Name: Nighat AliBIOS120 – Medical Terminology Professor Rashidah Abdullah 10/14/2012
What Is The Urinary System?Urinary system, sometimes referred to as the genitourinary (GU) system, is responsible for maintaining a stable internal environment for the body.The urinary system removes waste products, adjusts waste products, adjusts water and electrolyte levels, and maintain pH.The Urinary organs include kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys are the main organs of homeostasis because they maintain the acid base balance and the water salt balance of the blood.
Urinary System AbbreviationsAbbreviations are used to represent illnesses and diagnostic procedures.This presentation will focus on five abbreviations relative to the digestive system ARF cath cysto BUN RP
ARF ARF stands for acute renal failure It is the rapid breakdown of renal (kidney) function that occurs when high levels of uremic toxins accumulate in the blood. ARF occurs when the kidneys are unable to excrete the daily load of toxins in the urine. Based on the amount of urine that is excreted over a 24-hour period, patients with ARF are separated into two groups: Oliguric – patients who excrete less than 500 mL per day Nonoliguric – patients who excrete more than 500 mL per day. The urine is of poor quality because blood is not well filtered
There are 3 types of ARF: Prerenal ARF – characterized by inadequate blood circulation to the kidneys, which leaves them unable to clean the blood properly. Causes of prerenal ARF are dehydration, heart failure, severe infection, and blood loss. Symptoms include dizziness, dry mouth, thirst, weight loss, hypotension, etc. Postrenal ARF – caused by an acute obstruction that affects normal flow of urine out of both kidneys. The blockage causes pressure to build in all of the renal nephrons. The excessive fluid pressure ultimately causes the nephrons to shut down. Symptoms include difficult urination, hypertension, distended bladder, etc Intrinsic ARF – involves damage within both kidneys. The causes of intrinsic acute renal failure are acute tubular necrosis (ATN), acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).
Diagnosis of ARF is done via blood and urine tests, which check how well kidneys are working. Ultrasound is also one of the other options, which allows doctors to see kidneys. Treatments of ARF varies, depending on the cause such as restoring blood flow to the kidneys, removing a blockage in the urinary tact, stop wastes from building up in your body. Furthermore, dialysis treatment can also be given, which uses machine to do the work of kidneys until recovered. Antibiotics are also given to prevent or treat infections. A special diet is also followed, where intake of sodium, potassium, and phosphorus are limited.
cath cath stands for catheterization It is a latex or silicone tube known as urinary catheter inserted into a patient’s bladder via the urethra. Allows patient’s urine to drain freely from the bladder for collection. It may also be used to inject liquids used for treatment or diagnosis of bladder conditions. It is used when a person have urinary incontinence, urinary retention, surgery on prostrate or genitals, and other conditions such as spinal cord injury, dementia, or multiple sclerosis
Three main types of catheters: Indwelling catheter – one that is left in the bladder. It collects urine by attaching to a drainage bag. It can be inserted into bladder in two ways. Sometimes, it is inserted through the urethra and sometimes, health care provider will insert a catheter into your bladder via small hole in the belly. It has a small balloon inflated on the end of it, which prevents catheter from sliding out of body. Balloon is deflated when catheter needs to be removed. Condom catheter – mostly used in elderly men with dementia. A condom-like device is placed over the penis. A tube leads from this device to a drainage bag and must be changed every day Intermittent catheter – short-term, catheters are removed after the flow of urine has stopped.
cysto cysto stands for cystoscopy It is a procedure usually performed by a urologist that allows physician to see the inside of the lower urinary tract (urethra, prostrate, bladder neck, and bladder). Can be used to detect abnormalities of the lower urinary tract or to assist in transurethral surgery It is used to evaluate and diagnose conditions such as bladder cancer, chronic pelvic pain, urinary stones, painful urination, etc.
Cystoscopy procedure can be performed in physician’s office, under local anesthesia, or as an outpatient procedure, under sedation and regional or general anesthesia. In this procedure, a cystoscope (thin, telescope-like tube with a light and tiny camera attached) is slowly inserted into the urethra to the bladder. The camera allow images to be viewed on a monitor. The physician examines the urethra and introduces a sterile liquid (e.g. water) into the bladder to improve the view of bladder wall. Takes about 20 minutes to perform. Can take longer if the physician removes a stone, or sample of tissue.
After the procedure, fluid is drained from the bladder and a catheter may be left in the bladder Side effects of this procedure are usually mild and can be resolved within a couple of hours to days, including burning during urination and blood in the urine. This test usually results in a definitive diagnosis and doctor is able to recommend appropriate medical or surgical treatment, depending on the problem detected.
BUN Stands for blood urea nitrogen It is a test that measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea It is done to see how well your kidneys are working. If your kidneys are not able to remove urea from the blood normally, your BUN level rises. Liver disease can lower your BUN level. A low BUN level can occur normally in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. BUN and creatinine tests can be used together to find the BUN-to-creatinine, which can help resolve dehydration
Firstly, to prepare for this test, eating lots of meat or other protein is not allowed in the 24 hours period. The procedure for this test is pretty simple; health professional drawing blood will: Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein. Clean the needle site with alcohol. Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed. Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood. Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected. Put a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed. Put pressure to the site and then a bandage.
There are no major risk factor; very little, which may include small bruise or vein becoming slightly swollen called phlebitis. A high BUN value can mean kidney injury or disease is present. It can also be caused by blockage of the urinary tract or low blood flow to the kidneys caused by dehydration or heart failure. And can also be due to high-protein diet or from bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. A low BUN value may be caused by a diet very low in protein, malnutrition, or severe liver damage, and overhydration from drinking excessive amounts of liquid. BUN levels may be measured regularly in people who have kidney dialysis & are used to see how well dialysis is working.
RP Stands for retrograde pyelogram It is a type of X-ray that allows visualization of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis; in people suspected to have an obstruction, such as a tumor, stone, blood clot, or stricture (narrowing). It evaluates the lower portion of the ureter to which urine flow is obstructed & also used to evaluate placement of a catheter or a urethral stent, hollow tube that allows passage of urine around an obstruction. It is good to discuss risks of procedure beforehand, especially if there’s history of radiation exposure Possible complications of retrograde pyelogram may include sepsis, urinary tract infection, bladder perforation, hemorrhage, nausea, and vomiting.
The retrograde pyelogram follows this process: (clothes , jewelry or other objects may be asked for removal if interfered in procedure; gown will be given to wear). An intravenous (IV) line may be inserted in arm or hand. Youll be asked to lie face up on the X-ray table and place your legs in stirrups. sedative or general anesthesia may be received in the IV prior to the insertion of the endoscope. An endoscope will be inserted through the urethral opening and advanced into the bladder. Once the endoscope is in place, the bladder can be examined and a catheter may be inserted into one or both ureters. The contrast dye will be injected through the catheters & series of X-rays will be taken at timed intervals. The catheter will be removed. The physician will check for retention of the contrast dye
After the procedure, person’s urine output will be monitored closely for volume and signs of blood. It may be red from even a small amount of blood. This is considered normal. Pain may also be experienced, but painkiller is recommended to take. If any of the following may occur, reporting to physician is a must fever and/or chills redness, swelling, or bleeding or other drainage from the urinary opening increased pain around the urinary opening increase in the amount of blood in your urine difficulty urinating