations (plant and machineries, systems), work norms, organizational objectives andthe job position of the employee.Content:• The company size, structure of the organization, history, market share• Achievements, objective and mission.• Product training• Shop floor-rules and regulations• Personnel policies• Union contract• Company services• Service department Page 45
  46. 46. SOFT SKILL DEVELOPMENT TRAININGModules of soft skill development training in Sahara India Pariwar:  Personality and positive attitude  Business communication  Team building and leadership  Stress management and work-life balance  Business etiquettes and corporate grooming PERSONALITY & POSITIVE ATTITUDEAbout the ModulePersonality as a whole cannot be defined without the positive attitude. It is the positiveattitude of a person that plays an important role in various decision making process andreaction to responsibilities and challenges in work and life. The module has beendeveloped to help the individual to develop the understanding that how individualpersonalities can influence the organizational development & the organizational success.Objective of the ModuleTo understand the concept of Personality & positive attitude in relation to organizationalsuccess.Coverage of the Module• What is personality• Attributes of personality Page 46
  47. 47. • Three levels of Personality• Personality is uniqueness• Internal & External Qualities• What are the determinants of personality• What is a Organizational Personality• Linking personality and organizations effectiveness• How Positive Attitude can influenced Personality BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONBackgroundEffective communication is very crucial in the business success. It is the lifeblood of anbusiness organization. It includes conveying messages to other people clearly andunambiguously. Its also about receiving information that others are sending to you, withas little distortion as possible.Doing this involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. And itsa process that can be fraught with error, with messages muddled by the sender, ormisinterpreted by the recipient. When this isnt detected, it can cause tremendousconfusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity Page 47
  48. 48. Objective of the ModuleTo understand the importance of Business Communication in order to enhance thecapabilities of understanding and implementing the correct communication channel tobring the effectiveness of the organization in order to succeed in business, and maintaingood relationships with clients, customers and employeesCoverage of the Module• What is communication?• Need of communication• Communication flow• Types of Communication• Barriers of Communication• Overcoming tips of barrier• Essentials of effective communication TEAM BUILDING & LEADERSHIPBackgroundIn the context of globalization only high performing managers can survive, grow andexcel. This calls for continuous enhancement of the dynamics of leadership capabilitiesof managers. Today’s managers will have to demonstrate positive leadership capabilities Page 48
  49. 49. by creating and sustaining trust, shared vision as well as synergy to achieveorganizational goals.Objective of the Module• Understanding the role of leadership, teamwork and team-building.• Improving business results by managing team dynamics; flexibility and resilience, self management and emotional maturityCoverage of the Module• Team Vs. Group• Team & Team Work• The essentials of winning Team• A good team player• Stages of Team Building• Leadership, teamwork & team-building• Leader Vs. Manager• Improving performance STRESS MANAGEMENT & WORK LIFE BALANCEBackground Page 49
  50. 50. During the last 20 years, the nature of jobs across globe has changed substantiallyresulting in jobs becoming less and less physically demanding. Coupled with this, thechange in life style, has led to stress level increasing day by day, both at work place andat home. It is therefore of utmost importance to understand the various transientsaffecting health and fitness levels of individuals. In view of this, the module will help totake a proactive approach to stress management in order to establish a work environmentthat is healthy, stress-free and fit.Objective of the ModuleTo understand the stress level, its symptoms and various impacts and to developa better work life balance strategies for leading a better life.Coverage of the Module• What is stress?• Reasons of stress• Symptoms of stress• Impact of stress• Managing Stress• ABC Strategy• Tips of de-stressing Page 50
  51. 51. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE & CORPORATE GROOMINGBackgroundSelf –improvement and self –development has become imperative for survival in thechanging and competitive environment. Business Etiquette is a very important factor indetermining the success or failure of a business or a person. This module will guide toenhance the focus for Business Etiquette & Corporate Grooming.Objective of the ModuleTo understand the importance of Corporate grooming, Power Dressing and how to makeour body language effective in order to enhance personal effectiveness with goodmanners and etiquettes in order to succeed in your business, be liked by people andmaintain good relationships with clients, customers and employees.Coverage of the Module• Business etiquette• Corporate grooming• Corporate ground rules• Social niceties• Work norm Page 51
  52. 52. • Meeting protocol• Dining etiquettePROJECT TRAININGProject trainings are the time-to-time held training sessions held by the organization andwith the help of experienced and learned employees to train students outside theorganizations, in various practical fields, for the accomplishments of their compulsoryprojects(5) Training evaluation: Page 52
  53. 53. ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATA1. What do you understand by training?Learning 0Enhancement of knowledge, skill &attitude 4Sharing information 0All of the above 16ANALYSISThe above result shows that most of the kartavyayogis of corporate HR are well aware ofthe definition, inputs and purpose of the training program. They are self motivated to Page 53
  54. 54. attend such training program as it will result in their skill enhancement & improving their interpersonal skill. 2. Training is must for enhancing productivity and performance. Completely agree 17 Partially agree 3 Disagree 0 Unsure 0ANALYSIS:The above result shows that mostly all the kartavyayogis of corporate HR are well aware ofthe role and importance of the training. It means somewhere their productivity andperformance has been improved after the training program attended by them and it helpedthem to achieve their goal. Page 54
  55. 55. 3. (i). Have you attended any training program in the last 01 year?Yes 20No 0ANALYSIS:100% respondents had attended training program in the last 01 year. It means incorporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar, time to time training is provided to all thekartavyayogis and it is continuous process. Page 55
  56. 56. (ii). If yes, which module of soft skill development training?Personality and positive attitude 3Business communication 2Team building and leadership 0Stress management and work-life balance 2Business etiquettes and corporate grooming 0All of above 13If any other ,please specify 0ANALYSIS: Page 56
  57. 57. 65% respondents had attended all the five modules of soft skill development training. Butbesides soft skill development training, Corporate HR Sahara India Pariwar should alsoprovide product/process or skill based training to enhance the employability.4.(i). After the training, have you given feedback of it?Yes 20No 0ANALYSIS:100% respondent had given feedback after attending the training. It means each andevery respondent are well aware of the importance of giving feedback. They know thattheir feedback is very important to identify the effectiveness and valuation of trainingprogram. Page 57
  58. 58. (ii). If yes, through which method? Questionnaire 16 Interview 1 Supplement test 1 Any other 0ANALYSIS:The above result shows that the questionnaire is the most popular method of evaluating thetraining program and other methods are not very much in practice in corporate HR, SaharaIndia Pariwar But since there are various other methods of evaluation of training programlike interviews, supplement test, self diaries& observation so it should also implement Page 58
  59. 59. the other methods also to identify the ROI (return on investment) & effectiveness andvaluation of the training program. 5. Which method of post training feedback according to you is more appropriate? Observation 5 Questionnaire 3 Interviews 8 Self diaries 3 Supplement test 1ANALYSIS: Page 59
  60. 60. I. Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar, mostly use the questionnaire to get the feedback of trainees but only 15% respondents are in favor of questionnaire because in it there is a possibility of getting inaccurate data and in this responding conditions are also not controlled.II. On the other side 40% respondents feel that interview is the most appropriate method of evaluating the training program because it is more flexible method, and in this they can get the opportunity for clarification and the most important thing is that in the interview, personal interaction is also possible.III. 25% are in favor of observation because this is non-threatening and is excellent way to measure the behavioral changes.IV. Beside this, 15% are in favor of self diaries and 5% are in the favor of supplement test. It means that Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar should also try to use other method of evaluation of training program. Page 60
  61. 61. 6.(i). Do you think that the feedback can evaluate the trainingeffectiveness?Yes 20No 0ANALYSIS:100% respondents think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness. Itmeans that kartavyayogis in the Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar are well aware ofthe importance of taking feedback after the training. Page 61
  62. 62. (ii).If yes, how can the post training feedbacks can help the participants? Improve job performance 1 An aid to future planning 3 Motivate to do better 2 All of the above 14 None 0ANALYSIS:70% respondent feel that the post training feedback can help the participants to improvetheir job performance, is an aid to future planning and can motivate to do better. It meansthat they are benefited by giving feedback of the training, attended by them. Page 62
  63. 63. 7. Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting training. Completely agree 14 Partially agree 6 Disagree 0 Unsure 0ANALYSIS:70% respondents are completely agree and 30% respondents are partially agree with thestatement that post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended inconducting training program. It means that all the respondent are well aware of the purposeand objective of the post training evaluation. Page 63
  64. 64. 8. What should be the approach of post training evaluation?Trainer centered 2Trainee centered 2Subject centered 8All of the above 8ANALYSIS:I. 40% respondents feel that the approach of post training evaluation should be subject centered and 40% respondent also feel that it should be trainer, trainee and subject centered.II. 10% respondents are in favor of trainee centered approach and 10% respondents are in favor of trainer centered approach.It means that the evaluation procedure should be implemented concerning trainer, traineeand subject. Page 64
  65. 65. 9. What should be the ideal time to evaluate the training? Immediate after training 6 After 15 days 7 After 1 month 4 Can’t say 3 ANALYSIS:35% respondent feel that training should be evaluate after 15 days.30% feel that it shouldbe immediate after training. 20% feel that ideal time to evaluate the training is after 1month and 15% are unsure.Since each respondent had attended different training program. So the ideal time ofevaluation of training depends on types of training. It could be vary for different training. Page 65
  66. 66. 10. Should the post training evaluation procedure reviewed and revised periodically? Yes 16 No 2 Can’t say 2ANALYSIS:80% respondents feel that the post training evaluation procedure should be reviewed andrevised periodically. It means that it has to be a continuous process and be taken regularlyby the line manager/Reporting manager of the participants. It could also be taken by peergroup.Still 10% feel that the post training evaluation procedure should not be reviewed andrevised periodically. It means they are satisfied with the post training evaluation procedure,followed by Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar. Page 66
  67. 67. 11. Is the whole feedback exercise after the training worth the time,money and effort?Yes 18No 2Can’t say 0ANALYSIS:90% respondents feel that the whole feedback exercise worth the time, money and effortand 10% respondent are not agree with this. It means that feedback exercise is valuableand worthful for the participant to achieve their personal goal as well as for theorganization.Still 10% are unsure about it. So there is a need to create awareness among them thathow much the feedback exercise is important to identify the effectiveness and valuation Page 67
  68. 68. of the training program, to identify the ROI(return on investment),to identify the need ofretraining and identify the points to improve the training.12.The post training feedback can be used:To identify the effectiveness and valuation of training program 3To identify the ROI(return on investment) 2To identify the need of retraining 0To provide the points to improve the training 0All of above 15ANALYSIS:75% respondents feels that post training feedback can be used to identify theeffectiveness and valuation of training program, to identify the ROI, to identify the needof retraining and to provide the points to improve the training. And others are also awareof the importance of post training feedback. Page 68
  69. 69. CHAPTER IVFINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, CONCLUSION & LIMITATIONS Page 69
  70. 70. KEY FINDINGS• Mostly all the kartavyayogis of corporate HR are well aware of the role and importance of the training They are self motivated to attend such training program as it will result in their skill enhancement & improving their interpersonal skill.• Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar , time to time training is provided to all the kartavyayogis and it is continuous process.• Two types of training is provided to the kartavyayogis by Corporate HR Sahara India Pariwar -induction training and soft skill development training.• Questionnaire is the most popular mean of evaluating the training program in Sahara India Pariwar.• Most of the kartavyayogis feel that interview is the most appropriate method of evaluating the training program.• Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting the training and it worth the time, money and effort.• Most of the participants are benefitted by giving feedback after attended the training. It motivated them to do better, helped them to increase their job performance and is an aid to future planning.• In Sahara India Pariwar, post training evaluation is used to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training program, to identify the ROI(return on Page 70
  71. 71. investment), to identify the need of retraining and to provide the points to improve the training. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The management must commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Ensure that training contribute to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skill for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skill. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs. Skill based training (product/process training) should also be provided. Besides questionnaire other methods of post training evaluation should also be used like interviews, self diaries, observation and supplement test. The evaluation procedure must be implemented concerning trainer, trainee and subject. Page 71
  72. 72.  Post training feedback has to be continuous and should also be taken from line manager/superior & from peers to find out the effectiveness and valuation of training. CONCLUSIONProfessional competence describes the state-of-the-art, Area- knowledge, expertise andskill relevant for performing excellently within a specific functional department. Thiscompetence insures that technical knowledge is both present and used within a firm forthe welfare of its stake-holders. To develop this competence regular Training andDevelopment is requiredTherefore, Training initiatives and programs have become a priority for HumanResources. As business markets change due to an increase in technology initiatives,companies need to spend more time and money on training employees. In today’sbusiness climate employee development is critical to corporate success and organizationsare investing more in their employees training and development needs.Training evaluation is the important part of training process. It provides a feedback andhelp the sponsors and the resource persons for improvement at the level of individualperformance and in the strategy formulation for training and development. Post trainingevaluation can be used to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training programme,to identify the ROI (return on investment), to identify the need of retraining and toprovide the points to improve the training. Page 72
  73. 73. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY1. The study is limited to the Corporate HR, SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR LUCKNOW. So the study is subject to the limitation of area.2. The time period of the study was only two six weeks which may provide a deceptive picture in comparison of the study based on long run.3. Sampling size was of only 20, because only these people had attended soft skill development training.4. Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar only provides soft skill development training, not skill based (product/process) training. So how can one evaluate the skill based training is still unresolved.5. The study is based only on secondary & primary data so lack of keen observations and interactions were also the limiting factors in the proper conclusion of the study. Page 73
  74. 74. ANNEXURE Page 74
  75. 75. QUESTIONNAIREDear Madam/Sir,I, , an MBA student pursuing my course from As a part of my curriculum I amundergoing summer training at Corporate Please give your views/opinions in thespace given below about the post training feedback in SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR.The information provided by you will be kept highly confidential& will be used byme strictly for an analysis only.1) What do you understand by training?a) Learningb) Enhancement of knowledge, skill and aptitudec) Sharing informationd) All of above2) Training is must for enhancing productivity and performance.a) Completely agreeb) Partially agreec) Disagreed) Unsure3) (i) Have you attended any training programme in the last 01 year? a) Yes b) No (ii) If yes ,which module of soft skill development training? a) Personality and positive attitude Page 75
  76. 76. b) Business communication c) Team building and leadership d) Stress management and work-life balance e) Business etiquettes and corporate grooming f) All of above g) If any other please specify ___________________________4) (i) After the training ,have you given feedback of it? a) Yes b) No (ii) If yes, through which method?(can select more than one) a) Questionnaire b) Interview c) Supplement test d) If any other please specify _______________5) Which method of post training feedback according to you is more appropriate?a) Observationb) Questionnairec) Interviewsd) Self diariese) Supplement test6) (i) Do you think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness? a) Yes b) No (ii) If yes, how can the post training feedbacks can help the participants?(can select more than one) a) Improve job performance b) An aid to future planning c) Motivate to do better d) All of the above e) None7) Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting training.a) Completely agreeb) Partially agree Page 76
  77. 77. c) Disagreed) Unsure8) What should be the approach of the post training evaluation?(can select more than one)a) Trainer centeredb) Trainee centeredc) Subject Centeredd) All of the above9) What should be the ideal time to evaluate the training?a) Immediate after trainingb) After 15 daysc) After 1 monthd) Cant say10) Should the post training evaluation procedure reviewed and revised periodically?a) Yesb) Noc) Cant say11) Is the whole feedback exercise after the training worth the time, money and effort?a) Yesb) Noc) Cant say12) The post training feedbacks can be used :a) To identify the effectiveness and valuation of the training programmeb) To identify the ROI( return on investment)c) To identify the need of retrainingd) To provide the points to improve the traininge) All of above13) Any suggestion for improving the post training feedback procedure exists inSahara India Pariwar? Page 77
  78. 78. SIGNATURE Your Views MatterDear Madam/SirWe would appreciate your views sharing with us. This will help us to improve more. Please giveyour views/opinions in the space provided below about this kartavyayogi and evaluate theimprovements after the training.Kartavyayogi’s Details Name E.C. Cadre DepartmentTraining Programme Name of the module Date Duration VenueKartavyayogi’s evaluation after training Rating – Please tick () S.NO ATTRIBUTES NEEDS EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE IMPROVEM ENT Kartavyayogi’s attitude towards his 1 subordinates and co-workers Kartavyayogi’s ability to fullfil 2 expected job requirements Page 78
  79. 79. Communication skill of the 3 kartavyayogi. 4 Listening skill of the kartavyayogi 5 Writing skill of the kartavyayogi 6 Conflict resolving skills Rating – Please tick () S.NO ATTRIBUTES NEEDS EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE IMPROVEM ENT 7 Ability to work in a team 8 Ability of taking initiative 9 Motivational skill 10 Patience and tolerance level 11 Stress management skill 12 Ability to work under pressure Business etiquettes of the 13 kartavyayogi Dressing sense of the 14 kartavyayogi Mannerism and behaviour of the 15 kartavyayogi 16 Punctuality at work placeAny other area where you would like to recommend this kartavyayogi to Undergo training?Whether this training is relevant to the present requirement of your Department ? □ Yes □ NoWould you recommend this training to other kartavyayogis in your Department? □ Yes □ No Page 79
  80. 80. Any suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the training. SIGNATURE BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. BOOKS/MAGAZINES: • Human Resource Management by L. M. Prasad • Human Resource Management by Dipak. k. Bhattacharya • Human Resource Management by K. Ashwathapa 2. WEBSITES: • http://www.sahara.co.in • http://www.sahara.org • http://www.managementhelp.org/search/management_help_search.html? zoom_query=training+and+development • http://www.inc.com/magazine/19930201/3393_pagen_7.html • http://humanresources.about.com/od/trainingtrends/Future_Education_and_Traini ng_Trends.htm • http://humanresources.about.com/od/training/Training_Development_and_Educat ion_for_Employees.htm • http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/ Page 80

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