Nanotechnology ppt


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Nanotechnology ppt

  2. 2. M.TECH. CST SEMESTER II 2014 Arun.R.Nair (2220213101)
  3. 3. WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY? A brief overview.
  4. 4. • Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macro scale products. • The associated research and applications are diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. • Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research.
  5. 5. ORIGINS How did this science begin?
  6. 6. • The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known. • In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology.
  7. 7. • Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. • Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, beginning in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale. • By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.
  8. 8. WHY NANOTECHNOLOGY? After all, what is even the need for Nanotechnology?
  9. 9. • Small Particles - More surface area, more atoms to contact a surface. • Extremely Precise – Materials can be made close to perfection to the point that exact number of atoms can be measured. • The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices is possible with this technology. • Radically improved formulation of drugs, diagnostics and organ replacement. • Atomically engineered food and crops resulting in greater agricultural productivity with fewer labor requirements.
  10. 10. APPLIED NANOTECHNOLOGY Various application of Nanotechnology. It makes Star Trek come alive.
  11. 11. MATERIAL SCIENCE • Fiber that is stronger than spider web. • Metal 100 x’s stronger than steel, 1/6 weight. • Catalysts that respond more quickly and to more agents. • Plastics that conduct electricity. • Coatings that are nearly frictionless –(Shipping Industry) • Materials that change color and transparency on demand. • Materials that are self repairing, self cleaning, and never need repainting. • Nanoscale powders that are five times as light as plastic but provide the same radiation protection as metal.
  12. 12. ENERGY • Fuel cell technology becomes cost effective within 3 years. • Batteries that store more energy and are much more efficient. • Plastics and paints that will store solar power and convert to energy for $1 per watt.
  13. 13. MEDICINE/BIOTECH • Cosmetics that can penetrate the skin. • Cures for AIDS, Cancers, Alzheimer's, Diabetes. • Ability to view cells In vivo - Fast Drug Creation. • Nanomaterials that can see inside vessels for plaque buildup. • Technology that can re-grow bone and organs. • Nano Sensors for disease detection – 10x’s faster and 100,000 x’s more accurate. • Nano Filters will help create impurity free drugs.
  14. 14. ELECTRONICS • Silicon is hitting its size limit, Moore’s Law suspected to be obsolete soon. • Super Chips – Combination of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide create wireless chips. • Plastic semiconductors manufactured by regular printing devices – cheaply produced. • Electronic Paper.
  15. 15. KEY TERMS YOU OUGHT TO KNOW Important terms in the field of Nanotechnology.
  16. 16. • BuckyBalls • Carbon Nanotubes • MEMS • Quantum Dots • Molecular Self Repair/Assembly • MRAM/Spintronics • Lithography
  17. 17. CARBON NANOTUBES • 4 nm width (smaller diameter than DNA). • 100x’s stronger than steel 1/6 weight. • Thermal/electrically conductive. • Metallic and Semi-Conductive.
  18. 18. BUCKYBALLS – C60 • Roundest and most symmetrical molecule known to man. • Compressed – becomes stronger than diamond. • Third major form of pure carbon. • Heat resistance and electrical conductivity.
  19. 19. MEMS AND QUANTUM DOTS • A quantum dot is a nano crystal made of semiconductor materials that are small enough to display quantum mechanical properties. • MEMS is as a new manufacturing technology, a way of making complex electromechanical systems using batch fabrication techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits, and uniting these electromechanical elements together with electronics.
  20. 20. OBSTACLES AND HURDLES Why isn’t Nanotechnology expanding as rapidly as it should?
  21. 21. • Mass Production. • Throughput and cost constrains. • Funding requires long-term investment. • Theft of intellectual property. • Potential danger if technology falls in wrong hands. • Health issues - the effects of nanomaterials on human biology. • Environmental issues - the effects of nanomaterials on the environment. • Societal issues - the effects that the availability of nanotechnological devices will have on politics and human interaction. • Speculative issues - the specific risks associated with the speculative vision of molecular nanotechnology, such as "Grey goo“.
  22. 22. INTERNATIONAL FUNDING How much are countries investing in the future of science?
  23. 23. • With US government funding of nanotechnology receding slightly in 2011, Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) estimates indicate that for the first time, China will spend more than the US to fund nanotechnology. • In the last 11 years, governments around the world have invested more than US$67.5 billion in nanotechnology funding. When corporate research and various other forms of private funding are taken into account, nearly a quarter of a trillion dollars will have been invested in nanotechnology by 2015. • Corporate research and private funding were thought to have surpassed government funding figures as far back as 2004. But this year, according to Cientifica’s estimates, in PPP terms China will spend US$2.25 billion in nanotechnology research while the US will spend US$2.18 billion. In real dollar terms, adjusted for currency exchange rates, China is only spending about US$1.3 billion to the US’s $2.18 billion.
  24. 24. • This appears to be a temporary hiccup in US dominance in public funding of nanotechnology with the US again taking the lead next year even in PPP terms, spending $2.46 billion with China allotting $2.2 billion. • Cientifica’s index of countries’ ability to take advantage of emerging technologies indicates the US, Germany, Taiwan and Japan have the combination of academic excellence, technology-hungry companies, skilled workforces and the availability of early stage capital to ensure effective technology transfer. • When combined with levels of nanotechnology funding, the US is still the place to be, although China and Russia are increasingly attractive. The UK and India struggle at the bottom of the league.
  25. 25. BIBLIOGRAPHY This project would be impossible without external sources. My good friend’s research thesis on Nanotechnology contributed a lot.
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