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Nanotechnology in artificial RBC


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Nanotechnology in artificial RBC

  2. 2.  Nanotechnology is defined as the fabrication of devices with precision to the scale of 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) This scale yields precision on the atomic or molecular scale Nanotechnology is also referred to as molecular manufacturing Nanotechnology has the potential for a nearly limitless number of applications in a wide range of fields such as physics, biology, engineering, chemistry, and computer science 2
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  4. 4. • The artificial red blood cell or Respirocyte• Proposed here is a blood borne spherical 1-micron diamondoid 1000-atm pressure vessel• An onboard nanocomputer and numerous chemical and pressure sensors enable complex device behaviours remotely reprogrammable by the physician via externally applied acoustic signals 4
  5. 5. Continue…………With active pumping powered by endogenous serum glucose, able todeliver 236 times more oxygen to the tissues per unit volume thannatural red cells and to manage carbonic acidity 5
  6. 6. Continue…..• There are three main storage tank - one for oxygen , another for carbon dioxide and third for ballast water• An onboard chemo mechanical turbine or fuel cell generates power by combining glucose drawn from the bloodstream and oxygen drawn from internal storage• This is converted to mechanical power which drives molecular sorting rotors and other subsystems, as demonstrated in principle by a variety of biological motor systems such as bacteria flagella 6
  7. 7. Continue…..• Each power plant develops 0.3 Pico watts of power• Thats enough energy to fill the oxygen tank in 10 seconds from empty, a pumping rate of 100 million molecules/sec• The average male human body has 28.5 trillion red blood cells, each containing 270 million hemoglobin molecules binding four O2 molecules per hemoglobin• However, since hemoglobin normally operates between 95% saturation (arterial) and 70% saturation (venous), only 25% of stored oxygen is accessible to the tissues 7
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  9. 9. Continue…..• Each respirocyte stores up to 1.51 billion oxygen molecules, 100% of which are accessible to the tissues• To fully duplicate human blood active capacity, we have to deploy 5.36 trillion devices• 1 liter of 50% respirocyte suspension, which puts 954 trillion devices into your bloodstream. You could then hold your breath for 3.8 hours, at the normal resting metabolic rate 9
  10. 10. Continue…..• Respirocytes can provide a temporary replacement for natural blood cells in the case of an emergency• If an individual has lost access to a natural oxygen supply due to drowning, choking or any other• A resting human uses 240cc/minute (approx) of oxygen• So a liter of oxygen compressed to 1,000 atmospheres should be sufficient to maintain metabolism for about 36 hours 10
  11. 11. • At least four haemoglobin formulations and one fluorocarbon are in Phase I safety trials, and one company has filed an application to conduct an efficacy trial • Most of the red cell substitutes under trial at present have far too short a survival time in the circulation to be useful in the treatment of chronic anaemia 11
  12. 12. • The ability to build products by molecular manufacturing would create a radical improvement in the manufacture of technologically advanced products• Respirocytes could also be used as a complete or partial symptomatic treatment for virtually all forms of anemia• Respirocytes can deliver oxygen to muscle tissue faster than the lungs• Respirocytes can also be used for other problems with gasses in the bloodstream 12
  13. 13. • Article on Nanotechnology and Medicine by Ralph C. Merkle• A somewhat abbreviated version of this paper was ultimately published in 1998 as: Robert A. Freitas Jr., "Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell,“ Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobil. Biotech. 26(1998):411-430. Portions of the 1996 paper differ slightly from the 1998 published version 13
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