Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9

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Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system.9

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System Abbreviations Presentation 9 By: Latoyska Howard
  2. 2. Abbreviations <ul><li>BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>CATH – Catheterization </li></ul><ul><li>UTI – Urinary Tract Infection </li></ul><ul><li>U/A, UA – Urinalysis </li></ul><ul><li>ARF – Acute Renal Failure </li></ul>
  3. 3. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) <ul><li>A diagnostic blood test that measures the kidney functions by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that’s in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in the liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made when protein is broken down in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in the liver and passed through in the urine </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. BUN Testing <ul><li>BUN test is done to see how well your kidneys are functioning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test how well, your kidneys pass blood through Urea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much Urea BUN levels will rise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart failure, liver disease, high protein diets can cause this as well. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy usually causes low Bun levels </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. BUN/ Creatinine Test <ul><li>Creatinine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A waste product formed by the breakdown of substance creatine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converts food into energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and then passed out by the urine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helps determine how well your kidneys are working. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUN and Creatinine ratio easier to check for problems in the kidneys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration and other issues that can cause kidney failure. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CATH (Catheterization) <ul><li>Catheterization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Catheterization <ul><li>Used to drain the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Long term or short term use, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to control urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leakage of the bladder, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And medical illness that causes weakness of the bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different sizes and materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latex, silicone and Teflon </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Three types of Catheters <ul><li>Indwelling catheter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term or long term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to the drainage bag to catch urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condom catheter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in elderly men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed around the penis area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed every day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent catheter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when urine is not able to be controlled at a short period time. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) <ul><li>Infection, of the urinary system such as bladder and kidneys. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria or foreign objects in the urinary system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common in women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Most UTI’s are bladder infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not serious if treated right away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untreated can spread to your kidneys and cause damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated able with antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Causes of a UTI <ul><li>Germs (bacteria) found in the stool and can travel to your bladder and kidney to cause and infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women have shorter Urethras than men, causing them to have more infections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Having intercourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it easier for germs to enter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not drinking enough fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Symptoms of a UTI <ul><li>Pain or burning during urination </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of urination </li></ul><ul><li>Urine smells bad and cloudy </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the back or under the rib cage area </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, chills, nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Weak immune system </li></ul>
  12. 12. How UTI’s Can be prevented <ul><li>Drink lots of fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranberry juice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t hold your urine </li></ul><ul><li>Urinate right after having intercourse </li></ul>
  13. 13. U/A,UA (Urinalysis) <ul><li>Lab test that consists of physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine. </li></ul>
  14. 14. U/A: Urine Test <ul><li>Checks the different components of urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste product made by the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Gives information about a persons health and condition </li></ul>
  15. 15. What Does a Urinalysis Test <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Odor </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the kidney balances water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PH </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Ketones </li></ul><ul><li>And many more microscopic test </li></ul>
  16. 16. ARF (Acute Renal Failure) <ul><li>Kidneys have stopped working and are unable to balance water, salt and minerals in your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>When kidneys stops working there is a build of waste and fluids products that can be damaging to ones body. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Causes of ARF <ul><li>Three main causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden drop in blood flow to the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage from poisons, medicines, no fluids and infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockage from allowing urine to flow from the kidneys. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Causes of ARF <ul><li>Drop in blood flow to the kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy blood loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of fluids (water, cranberry juice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury to the kidney(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection of the kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater chance to get ARF if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes, kidney disease, liver, obesity, and heart failure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplant or serious surgery </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Causes of ARF <ul><li>Damage from poisons, medicines, no fluids and infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines that can cause kidney failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain medicines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dyes used in x-rays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Blockage from allowing urine to flow from the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarged prostate (men) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Symptoms <ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no urine when urinating </li></ul><ul><li>No appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Restless, anxiety, anxious </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the back and below the rib cage (kidneys are located) </li></ul><ul><li>Its very important to note that everyone is different and some people may not have symptoms. </li></ul>

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