Urinary system terms


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Urinary system terms

  1. 1. Robert Adams<br />Biology 120<br />Urinary System Terms<br />
  2. 2. Acute Renal FailureARF<br />Sudden renal failure<br />Kidneys have suddenly stopped working <br />Wastes products, fluids, and electrolytes build in the body<br />
  3. 3. 3 Main Causes<br />Prerenal<br />Intrinsic<br />Post renal <br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  4. 4. Prerenal<br />Sudden serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys<br />Heavy blood loss<br />Infection or sepsis<br />dehydration<br />Adaptive response to severe volume depletion and hypertension with structurally intact nephrons.<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  5. 5. Intrinsic<br />Response to cytotoxic, ischemic, or inflammatory injuries to the kidney with structural and functional damage <br />Damage from medicine, poison, or infection<br />People with serious long term health problems are likely to have kidney complications due to medications<br /> antibiotics, pain meds., blood pressure meds., and dyes used for X-ray<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  6. 6. Post renal<br />The obstruction of the passage of urine<br />A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys<br />Kidney stones<br />Tumor<br />Injury<br />Enlarged prostate<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  7. 7. Symptoms<br />Little or no urine<br />Bruising easily<br />Hand tremors<br />Swelling (especially of the legs and feet)<br />Seizures<br />Loss of appetite<br />Nausea, vomiting<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  8. 8. Risk Factors<br />Symptoms<br />Older adults<br />Long term health problems<br />Kidney or liver disease<br />Diabetes<br />Heart failure <br />Obesity<br />Liver cirrhosis<br />Anaphylaxis<br />Severe burns<br />Anxiety <br />Confusion<br />Restlessness<br />Exhaustion<br />Pain in the back below rib cage<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  9. 9. Diagnosis<br />BUN blood urea nitrogen<br />Creatine clearance<br />Urinalysis<br />Serum potassium<br />Serum creatine<br />Ultrasound<br />Abdominal CT scan or MRI<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  10. 10. Treatment<br />Treatment varies depending on the cause<br />Treated by a nephrologist<br />Dialysis<br />Antibiotics<br />Special diets<br />Meds. to rid extra fluid<br />Meds. to control blood potassium<br />Meds. to restore blood calcium levels<br />Kidney transplant<br />Acute Renal Failure<br />
  11. 11. Acute Renal Failure<br />Potentially fatal<br />May lay to chronic renal failure<br />Develops over a few hours or a few days<br />Occurs in 5% of hospitalized patients<br />Infection accounts for 75% of deaths associated with ARF<br />
  12. 12. Blood, Urea, NitrogenBUN<br />Test is a measure of the amount of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea<br />Measures renal function<br />The liver produces urea as a waste product during the breakdown of protein<br />
  13. 13. Why is this test given?<br />See if kidneys are working normally<br />See the condition of kidney disease<br />Test treatment of kidney disease<br />Check for sever dehydration<br />Blood, Urea, Nitrogen<br />
  14. 14. Blood, Urea, Nitrogen<br />Patients prepare for this test by abstaining from meat or protein 24 hours prior<br />Normal results are 6-20 milligrams per deciliter<br />
  15. 15. High BUN Results<br />Kidney injury or disease<br />Diabetes<br />High blood pressure<br />Blockage of the urinary tract<br />Low blood flow to the kidney<br />Acute renal failure<br />Dehydration<br />Heart failure<br />Severe burns<br />Addison’s disease<br />High protein diet<br />Some meds.<br />Blood, Urea, Nitrogen<br />
  16. 16. Low BUN Results<br />Low protein diet<br />Malnutrition<br />Severe liver damage<br />Over hydration<br />Severe muscle injury<br />Pregnancy<br />Cirrhosis<br />Blood, Urea, Nitrogen<br />
  17. 17. Catheterizationcath<br />Urinary catheterization<br />Tubing that is inserted into the bladder via the urethra<br />Allows urine to drain freely from the bladder for collection<br />Permanent or intermittent<br />Tubing can be latex, polyurethane, or silicone<br />
  18. 18. Types of catheters<br />Foley Catheter – retained by means of a balloon at the tip which is inflated with sterile water. Indwelling catheter<br />Robinson Catheter – intermittent flexible catheter for short term usage. No balloon tip so it can’t stay in place unaided<br />Caude catheter – designed with a curved tip that makes it easier to pass through the curvature of the prostatic urethra<br />Hematuria catheter – type of Foley catheter<br />Texas Condom catheter – used for incontinent males, and carries a lower risk for infection<br />Catheterization<br />
  19. 19. When is a patient catheterized?<br />Acute or chronic urinary retention<br />Orthopedic procedures that limit patient movement<br />Need for accurate monitoring of input and output<br />Benign prostatic hyperplasia<br />Blockage <br />Various surgeries involving the bladder and prostate<br />Catheterization<br />
  20. 20. Procedure for men<br />Wash hand, put on gloves<br />Clean urethra opening<br />Lubricate catheter<br />Gently insert and advance catheter<br />When you reach external sphincter you will feel resistance, gently continue to advance<br />When urine flow starts hold catheter in place while you inflate balloon<br />Secure catheter and attach drainage bag<br />Catheterization<br />
  21. 21. Procedure for women<br />Wash hands, put on gloves<br />Clean labia and urethral meatus<br />Lubricate catheter<br />Spread labia and locate urethral meatus<br />Slowly insert catheter into meatus<br />Gently advance catheter<br />When urine flows advance about 2 more inches hold catheter in place and inflate balloon<br />Secure catheter and attach drainage bag<br />Catheterization<br />
  22. 22. Diagnostic Reasons<br />Urinalysis<br />Collect accurately timed volumes or urine for renal function study<br />Monitor urine output<br />Install contrast dye for radiography<br />Catheterization<br />
  23. 23. Therapeutic<br />Relieve obstruction to urine flow<br />Give meds. Directly to urinary bladder<br />Facilitate surgical repair of urethra and surrounding tissues<br />Catheterization<br />
  24. 24. Risks<br />Allergy or sensitivity to materials<br />Bladder stones<br />Blood infections<br />Hematuria<br />Urethral injury<br />Urinary tract infections<br />Kidney damage<br />Bladder spasms<br />paraphimosis<br />Catheterization<br />
  25. 25. Cystoscopycysto<br />Allows doctor to look inside of the bladder and the urethra<br />Used for visual diagnosis<br />Can also be used for certain treatments<br />Can see areas that can’t be seen through X-ray<br />Also called cystourethroscopy<br />
  26. 26. Cystoscope<br />Lighted instrument that is inserted through the urethra and moved to the bladder<br />Sterile water is injected through the scope to help expand bladder and create clear viewing<br />Medicine can also be injected through scope <br />Tiny instruments can be inserted to collect tissue<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  27. 27. Types<br />Flexible <br />Rigid<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  28. 28. Procedure<br />Patient is given a sedation<br />IV for meds. and fluids<br />Patient lies on back with knees bent, legs apart<br />Genitals are cleaned<br />Anesthetic is given<br />Well lubricated cystoscope is inserted into the urethra and slowly advanced to the bladder<br />Instrument can be used to biopsy <br />45 min. procedure performed by urologist<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  29. 29. Risks<br />Anesthetic risk<br />Temporary swelling of the urethra<br />Difficult urination<br />Hematuria<br />Infection<br />Urethra and bladder puncture<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  30. 30. Not administered if…<br />Pregnant<br />Allergic<br />Bleeding problems<br />On blood thinners<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  31. 31. Why?<br />Find cause of hematuria, dysuria<br />Urinary frequency<br />Urinary inconsistence<br />Urinary hesitance<br />Urine retention<br />Urethra blockage<br />Urinary tract infections<br />Biopsy<br />Remove foreign objects<br />Check for stones or tumors<br />Diagnose enlarged prostate<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  32. 32. Preparation<br />Sometimes antibiotics<br />Nothing by mouth after midnight the evening before<br />Cystoscopy<br />
  33. 33. Infection that begins in the urinary system<br />Most infections involve the lower urinary tract: bladder and urethra<br />Infection is more common in women<br />Urinary Tract InfectionUTI<br />
  34. 34. Types<br />Kidney (acute pyelonephritis)<br />Bladder (cystitis)<br />Urethra (urethritis)<br />Urinary Tract Infection<br />
  35. 35. Symptoms<br />Strong urge to urinate<br />Burning sensation when urinating<br />Cloudy urine<br />Frequent small amounts of urine<br />Pelvic and rectal pain<br />Strong smelling urine<br />Hematuria<br />Nausea, vomiting<br />Urinary Tract Infection<br />
  36. 36. Causes<br />When bacteria enters the urethra and begins to multiply <br />Infection caused by E. coli<br />Sexual intercourse, STD’s<br />GI bacteria spread from anus to urethra<br />Urinary Tract Infection<br />
  37. 37. How is it diagnosed?<br />Treatment<br />Urinalysis <br />Bacteria culture in lab<br />Cystoscopy<br />Diagnostic imaging<br />Antibiotics<br />Home urine tests<br />Single doses of antibiotics after sex<br />Vaginal estrogen therapy<br />hospitalization<br />Urinary Tract Infection<br />
  38. 38. Higher Risk Factors<br />Reduce Risks<br />Female<br />Sexually active<br />Using certain birth control<br />Undergoing menopause<br />Urinary tract abnormalities<br />Suppressed immune system<br />Using a catheter<br />Blockage of the urinary tract<br />Drink plenty of liquids<br />Wipe front to back<br />Empty bladder after sex<br />Avoid irritating feminine products<br />Urinary Tract Infection<br />