Parts of Speech
Determining partsof speech isnothing morethan
determining thefunction/job aparticular word hasin
asentence. They all play arole in thesentence, and
oneword might beanoun onetimeand averb the
Let’staketheword run for example.
Let’sgo on aRUN after school. (NOUN)
I will RUN to thecafeteriato befirst in line(VERB)
person, place, thing, idea
Common: chair, pencil, school
Proper: Woodward Academy
Concrete: desk, Aunt Lulu
Abstract: freedom, love
Collective: class, herd
Pronouns, for the most part, take
the place of nouns.
There are actually several different
kinds of pronouns, and they are
used much more than most people
PERSONAL PRONOUNS -
FIRST PERSON: I, me, my, mine,
we, our, ours, us
SECOND PERSON: you, your,
THIRD PERSON: he, she, it, its,
his, him, her, hers, they, their,
THIS, THAT, THESE, and THOSE
ONLY used in place of nouns (be
aware of Demonstrative Adjectives - don’t use
them before a noun).
THIS is my book.
THAT is yours.
THESE are my pickles.
THOSE are his shoes.
WHAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM,
And like all interrogatives, they start
WHAT are you doing?
WHO do you think you are?
WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, WHICH, THAT
These look like interrogative pronouns,
but they do NOT ask questions.
They begin clauses that add more info to
My students, WHO are the best and brightest,
love relative pronouns.
The vegetables THAT are the healthiest are the
An indefinite pronoun refers to
something that is not definite or
specific or exact.
The indefinite pronouns include but
are not limited to the following:
all, another, any, each, everybody, everyone,
everything, few, many, nobody, none, one,
several, some, somebody, either, neither
Adjectives modify nouns & pronouns
They tell WHICH ONE, WHAT KIND,
and HOW MANY
WHICH ONE: this book or that one
WHAT KIND: the red ball, the tall kid
HOW MANY: two kids, several moments
this, that, these, and those
They are also pronouns - so be
careful how you use them.
To use them as an adjective, place
them directly before a noun:
THIS book is so good.
THOSE pencils should be put away.
Express ACTION or a STATE OF
ACTION: cry, leap, laugh, run
STATE OF BEING: is, seems, looks,
Many people are confused about the
difference between LINKING and HELPING
verbs - and for good reason: many of the
words are the same (is, are, can, could…).
HELPING verbs help both ACTION &
LINKING verbs, while LINKING stand alone.
HELPING: I WILL walk to my class.
LINKING: I AM a teacher.
Adverbs modify verbs, adverbs, and
They answer the questions how, why,
when, where, to what extent, and under
They often end in -LY (badly, gracefully),
but they do not have to.
Words like soon, there, & very are
common adverbs that do not end in -ly.
Prepositions express relationships
between other words.
They are ALWAYS in a phrase (hint: if you
see one alone, it’s an adverb).
In the pool, near the school, over the roof,
around the fence
COMPOUND PREPS include because of,
in addition to, instead of
Conjunction, junction, what’s your
TO CONNECT words, phrases, &
There are two main kinds:
coordinating & correlative
COORDINATING are the
or, and, nor, but, or yet, so
CORRELATIVE work with a partner
either… or neither… nor
not only… but also
Words used to add feeling or emphasis
to (usually) the beginning of a sentence.
They can be followed by a comma or a