• Biotechnology: is a field of applied biology
that involves the use of living organisms and
bioprocesses in engineering, technology,
medicine and other fields requiring
• The concept encompasses a wide range of
procedures for modifying living organisms
according to human purposes.
• It is the process of producing similar populations
of genetically identical individuals that occurs in
• Therapeutic cloning : involves cloning cells from
an adult for use in medicine and transplants.
• Reproductive cloning: would involve making
• Dolly, was the first mammal to have been
successfully cloned from an adult cell.
• Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the
udder of her biological mother.
• Her embryo was created by taking the cell and
inserting it into a sheep ovum.
• The embryo was then placed inside a female
sheep that went through a normal pregnancy.
Dolly was significant
• because the effort showed
that genetic material from a
specific adult cell, can be
reprogrammed to grow an
entirely new organism
Therapeutic cloning is the procedure in which cells from the skin
of the patient and are inserted into the fertilized egg, the nucleus
of which has already been removed.
The resulting cell is allowed to divide repeatedly so that a
blastocyst is formed.
Stem cells are then extracted from this blastocyst and can be used
for various purposes like growing tissues that match the patient’s
own genetic makeup.
Many diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and Parkinson’s
disease can be treated with therapeutic cloning.
ADVANTAGE OF THERAPEUTIC CLONING
The major advantage provided by therapeutic cloning is that
the embryonic stem cells derived by this procedure would be
genetically identical to the recipient of the transplant, who was
the donor of the adult somatic cell nucleus.
This bypasses the barrier of the immune system in rejecting
the transplanted tissue
2. Gene Therapy
• Gene therapy is the insertion of genes/ Segments of DNA into
an individual's cells and tissues to treat a disease.
• Gene therapy has been explored as a potential cure for cystic
• Cystic Fibrosis: is a genetic disorder that effects respiratory
system caused by defective CFTR gene.
• Gene therapy places a normal copy of the CFTR gene into
• Transferring the normal CFTR gene into the affected
epithelium cells would result in the production of functional
3. Pharmaceutical: Recombinant DNA
• Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules
are DNA sequences that result from the use of
laboratory methods to bring together genetic
material from multiple sources,
creating sequences that would not otherwise
be found in biological organisms.
• Eg: Production of Insulin
• Human insulin gene
was isolated from
humans and expressed
inside the E.coli.
• The insulin formed from
bacteria was isolated
New Genes are introduced in crops to improve their:
• Higher yields
• Improved nutrition
• Resistance to environmental stress: Draught, Cold, Salinity etc.
• Eg: Golden Rice- Rice capable of producing Carotenes
• The rice plant lack in the enzymes which is responsible for the synthesis of
B- carotene, which is required for the synthesis of Vitamin A.
• By the use of Genetic engineering, Daffodil gene from Daffodil flower,
responsible for the production of B-carotene were introduced in rice plants.
• These modified Rice plants could produce Carotene
Insect Resistance: Bt Cotton
• The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
naturally produces a chemical harmful only to
insects feeding on cotton plants.
• The gene coding for Bt toxin has been inserted
into cotton, causing cotton to produce this
natural insecticide in
• Bioremediation is the use of micro-
organism metabolism to remove pollutants
such as contaminated soil or groundwater.
• E.g.: Bacteria Pseudomonas is used clean the
• Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of
sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol using yeast or
• E.g.: Production of alcohols(Beer, Wines)
• Production of wine from grapes using yeast.
• Production of beer from cereals using yeast
• In the absence of oxygen yeast convert the sugars of grapes
into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of
• Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on
an atomic and molecular scale.
• Nanobiotechnology refers to the intersection of
nanotechnology and biology.
• This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological
research with various fields of nanotechnology.
Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology
include: nanodevices, nanoparticles.
• This technical approach to biology allows scientists to
create systems that can be used for biological research.
• Is a method of delivering medication to a
patient in a manner that increases the
concentration of the medication in some parts
of the body relative to others.
• Carbon Nanotubes are used as drug carriers
for drug delivery.
• Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of
carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure
providing a very large surface area.
CNT’s for drug delivery
• CNT is used effectively as a vehicle to deliver
drugs to the targeted sick cell (such as a
cancer cell) with unprecedented accuracy and
CNT’s: Cancer Therapy
• Rapidly dividing cancer cells have an unusually
high number of receptors for folate and IgG.
• Nanostructures coated in folate can pass with
relative ease into cancerous cells.
• Antibodies promise even greater selectivity;
for example, a nanostructure can be coated
with antibodies that bind to proteins found
only on the surface of cancerous cells.
CNTS’ and Cancer Therapy
• Once the nanotubes are stuck to the
cancerous targets, they are poised to kill in
one of two ways.
• Their hollow interiors can carry anticancer
• or they can be acitvated with infrared.
• Bathed in infrared light, which passes easily
through body tissue, the carbon nanotubes
heat up dramatically and destroy the attached
Advantages of CNT’s
• Carbon nanotubes present the opportunity to
work with effective structures that have high
drug loading capacities and good cell
• These nanotubes function with a larger inner
volume to be used as the drug container, large
aspect ratios for numerous functionalization
attachments, and the ability to be readily
taken up by the cell