8P Parts of Speech Overview

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8P Parts of Speech Overview

  1. 1. An Overview
  2. 2. <ul><li>Determining parts of speech is nothing more than determining the function/job a particular word has in a sentence. They all play a role in the sentence, and one word might be a noun one time and a verb the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s take the word run for example. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s go on a RUN after school. (NOUN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will RUN to the cafeteria to be first in line (VERB) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Common : chair, pencil, school </li></ul><ul><li>Proper : Woodward Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete : desk, Aunt Lulu </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract : freedom, love </li></ul><ul><li>Compound : firefighter </li></ul><ul><li>Collective : class, herd </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pronouns, for the most part, take the place of nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>There are actually several different kinds of pronouns, and they are used much more than most people realize. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>FIRST PERSON : I, me, my, mine, we, our, ours, us </li></ul><ul><li>SECOND PERSON : you, your, yours </li></ul><ul><li>THIRD PERSON : he, she, it, its, his, him, her, hers, they, their, theirs, them </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>THIS, THAT, THESE, and THOSE </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY used in place of nouns ( be aware of Demonstrative Adjectives ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THIS is my book. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THAT is yours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THESE are my pickles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THOSE are his shoes. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>WHAT, WHICH, WHO, WHOM, AND WHOSE </li></ul><ul><li>And like all interrogatives, they start questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT are you doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO do you think you are? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, WHICH, THAT </li></ul><ul><li>These look like interrogative pronouns, but they do NOT ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>They begin clauses that add more info to a sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My students, WHO are the best and brightest, love relative pronouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vegetables THAT are the healthiest are the green ones. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>An indefinite pronoun refers to something that is not definite or specific or exact. </li></ul><ul><li>The indefinite pronouns include but are not limited to the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all, another, any, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, either, neither </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Adjectives modify nouns & pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>They tell WHICH ONE, WHAT KIND, and HOW MANY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHICH ONE : this book or that one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT KIND : the red ball, the tall kid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW MANY : two kids, several moments </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>They can also be pronouns - so be careful how you use them. </li></ul><ul><li>To use them as an adjective, place them directly before a noun: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THIS book is so good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THOSE pencils should be put away. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Express ACTION or a STATE OF BEING (linking). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTION: cry, leap, laugh, run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STATE OF BEING: is, seems, looks, appears </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Many people are confused about the difference between LINKING and HELPING verbs - and for good reason: many of the words are the same (is, are, can, could…). </li></ul><ul><li>HELPING verbs help both ACTION & LINKING verbs, while LINKING stand alone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HELPING : I WILL walk to my class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LINKING : I AM a teacher. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Adverbs modify verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>They answer the questions how, why, when, where, to what extent, and under what condition. </li></ul><ul><li>They often end in -LY (badly, gracefully), but they do not have to. </li></ul><ul><li>Words like soon , there , & very are common adverbs that do not end in -ly. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Prepositions express relationships between other words. </li></ul><ul><li>They are ALWAYS in a phrase (hint: if you see one alone, it’s an adverb). </li></ul><ul><li>In the pool, near the school, over the roof, around the fence </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOUND PREPS include because of, in addition to, instead of </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Conjunction, junction, what’s your function? </li></ul><ul><li>TO CONNECT words, phrases, & clauses </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main kinds: coordinating & correlative </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>COORDINATING are the FANBOYS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>or, and, nor, but, or yet, so </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CORRELATIVE work with a partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>either… or neither… nor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not only… but also </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Words used to add feeling or emphasis to (usually) the beginning of a sentence. They can be followed by a comma or a conjunction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wow! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hey! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awww, </li></ul></ul>

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